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HE following Descriptive Catalogue of Playing 
and other Cards comprises several series which 
are deposited in different departments of the 
British Museum. It has been deemed advisable to treat the 
collections as a whole, for the purpose of systematic arrange- 
ment, and in order that they might thereby be made more 
readily available for the purposes of study and reference. 

The subject of what are technically called Playing Cards 
is one not familiar, in its historic and literary aspects, 
except to the skilled archaeologist. In order, therefore, to 
show the special interest which attaches to these objects, 
apart from their character as materials for amusement, the 
purely descriptive portion of the catalogue has been accom- 
panied by succinct explanatory remarks on the several 
series or divisions, which show the wide range of inquiry 


and discussion necessary for the proper treatment of 

The task of arrangement, and of the compilation of the 
present volume, including the introduction, has been 
executed by Dr. W. Hughes Willshire, under the super- 
vision of the Keeper of the Prints and Drawings. 

George William Reid. 

April 1 2th, 1876. 



GENERAL History of Playing-Cards 

Section I. Introductory ...... 

„ II. Origin of Cards ...... 

„ III. General Nature and Varieties of Cards . 
„ IV. Connection with Wood-Engraving, Manufac- 
ture of Paper, &c. ..... 

Section V. Size and Form of Marks and Designs on Cards, Divisions into 





Suits, Terminology 


. 29 

„ VI. Cards of various Countries ...... 35 

European Cards . . . . . , . • 35 

Oriental Cards . . . . . . . -55 


Descriptive Catalogue or Playing and other Cards . . 59 

Classification of Cards .... 


Genera of Cards .... 


European Playing Cards 

• 63 

Italian : Tarots ..... 


„ Numerals .... 


„ Cards with a secondary purpose . 


Spanish Cards ..... 


French Cards : Tarots 


„ Numerals (full Set) 


„ Piquet .... 


„ With a secondary purpose 


„ Of Divination 


„ Amusing — humorous 


„ Simply Fanciful 


Flemish Cards : Tarots 


„ Numerals . 


„ Piquet 





Dutch Cards : 

Numerals .... *83 


With a secondary purpose 

. 184 



• 185 

German Cards' 


. 187 


Numerals . 

. 189 


Suit Marks, National . 

. 192 


Suit Marks, Animated 

. 207 


With a secondary purpose 

. 219 



• 225 

English Cards : 

Numerals . 

. 229 


With a secondary purpose 

• 234 


Politico- H istorical 

243, 245 


Purely fanciful . 

. 291 




• 295 




• 323 

Oriental Cards 



• 331 


Chinese . 


. 333 


Chronological Table » . . . ... 339 

Noteworthy Series . . . . . . . . . .341 

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . ' 343 

Index to Proper Names ......... 347 

Index to Subjects .......... 353 

N.B.— The contraction Bibl., within parenthesis, followed by a number, 
e.g. (Bibl. 9, p. 20) has reference to a work recorded in the "Bibliography," 
page 343- 

A capital letter within parenthesis, followed by a number, e.g. (S. 20), has 
reference to a series of cards or other objects described in the systematic or second 
portion of the volume. 




* RONTISPIECE. (First Volume.) 

The " Primo Mobile," from the Carte di Baldini. 



The Twenty-two Tarots, constituting the Emblematic series of Cards. 
(Vol. IT., p. 49.) 

PLATE VI.— Lower portion. 

Four examples from the series known as the " Circular Cards, by 
Telman von Wesel." (Vol. II., p. 69.) 


The " Misero," from the Carte di Baldini. (Vol. II., p. 59.) 


The " Marte," from the Carte di Baldini. (Vol. II., p. 60.) 


Italian Numerals and then* suit-marks. (Vol. II., p. 61.) 


Spanish Numerals and their suit-marks. (Vol. II., p. 61.) 


French (and English) Numerals and their suit-marks. (Vol. II., pp, 


German Numerals and their suit-marks. (Vol. II., p. 62.) 



Three German Card-pieces, from a rare series, having suit-marks of 
Composite character. (Vol. II., p. 71.) 


A page from the " Book of Cards," by Jobst Amman. (Vol. II., p. 71.) 


Three Sheets from an early series of German Cards. (Vol. II., p. 73.) 


Four Valets from the early sequence of French Numerals, described as 
the " Chatto " Cards. (Vol. II., p. 76.) 


A Sheet of " pip " Numerals from the series of " Chatto " Cards. (Vol. 
II., p. 76.) 


Hindustani Cards. (Vol. II., p. 77.) 


Chinese Cards. (Vol. II., p. 78.) 


Early representation of persons playing at Cards. (Vol. II., p. 79.) 


The relative sizes of a Variety of Playing-cards. (Vol. II., p. 80.) 




Section I. 


HOUGH five hundred years have not passed 
since what may be termed the positive history of 
playing-cards began, we now find these objects 
spread all over the world, and forming one of 
the more seductive allurements of all classes of 
society. The hold thus widely and strongly 
secured depends, no doubt, on the varied and 
ready ways in which cards may be made to minister both to the 
lawful amusement of men, and to that which is condemned as 
the excitement, or vice, of gambling. The latter, based on the 
vicissitudes of chance, has ever had a forcible hold on humanity. 
We have records of very early periods in the world's history, telling 
that men did then, in some form or other, gamble. No doubt the 
mode of doing so varied, and the purposes, the value of the stakes, 
and the results for which the dictates of hazard have been appealed 
to, have altered, both in place and time. From the beginning, how- 
ever, and associated with circumstances the most opposite in cha- 
racter, men have sought the determinations of a blind fatuity in 
preference to the suggestions of a rational guide. From evocation 
simply of the one in suspense and anxiety, pleasure of the keenest 
form has been experienced, while from following the other, half the 
interest has often seemed to vanish. Nor has it happened that 
under all circumstances this trust in the unforeseen and unknown 
was necessarily to be reprobated. The commands of the Most High 
have dictated its pursuance : (< And the Lord spake unto Moses . . . 


Aaron shall cast lots on the two goats. . . .But tho goat on which 
the lot foil to be the scape-goat." (Levit. xvi.) Again : " And 
Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before the Lord . . . And the 
lot of the tribe of the children of Benjamin came up according to 
their families." (Joshua xviii.) Nevertheless, it must be remem- 
bored that not any trace is to bo found in this remote antiquity 
among the Hebrews of any of the ordinary games of skill or hazard 
which were afterwards, and are now, so numerous in the western 
world. It was not until after tho Exile that a great change made 
itself felt in the manners and customs of the Hebrew people, when 
Grecian games were introduced by the Herodian princes. 

In reference to the Egyptians, however, Sir Gardner Wilkinson 
observes : — 

<f It is remarkable that a game still so common" [mora, micaro 
digito, ludere par et impar] " among the lower orders of Italians, 
should be found to have existed in Egypt from the earliest period 
of which their paintings remain, even in the reign of the first 
Osirtasen." (" Ancient Egyptians," vol. ii. p. 415.) 

Mora and draughts are represented (vol. i. p. 40) as being 
played on the sculptures of Beni Hassan in grottoes on the east 
bank of the Nile, near the Speos Artemidos. This would be 1740 
years B.C., or coeval with Joseph and the first Osirtasen. 

" It is, however, evident that dice were already used by the 
Egyptians in the reign of Rhampsinitus, that monarch, according to 
Herodotus, being reported to have played with the goddess Ceres, 
for the allegorical meaning of the story in no way militates against 
the fact of such a game having been known at the period in ques- 
tion, and the Egyptians, his informants, were necessarily persuaded 
that it dated at least as early as his era." (Vol. i. p. 126.) 

" Plutarch would lead us to believe that dice were a very early 
invention in Egypt, and acknowledged to be so by the Egyptians 
themselves, since they were introduced into one of their oldest 
mythological fables, Mercury being represented playing at dice 
with the Moon previous to the birth of Osiris, and winning from 
her the five days of the epact which were added to complete the 365 
days of the year." (Wilkinson, op. cit.) 

In Case 44 of the Room of Egyptian Antiquities (British Museum), 
and under the head of " Musical Instruments and Toys," marked 
6413-6429, are some Egyptian dice, of the Roman period, along 
with many latrunculi, or draughtsmen. 

" I do not suppose," remarks Sir G. Wilkinson, u that the dice 
discovered at Thebes and other places are of very remote epoch ; 
they may not be even of a Pharaonic period, but the simplicity of 
their form and mode of notation may lead us to suppose them 
similar to those of the earliest ago." 


From the time alluded to until now various modes of amusement 
and gambling have been common, but not any appeals to chance 
and the excitement of hazard have been so generally popular as 
those which may be effected through the medium of playing-cards. 
Nor is this to be wondered at, seeing how convenient the latter are 
for use, that they appeal to a class of combinations and calculations 
quite beyond the range of dice, par et impar, and similar agents, 
and that they can be made to afford, in a simplicity of use, 
amusement and excitement to very illiterate people, as well as by 
a more complicated application of their powers, a pastime and 
the pleasure of intense suspense to cultivated intellects. Unfor- 
tunately, not any pleasure can be exercised and enjoyed by man 
without its becoming abused or perverted, and often into a grievous 
sin. Thus has it been with cards. Scarcely known, in Europe 
at least, they were made the vehicle for gambling of the most 
vicious kind, and as such have continued until the present day. 
Time and money are often recklessly squandered over them, and 
though the latter which is wasted may be often comparatively but 
of slight amount, the time which is lost through the fascinations of 
card-playing is constantly to be deplored. 

" How/'' asks M. Merlin, " is this rapid propagation of cards to 
be explained ? Is it due to the cupidity of men, or to the tendency 
of their imagination always to surrender itself to the dreams of illu- 
sion, and, consequently, to the chances of hazard ? Or rather, should 
we not attribute it to these causes in combination with that desire 
for emotion and excitement, which seems to replace the love of the 
marvellous so natural to nations which are still young, and so 
general in Europe during the middle ages ? " (Bibl. 6, p. 2.) 
" Let us be just, however. Cards have not created the passion of 
play ; it has been a moral flaw from the highest antiquity ; but 
t?hey have developed this passion by offering it at once a more 
manageable and attractive instrument." {Op. cit.) 

Before the second half of the fifteenth century was completed St. 
Bernardin, of Sienna, preached against their employment, and his 
denunciations were succeeded at intervals by those of other moralists, 
as well as by numerous edicts and laws prohibiting their use. 
f f Gambling," says the old French proverb, " is the child of avarice 
and the father of despair." Yet not anywhere have there been 
more affectionate offspring than in the country which gave the 
saying birth. 

It is not generally known, we suspect, that in this country play- 
ing at cards on Sunday is still prohibited by law. In the Queen's 
proclamation against vice, profaneness, and immorality, read every 
session and assize, is the following passage : — 

"And we do hereby strictly enjoin and prohibit all our loving 


subjects of what degree or quality soever from playing on the Lord' 
Day at Dice, Cards, or any other game whatsoever, either in public 
or private houses, or other places whatsoever." ( See " Notes and 
Queries," 1872, vol. x. pp. 311-377.) 

A prohibition to play at cards enters, or did enter until lately, 
among tho particulars of apprentices' indentures. Its first appear- 
ance occurs in the form of an indenture for an apprentice, according 
to Dr. Rimbault, in " A Book of Precedents/' printed circa 1566, 
and compiled by Thomas Phayer, who describes himself as " Solici- 
tour to the King's and Queen's Majesties." (" Notes and Queries," 
vol. ii. for 1852, and vol. v. p. 346.) 

Notwithstanding the abuses to which playing-cards have been 
put, there have been always persons, even of the highest moral 
excellence, who have conscientiously admitted that such a fair 
and honest use of them might bo practised as to render an 
occasional and festive resort to them quite compatible with strict 
rules of morality. Archdeacon Butler, e. g. y in his sermon on 
" Christian Liberty," preached before the Duke of Gloucester 
and the University of Cambridge, on the installation of his Royal 
Highness as Chancellor in June, 1811, makes reference to the " harm- 
less mirth and innocent amusements of society;" and quotes a 
remarkable passage from Jeremy Taylor, who writes, "That cards are 
themselves lawful I do not know any reason to doubt. He can never 
be suspected in any criminal sense to tempt the Divine Providence 
who by contingent things recreates his labour. As for the evil 
appendages they are all separable from these games, and they may 
be separated by these advices." " Such," continues the archdeacon, 
' l are the sentiments of one of the most truly pious and most pro- 
foundly learned prelates that ever adorned any age or country, nor 
do I think that the most rigid of our disciplinarians can produce the 
authority of a wiser or a better man." 

There continue many of Jeremy Taylor's and Archdeacon Butler'3 
way of thinking, and who, particularly at Christmas, and following 
the good old times, introduce, as a matter of course, cards among 
their amusements, without having any view of seducing parents to 
rear their sons as gamblers or blacklegs, and their daughters to 

" A youth of frolics, an old age of cards." 

(Hone's "Every Day Book," vol. i. p. 98.) 

There is another aspect under which cards may be viewed as 
having taken a marked hold on certain classes of society. This is 
their application to the purposes of divination and fortune- telling. 
According to some authorities, as will be hereafter shown, this 
particular use of the Tarots cards long preceded the combination 
with them of a numeral series, and the appliance of the two to 


the purposes of gambling. These cards of emblematic and mystie 
character, the Tarots, were born, say they, long since in the East,' 
from whence they were brought by the Gipsies in their knap- 
sacks for thaumaturgic purposes. Thus entering Europe, the 
nations which received them afterwards added to them the numeral 
series by which they might obtain the excitement of gambling, and 
gradually discarded the emblematic sequence as an incumbrance 
only. Be this as it may, the question may be passed by for the 
present, it being observed simply, that whatever hypothetic and 
presumptive value this theory may possess, there is not any certainty . 
about it. The 'positive history of playing-cards, as far as our present 
knowledge extends, certainly does not commence before the second 
half of the fourteenth century. 


Section II. 


INCE the year 1704, when the Pere Menestrier in his 
" Bibliotheque Curieuse" (t. 2, p. 174) occupied himself 
with the history of playing-cards, several learned and 
interesting works have appeared on the subject. Of 
these the treatises of Daniel (1720), Bullet (1757), l'Abbe Rive 
(1780) , Breitkopf (1784) , Singer (1816), Cicognara (1831) , Duchesne 
aine (1837), Leber (1842), Chatto (1848), Boiteau d'Ambly (1854), 
and of Merlin (1869) are by far the most important. Before the 
time of Menestrier (1704), however, allusions to cards and various 
games, along with remonstrances against recourse to them, occur 
in many works, or cards are separately treated of. The first dis- 
tinct mention of their origin is in " Das Guldin Spil," of Ingold, 
printed in 1472 by G. Zainer. But such allusions and notices, as 
likewise the earlier records of them extending back to 1397, are 
not of that systematic character which is to be met with in the 
work of Menestrier. Notwithstanding the great amount of re- / 
search and ingenuity evinced by the writers mentioned, it will be / 
found that we are still uncertain where cards originated, and of the Y^^S \^ 
exact time when they made their first appearance in Europe. There 
has not been any want, it is true, of theories and assertions on 
these topics, but the honest enquirer, after going through the 
evidence they offer, must return, we think, the Scotch verdict in 
respect to all, " not proven." 



A general survey of the history and character of playing-cai 
as elicited by the researches of investigators sinco Menestrier, 
will here be given, in order to render the descriptive catalogue 
the numerous examples of cards in the National Collection of greater 
practical interest and service to those desirous of inquiring into a 
not unimportant and rather curious subject. 

Three chief opinions have been held respecting the country in 
which cards originated. 

Firs tly :^ It has been maintained that they had their birth in the 
East, and thence wore propagated in Europe. 

Secondly : That although there appears to be sufficient evidence 
for believing that cards are of very ancient origin in India and 
China, yet their presence in Europe is due to an original invention 
in the latter, and not to their importation from the East. 

Thirdly : That not any satisfactory evidence exists showing 
that playing-cards were ever anything else than of European 

In reference to the first opinion, it may be observed that one 
school of archaeologists asserts that cards sprang up in the East 
among the Arabs, Saracens, or Moors, who introduced them into 
Europe by way of Spain. This is a very old notion, since it was 
prevalent in Italy at the end of the fifteenth century. Covelluzzo, 
who then wrote, observes: " Anno 1379. fu recato in Yiterbo el 
gioco delle carti, che venne de Seracenia e chiamasi tra loro Naib " 
(Bussi, u Istoria della citta di Viterbo.") The locality in the East 
favoured by others is India, from whence cards are supposed to 
have made their way into Europe by means of the Gipsies, who 
carried them about their persons or in their wallets for the pur- 
poses of divination and fortune-telling, the Moors, who introduced 
them into Spain, having obtained them from the Gipsies. Other 

1 writers have regarded Egypt as their source, recognising in the 
cards known as pure Tarots, the pages of a hieroglyphic book 
containing the principles of the mystic philosophy of that antique 
land, in a series of symbols and emblematic figures. Nor has 
China been forgotten, it having been maintained that cards were 
invented there in the year 1120 of the Christian era. 

The theory of the Oriental origin of cards is based chiefly on 
the following grounds. First : On the statement of Covelluzzo 
before mentioned. Secondly : On the supposed analogy and rela- 
tions existing between cards and chess, which latter is undoubtedly 
of Eastern, if not of Hindustani origin. Thirdly : On the analogies 
present in certain Indian cards and the games played with them, 
and European cards, particularly, as may be seen, e.g., in the game of 
cards known as GJcengdifeh, played by the Muhamedans of India. 
The marks of the suits in these cards, and likewise the rules of the 


game, have incontestable analogies with those of tho Spanish game 
of Hombre and the Minchiate of Florence. Fourthly : On the 
apparent analogy of the word nalbi, the name of the primitive 
European cards, and that of naypes (which term is applied to cards 
in Spain at the present day), to the Hebrew and Arabic words, 
nabi, naba, nabaa, which convey with them the idea of prophecy. 
On the analogy between the word Tuchim, early applied in Pro- 
vence to the valet or knave, and the Arabic tu'ehan, signifying 
darkness, obscurity. On the continued use in connection with the 
earliest type of cards of certain words apparently of Oriental origin, 
as, e.g., tarots,mat,pagacl (see "French Cards of Divination/'posfea), 
these verbal relations being supposed to fortify the opinion, also, that 
cards were originally invented for purposes of divination and sorti- 
lege rather than those to which European nations have adapted them. 
Fifthly : On the fondness for and trust that many Eastern people had 
in divinatory procedures and magic, and the apparent adaptation to 
such purposes offered by the older European cards now known as 
Tarots, the series of which seems based on combinations of the 
number 7, the sacred number of the East. On the ability to 
translate, as it were, the designs of these tarots into the principles 
of certain Oriental systems of philosophy and mysticism. 

The theory of the Oriental origin of cards may be opposed on the 
following grounds. Firstly : While admitting Covelluzzo's state- 
ment as satisfactory, as regards the introduction of cards into 
Viterbo in the year 1379, it cannot be allowed that his assertion 
that they were of Saracenic origin has any value beyond that of a 
personal opinion, or at farthest of an opinion prevalent in Viterbo 
when he wrote. In other words, Covelluzzo was not contempo- 
raneous with the time mentioned, for his chronicle terminates in 
1480, one hundred years after the date he deals with. Moreover, 
Covelluzzo was looked on as rather a credulous person by Feliciano 
Bussi, the historian, who follows and quotes him (Merlin, Bibl. 6, p. 
18, note 2). 

Secondly : The analogies between chess and cards dwelt on are 
worth very little in respect to the question immediately involved, 
for between all such games there must be certain inevitable approxi- 
mations, and these are surely insufficient to establish an identity of 
origin. It is on other conditions than on those on which stress 
has been laid that correspondence should be sought, and it is there 
that it fails. 

" The game of chess is one purely of calculations and combina- 
tions. In cards, on the contrary, the chief part of success depends 
on chance, the combinations coming into play only after chance has 
operated, the effects of which latter they serve to correct, diminish, 
or strengthen. In chess all the pieces are exposed to observation, 


their positions aro equalized, and it is on tho after choice made by 
the player in the movement of his men that their increased or 
diminished valuo depends. In cards, on the contrary, a knowledgo 
of tho ' hand ' of the player is carefully hidden, not only from ad- 
versary but from partner. From the moment of dealing the cards 
the game is unequal, hazard has intervened, and the most skilful 
player may find himself so scurvily treated by fortune that he may 
be beaten by a novice without having made a trick." (Merlin, 
p. 21.) 

Further, between the Indian game Tchaturanga, described by 
Sir W. Jones and Mr. Christie, which is a kind of chess, and in the 
course of which dice come into use, the connection lies rather with 
backgammon than with cards. 

Fourthly : Admitting that between the Muhamedan game of 
India, Ohengdifeh (Gunjee fu, Gangeefah) and the Spanish game of 
Hombre there are undoubtedly relations, quoad marks of suits and 
rules of play, it may be inferred, nevertheless, that the Muha- 
medans of India have imitated, in their game, the game of Europe, 
rather than that the European game sprang from that of the East. 
The reason for such inference will be given afterwards when 
Oriental cards are discussed ; sufficient now to say that the pecu- 
liarities which link the European to the Indian game existed in the 
former in the year 1488, and Europe did not have continuous com- 
munication with India until about 1494. Moreover, cards had 
been known already in Europe for at least a century. 

Fifthly : Not any Arabic MS. nor document gives to the word 
naib such a signification as playing-cards, and the first European 
traveller, Niebuhr, who recorded having seen cards in Arabia, did 
so in the second half of the eighteenth century, giving to them the 
title of Lab Vhamar, which means simply " game of chance." 
The Arabic- French Lexicon of Marcel (1837), who remained in 
Egypt during the expedition of the first Napoleon, gives to the 
game of cards the name of Lab Voureq, i. e., game with leaves 
of paper (Merlin, p. 18, note). The origin of the modern naibis 
and naypes must be sought elsewhere than among the Arabs, par- 
ticularly since — 

Sixthly : The invention and use of playing-cards would be a direct 
contravention of two important precepts of the Koran, viz., the 
prohibition of games of chance, and the representation of human 
forms. Moreover, not any allusion is made to cards in the " Arabian 
Nights' Entertainment," a compilation of about the end of the 
fifteenth century, in which there would have occurred ample reasons 
and opportunity for mentioning them, had they been known as a 
popular pastime, at least. Even now those Muhamedans who play 
openly with cards are of the sect of the Chiites, or followers of AH 


belonging to India and Persia, and regarded with suspicion by the 
more faithful followers of the Prophet. The latter, when they so 
far forget themselves as to play, do so in secret, and at games they 
have acquired from the Spaniards. 

Seventhly : The derivation of the word tarot, from the Egyptian, 
whether according to the version of Count de Gebelin, or of his 

correspondent, M. Le C. de M (Singer Bibl. 8, Appendix, pp. 

303-305), is merely an ingenious play with words, while the inter- 
pretation of Eliphas Levi (see " French Cards of Divination," poste), 
is of too mystical a character to submit to be investigated. Again, 
the word matto, signifying foolish, mad, exists in Italian ; from it 
the title of the tarot, le mat, is most likely derived, seeing that 
its significations better apply to the particular emblematic card in 
question than would those of the Oriental mat, which are, killed, 
slain, dead. 

Eighthly : Though it be admitted that the Kabbalah, judicial 
astrology, and occult science were common to the Semitic nations, 
there is not any satisfactory evidence that cards, or their analogues, 
were employed by them in the process of divination. The theories 
of Count de Gebelin, Alliette, Eliphas Levi, Boiteau d'Ambly, and 
others, in support of the connection of cards with early Eastern 
occult philosophy and thaumaturgy, however ingenious, are of 
too recondite and shadowy a character to admit of satisfactory 

Ninthly : Whether the Gipsies or Zingari be of Egyptian origin, 
or have sprung from the~Suders of Hindustan, who migrated at 
the period of Timur Beg, they did not appear in Europe before 
1417, a period when cards had been known for some time. 

Tenthly : Resorting to China for the origin of cards is only 
another mission to the " Refuge for the Destitute." At any rate we 
are justified in assuming that if in the celestial empire cards really 
had a separate and early birth, Europe had not any more hand in 
robbing her of this progeny than she had in taking from her gun- 
powder, printing, and engraving, all of which, with other things, 
are considered by some to have been originally Chinese inventions. 
Thus, as we have indicated, may reasons be adduced, which render 
it very doubtful whether the origin of playing-cards should be 
looked for in the East. 

A far more positive circumstance is that the objects in question 
made their first appearance in Europe about 500 years back. On 
this point our knowledge is so sure and varied as to lead some 
writers to maintain that cards had their origin about that time, and 
in Europe. The latest writer of repute Qn the subject, M. Merlin 
(Bibl. 6), may be taken as the chief exponent of this theory. 

Whether we regard playing cards as an original invention in 



Europe, or as introduced thcro from some other quarter of the 
globe, an important question arises: What is the earliest date 
known at which reference has been made to tho existence of these 
agents ? Not any pretence has been made to show that this occurred 
before 1278, the sixth year of the reign of Edward I. This king, 
having been in Syria, has been supposed to have become acquainted 
there with cards, and to have brought them with him into Europo, 
a supposition which has been supported by tho following passage 
from his Wardrobe Bolls : Waltero Sturton ad opus regis ad luden- 
dum ad quatuor reges viiis. vd. ("Archaeologia," vol. viii.) Mr. 
Chatto has, we think, shown satisfactorily that the game of the four 
kings, played at by Edward I., was chess, and that this name 
was a literal translation of the Indian one, Chaturaji (Chatto, p. 19) . 
In a MS. of Sandro di Popozzo {il Govemo delta Famiglia) , composed, 
it is said, in 1299, allusion is made to cards. Unfortunately, the 
copy of it which exists is not of earlier date, according to good 
authority, than a. d. 1400, and there is not any surety that the 
allusion in question is not a more recent gloss. The authority of 
the "Guldin Spil" for 1300, of the statutes of the military order of La 
Banda for 1332, and of the MS. of " Reynard le Contrefait >' for 1341, 
when carefully weighed, must be admitted as in themselves unsa- 
tisfactory (Chatto, Merlin) . The same must be said of the MS. 
u Pelerinage de l'homme" for a.d. 1350, of the Romance, " Jehan de 
Saintre n for 1367, and of the MS. " Cite de Dieu " (a translation by 
Raoul de Presle of the " Civitas Dei") for 1375. (Merlin, pp. 7-8.) 
Nevertheless, there are reasons for believing that cards made 
their first appearance in Europe and in Italy about the year 1350, 
though the earliest direct allusion to them which is acceptable with- 
out much demur, is that made by Covelluzzo in the chronicle of 
Viterbo, quoted by Feliciano Bussi, and before referred to (p. 8) . In 
this chronicle Covelluzzo writes, "Anno 1379. fu recato in Viterbo 
el gioco delle carti," &c. As respects this date too, it should be 
borne in mind that Giovanni di Covelluzzo wrote a hundred years 
after the event in question. It is likewise noteworthy that not any 
allusion is made to cards, either in the MS. of Hugo von Trymberg, 
who lived during the second half of the thirteenth and the first of 
the fourteenth century, or in the MSS. of Petrarch and Chaucer, 
belonging to the first and second halves of the fourteenth century, 
in all of which MSS. specific mention is made of other gambling 
games and agents. According to Passavant (vol. i. p. 7, note) 
there is in the Library of the Escurial a MS. of the date 1321, 
composed by order of Don Alphonso the Wise, on the rules of the 
games of chess and dice ; numerous figures are given, but not a 
word is said in relation to cards. If Breitkopf, Von Murr, and 
Weigel can be depended on, cards were known at Niirnberg circa 


1380-1384, since the " Pflicht-buch " of this city is affirmed to 
allude distinctly to them. 

After all,- it must be allowed that what may be termed the posi- 
tive history of playing-cards begins in the year 1392. At the 
beginning of the eighteenth century Le Pere Menestrier discovered, 
in the registers of the Chambres des Comptes of Charles VI. of 
France, an account of Charles Poupart, the royal treasurer. In 
this account, commencing the 1st of February, 1392, is the item: — 
11 Donne a Jacquemin Gringonneur peintre pour trois jeux de 
cartes a or et diverses couleurs, ornes de plusieurs devises, pour 
porter devers le Seigneur Roi pour son ebatement lvi sols parisis." 
This date, 1392, has never been contested, and since — as M. Merlin 
well points out — Gringonneur is not alluded to as an inventor of 
cards, but as a painter of them, and, considering the price paid, it 
should be assumed that cards were already known. 

From this date (1392) there are certain and many references to 
playing-cards. The civic archives, guild books, and registers of the 
German towns, particularly Niirnberg, Augsburg, and Ulm, record 
early in the fifteenth century the names of both card-makers and 
card-painters. We know for certain that before the conclusion of 
the first half of the fifteenth century Germany had established quite 
a commerce in the production of playing-cards, which were sent to 
Italy, and against the continued importation of which the Venetian 
senate was petitioned to interfere. Sermons and edicts against 
their use, and fiscal regulations connected with them, are of frequent 
occurrence from the first quarter of the fifteenth century. Bartsch 
makes the following comment on a print by H. Schaiifelin (n. 36), 
representing St. John Capistran exhorting by a sermon the in- 
habitants of Niirnberg to burn their cards and other gambling 

" On the impression in the Imperial and Royal Library the sub- 
ject of the piece is described by a contemporary as follows : ' Anno 
1452 sind auf eines Cardinals Nahmens Johann Capistran, Predigt, 
die er allhier in Niirnberg, unter dem freyen Himmel, ver unserer 
Frauen Capellen gethan hat, 76 Schlitten, 2,640 Bretspiele, 40,000 
Wiirfeln, und ein grosser Haufen Kartenspiele wie auch unterschied- 
lich Geschmeide und anderes, so zur Hoffart dienlich auf dem markt 
offentlich verbrannt worden -/ that is to say, — In the year 1452, in 
consequence of a sermon delivered in the public place opposite the 
Chapel of Our Lady at Nurnberg, by Cardinal John Capistran, 76 
shovel-boards, 2,640 trictracs (draught and backgammon boards), 
40,000 dice, and a great heap of packs of cards, as likewise a variety 
of trinkets and other objects of vanity, were burnt in the market- 
place." (Bartsch, vii. p. 256.) 

The supposed earliest pictorial representation of persons playing 


at cards yet disco vorod is a miniature in a MS. volume known as 
" Le Roman du Roi Meliadus de Loonnoys, par Helio de Borron," 
written for Louis II., titular king of Naples. This vellum MS. is 
now in the British Museum, and may be referred to under €t Addi- 
tional MSS. vol. i. 1828-1841, No. 12,228." Tho miniature is on 
the verso of folio 313. A king and three attendants are at table 
playing cards; three other persons are looking on. One of the 
party is playing the five of Deniers with the right hand, exposing, 
as he holds his cards in his left hand, a two of Batons to the spec- 
tator. Another holds in his right hand the two of Deniers, as if 
ready to follow the lead of the person on his left. The miniature 
is relatively poor in drawing, and but slightly and badly coloured. 
Outline facsimiles of it may be seen in Singer's work (Bibl. 8, p. 68), 
and in the " Art Journal" for 1859, p. 87. What is the date 
of the MS. ? The Library Catalogue places it between 1852 and 
1362, adding that u the MS. is illustrated by upwards of 350 minia- 
tures, the greater portion of which are by a contemporary hand, but 
others have been added at a later period by inferior artists." Mr. 
Wright, in his " Domestic Games and Amusements of the Middle 
Ages" (" Art Journal," ut supra) , places the date of the MS. between 
1330 and 1350. On the fly-leaf of the volume is written inter alia, 
" Mr. Douce is of opinion that it was executed at least as early as 
the close of the fourteenth century. It has 357 miniatures, in my 
opinion of different styles and periods ; but in stating this much I 
am aware that I am at issue with two powerful authorities — Singer 
in his beautiful work on Playing Cards, and Dibdin in .his f De- 
cameron/ " (G-. H. Freeling.) 

Unquestionably Singer affirms that the miniatures appear to be 
all by the hand of the same artist, and that there is not any reason 
to doubt they were executed about the period at which the MS. 
was written (loco 67). Dr. Dibdin, however, scarcely advances as 
much. He writes (op. cit.) , inter alia, — "These illuminations are 
of two characters or modes of execution," and does not assert them 
to be of one and the same period ; nor does he, it is true, directly 
deny them this character. In a note at page ccviii. (vol. i.) he 
remarks : " The later illuminations are slightly yet most unskilfully 
coloured. . . . The age of the MS. is probably towards the latter 
end of the fourteenth century." 

Not any opinion is here offered on the date of the MS., but 
attention is drawn to the fact that the writers quoted not only 
differ sixty to seventy years in respect to it, but do not speak 
confidently in any instance. As regards the miniatures, it may 
be stated, they have been carefully examined, and the conclusion 
has been arrived at that those from folio 259 to the close of the 
volume are not of the same period and style as characterise the 



previous illustrations of the MS. Differences in shading and 
colouring begin about folio 265, with the light red washes and 
stippling in red of the fortresses, &c. The card-playing miniature 
appears to have been executed by an inferior hand, not only in 
colouring, but also in drawing and the ability to produce a neat out- 
line. Folio 259 presents the last of the older style of miniature 
work common to the MS. Thus it may follow that the date of the 
" Eoman du Roy Meliadus" might be that of the close of the four- 
teenth century, and the period of execution of the later miniatures 
might not be earlier than the end of the first quarter of the fifteenth 
century, or even somewhat later. Should this be the case, this 
early representation of card-playing cannot be allowed the signi- 
ficance attached to it by Singer, Wright, and others. Nor should 
the remark of the first-named authority be passed over as unim- 
portant, viz. : u It is remarkable that no mention of the game 
occurs, as far as we could discover by an examination of that part of 
the MS. to which the miniature is affixed. " (p. Q8.) 

Mr. Planche has offered strong opposition to the credit of this 
miniature, and his paper in the " Archasological Journal" for 1871 
(vol. xxvii. p. 108) may be consulted with advantage. 

In Lacroix and Serre's " Moyen Age et la Renaissance " (t. ii. 
art. " Cartes a Jouer ") , a large chromo-lithograph is given repre- 
senting a number of royal and noble personages playing and looking 
on at a game of cards. The print is stated to have been copied from 
a MS. of the fifteenth century in the Bibliotheque de Rouen (" Salle 
Leber"), and is entitled, " Le revers au Jeu des Suisses." Le 
Suisse (B 2) holds three low cards of the suit of diamonds in his 
hand, and the u Roi de France" (A 1) exhibits three "honours." 

Another early representation of a card party is a miniature in a 
MS. French translation made by Raoul de Presle, between the years 
1371 and 1375, of the " Civitas Dei" of St. Augustine. It exhibits 
two ladies with the steeple head-dresses of 1467, and a gentleman 
with the small cap and long hair of the same period, playing at a 
round table with cards, of which the " pips" are visible. Mr. 
Chatto has given a copy of this miniature (Bibl. 4, p. 72), and Mr. 
Wright likewise, in the u Art Journal " for 1859. 

What is the date of this MS. ? There is not any proof that it is 
that of the original translation of which it is a copy. Mr. Chatto 
was of opinion that the costume represented is more like that of 
1422 than of 1364 or 1380, while Planche would assign the date to 
a period not earlier than 1460. However, let the actual date of the 
MS. be what it may, it is worthy of note that numeral cards and 
11 honours " like those now in use were known in France at the time 
when the miniature was painted. 

In the "Magasin Pittoresque" for 1842 (p. 324) is a cut entitled, 


" Philippe le bon consultant uno tirouso de cartes," copiod from 
painting ascribed to Jan van Eyck. Though it has been deni 
that the picture is really by Van Eyck, it has been admitted that th 
costume is that of tho reign of Charles VIII., between the years 
1483 and 1498. Supposing that the picture does belong to this 
period, we have thus evidence of cards having been used for the p 
pose of divination before the close of the fifteenth century. 

Among the prints of the early German masters in the National 
Collection may be seen a scarce engraving by Israhel van Meckenen, 
representing a lady and gentleman seated at a table, playing at 
cards. Tho gentleman appears to have lost the game. On the 
table may be seen the three of eicheln, or glands, and in the left 
hand of the lady a figure card, to which she is drawing the attention 
of her adversary. There is much expression in the faces and actions 
of both persons. As remarked by Singer, it may be readily seen 
from their costumes that the players are of no mean rank, and were 
even in the extreme of fashion, since they wear the strange shoes with 
long pointed toes, termed by the French poulains. At the same 
time the simplicity of manners and mode of domestic life of the 
period are obvious from various details in the print. The latter is 
described in Bartsch, vol. vi. p. 302, n. 114, Passavant, vol. ii. p. 197, 
n. 251, and a facsimile of it is given by Singer, to whose "Ke- 
searches," &c, it forms a characteristic frontispiece. The original 
was produced, probably, during the last quarter of the fifteenth century. 

Another interesting representation of card-playing is that given 
in the chef-d'oeuvre of the early German master of the initials M Z 
(Martin Zatzinger). This print is known as "le grand bal" of Bartsch, 
vol. vi. p. 377, n. 13, and may be seen in the National Collection. 

The engraving represents a ball given by the Grand Duke and 
Duchess of Bavaria. The royal personages have retired from it to 
a recessed place, where they have seated themselves at table to play 
at cards. The Duchess is pointing to a five of roth or herzen, which 
she has played out on the table, while the Duke, who is about to play 
his card, looks attentively at the Duchess with an expression which 
seems to say, " I wonder what you'll think of this." It should be 
noticed that the players are shown as each keeping a chalked score 
on the table. On the window frame above the Duke's head is the 
date 1500. A copy of the portion of the engraving here alluded to 
is given in Singer's work, p. 274. There is an interesting print 
connected with card-playing by Anthony of Worms (a.d. 1529), which 
will be noticed afterwards. The only other representation of card- 
playing that need be referred to here is that given in cut xli. of 
Holbein's " Dance of Death " (ed. 1547). It is a gambling party 
interrupted by Death and the Devil, the latter being in so great a 
hurry for his prey that he seems desirous of carrying off his victim — - 



the chief of the party — almost before Death has done his part. On 
the table the five of diamonds (?) is turned upwards on a pack, and 
on the floor lie the ace and three of the same suit. The celebrated 
cuts here referred to were designed during the second quarter of 
the sixteenth century. 

Much controversy has ensued as to whether cards appeared first 
in Spain, Italy, France, or Germany. Those who have supported 
the theory of their Eastern origin have allotted them to Spain ; such 
as have maintained their European origin have given them to Italy. 
There have been writers who have associated them with France, as 
have a few with Germany. The more satisfactory and direct 
evidence points to Italy as the European district in which they first 

The particular reasons which have been advanced during the last 
few years in support of the theory that cards originated in Europe 
will be further alluded to when the old Florentine or "Venetian en- 
gravings, known as the Tarocchi of Mantegna, the Carte di Baldini, 
&c, come under consideration. It is necessary for the proper 
understanding of our subject that the character and varieties of 
playing-cards be entered on at once. 

Section III. 


JUSTLY, of the general nature of playing-cards. All 
.cards in use in Europe at the present day are, as far as 
can be judged from the rare fragments preserved in a 
few public collections and private cabinets, and such pic- 
torial representations as have been mentioned, based on the types 
which prevailed at the time of their origin. These types are two in 
number, and all true playing-cards may be said to be of two kinds, 
viz., tarots (proper) and numera ls. Tarot cards, or " tarots/^1 
constitute a series of pieces generally twenty-two in number, excep- 
tionally forty-one in the Minchiate of Florence, and fifty if the early 
Florentine Carte di Baldini be here included. These card pieces 
are characterised by their having on them whole-length figures or 
other designs emblematic of various conditions of life, and of certain 
vicissitudes happening to humanity. These emblematic figures vary 
somewhat, according to time and country ; but taking an early yet 
still common set, they may be described as representing : * — 

1 The plates in "Singer" (p. 284) may advantageously illustrate the present 




No. 1. 

A juggler. 

No. 13. 



Female pope. 




An empress. 


The devil. 


An emperor. 


A tower struck by light- 


Tho pope. , 



The lovers (or marriage) . 


A large star, &c. 


A chariot with warrior. 


The moon. 




The sun. 


A hermit. 


The last judgment. 


The wheel of fortune. 


The world, or kosmos. 




A fool, generally un 


A man hanging by his 

numbered, some 

foot, head downwards 

times placed first. 

{Le Pendu). 

Though there are Italian, French, Flemish, and German tarots, 
the titles of these emblematic designs are more frequently in the 
French language than in any other. Italian titles may be met with, 
but far less frequently than French ones. As a rule, too, the ortho- 
graphy is wretched. The names, as usually found printed below the 
figures, are as follows : — 

. 1. Le bataleur. 

No. 13. Title often wanting (la 

2. Lapapesse. 

3. Limperatrise. 

4. Lempereur. 

5. Le pape. 

mort) . 

14. Tenperance. 

15. Le diable. 

16. La maison Dieu. 

6. Lamoreux. 

17. Lestoille. 

7. Le charior. 

18. La lune. 

8. Justice. 

19. Le soleil. 

9. Lermite. 
10. La roue de fortune. 

20. Lejugement. 

21. Le monde. 

11. La force. 

22. Le mat. 

12. Le pendu. 


These twenty-two card pieces are usually numbered with large 
Eoman numerals in a margin above the design, according to the 
sequence just given. In those exceptional sets in which the tarots 
are more than twenty- two in number, symbolic figures of the Muses, 
sciences, planets, and analogous subjects are introduced (Italian 
tarots, posted) . Though the earliest tarots, likewise, were probably 
more than twenty-two in amount, such as we have described were 
those chosen out of the lot by more modern card-makers. 

These tarots are called likewise atouts, atutti, and triomphes, be- 
cause in the games played with them, in combination with numeral 
or common cards, the former override the latter even to the 


" kings ;" thus they are above and superior to all. To these same 
cards the title tarocelii is frequently applied. The origin of the 
word tarot or tarots has been much canvassed. Some have derived 
it from Egyptian dialects, others have regarded it as springing from 
the term tarotee, which was applied to cards diapered or marked on 
the backs with lines crossing lozenge-wise, or dotted diagonally with 
small spots, as such cards generally were. The earlier ones were 
often painted with much delicacy, like the miniatures of MSS., on 
gold grounds. - They were also occasionally bordered with a silver 
margin, on which was represented a spiral or tortuous band, formed 
by similar dots or points. This band being likened to a tare, 
an " espece de gaufrure produite par de petites trous piques et 
elignes en compartements," the cards possessing it were called 
tarots. According to Menestrier, "tare" signifies properly a hole — 
defaut, dechet, tache, trou — derived from the Greek rspsiv, to bore. 
The dots, points, &c, in the ornamentation alluded to, simulating 
little hollows, the cards having them were called tarots, or were said 
to be tarotees. Some of the supporters of the theory of the Oriental 
origin of cards assign to the word tarot high antiquity, while others 
of the same school, as well as such as look to Europe for their 
birthplace, though admitting the cards themselves to exemplify 
the more ancient type, assert that the term now applied to them 
is not older than the fifteenth century, their original title being 

" Tarots" has been said also to have been derived from ta- 
rocchi, or tarocehino, which is properly the name of a game 
played with tarots combined with numerals, some of the latter being 
suppressed. The name of the game having been applied to the 
cards with which it was played, they were hence called "tarocchi 

According to M. Merlin, " C'est par corruption que Ton dit le 
tarot, le jeu de tarot, il faut dire le jeu des tarots. " (Bibl. 6, 
p. 29, note.) 

The most ancient cards which have come down to us are of the 
tarots character. These are the four cards of the Musee Correr at 
Venice; the seventeen pieces of the Paris Cabinet (erroneously called 
often the Gringonneur, or Charles VI. cards of 1392) fine Venetian 
tarots of the fifteenth century, in the opinion of some not of an* 
earlier date than 1425 ; and the series of cards belonging to a Min- 
chiate set in the possession of the Countess Aurelia Visconti Gonzaga 
at Milan, when Cicognara wrote. The date of the latter may be 
concluded from the emblematic design of Love having on it the 
combined armorials of the Prince Visconti and of Beatrice Tenda, 
who was married to Filippo Maria Visconti in 1413, and ordained to 
death by him in 1418. It is true that the cards of the Musee Correr 


are not emblematic ones, and therefore not in themselves true tarots 
nor atutti, but they are numerals of the particular suit marks, viz., 
spade, coppe, danari, bastoni, which used to accompany the emble- 
matic cards of the old Venetian sets, and hence may be assumed to 
have formed part of a combined tarots sequence, probably the same 
to which belong the twenty-three cards once in the cabinet of Cicog- 
nara, and now in the possession of MM. Tross Freres at Paris, and 
described by Merlin in the note at page 90 of his treatise. 

These and other early tarots of the first half of the fifteenth cen- 
tury have been drawn and painted by hand, some of them being of 
very beautiful character. Facsimiles well worthy of attention may 
be seen in the admirable series, " Jeux de Cartes Tarots et de Cartes 
Numerates," published by the Society of Bibliophiles Francais, 
1844, now a difficult work to procure, but a copy of which is in the 
library of the British Museum. Admirable outline copies of the 
Correr cards may be found in Merlin (pi. 8 and 9) , and of the Vis- 
conti pieces in the treatise of Cicognara (Bibl., 6) . These and other 
early cards are larger than the ordinary ones of the present day, some 
of them being seven inches high by more than four inches broad. 
Several are likewise very thick, the material of which they are formed 
resembling the cotton paper of ancient MSS. Others, on the contrary, 
like the Carte di Baldini, e.g., are on very thin paper, so thin, indeed, 
that shuffling, dealing, and playing with them, as we do now with 
cards, would be scarcely possible. 

The ancient tarots from which all modern ones have been derived, . 
fragmentary pieces of which have been just adverted to, and vestigia, 
or copies of which may be seen transmitted in the emblems of the 
Carte di Baldini or the Tarocchi of Mantegna, constituted the na,ibis 
of the early Italian writers. By this term the primitive cards of 
Europe, if they may be so regarded, were called. Further comment 
on nomenclature, however, may be dispensed with until the character 
of playing-cards has been more fully developed, it being sufficient 
to add that while in accordance with one theory the word na'ibi, 
derived from the Arabic, was given first by the Spaniards and 
transmitted to Italy, as taught by another it originated in the latter 
country, then passed into Spain, where it is still common, as it is 
likewise in Portugal in the form of naypes. 

The other and second kind of playing-cards are numerals, familiar 
to every one, in the modern form, at least, of the cards in ordinary 
use. These numerals are known also as " suit," " pip cards," and 
" cartes de points." They are in full sets fifty- two in number, 
divided into four suits, or colours, of thirteen cards each suit. 
Each suit is distinguished by a special mark or symbol, which has 
varied at different times and in different countries. The more 
general marks of the suits have been cups, money, swords, and 


clubs. Each suit has three coate, court, or figure cards, likewise 
called " honours," mostly representing a king, queen, and a valet, 
or knave, and ten "pip" or " point " cards. The latter commence 
with an ace, which numbers one pip, the next card has two pips, 
and so on to the tenth, carrying ten marks on it. The numerals 
having but few pips are known as " low cards," with the exception 
of the ace (as) , which in some games overrides all other cards ; 
those numerals with several pips are " high cards." In some 
games the whole fifty-two pieces are not used, certain of the lower 
cards being suppressed. Sometimes, as will be seen hereafter, there 
are four figure cards or ft honours" in each suit, while in other in- 
stances a female figure or queen is not allowed, but a " cavalier " 
is put in her place. 

Careful research has proved, we think, that at first all the card 
germs were purely emblematic in character — na'ibis — simple tarots, 
as they are now called — not lending themselves to anything like 
gambling, whatever they might do towards divinatory purposes. 
As far as Europe, at any rate, was concerned, it is probable that they 
were intended for instructive diversion, since Morelli, in a chronicle 
written in 1393, interdicting the use of dice to children, recom- 
mends na'ibis : " Non giuocare a zara ne ad altro giuoco di dadi, fa 
de giuochi che usano i fanciulli, agli ossi, alia trottola, a ferri, a 
na'ibi," &c. (Merlin, p. 52, note.) Further, in the " Life of the 
Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti " (born in 1391), written by 
Decembrio, his secretary, it is stated that one of the favourite 
games of this prince, when young, was a game played with painted 
figures — u qui ex imaginibus depictis fit," — and which would 
scarcely be a gambling amusement, since we are informed after- 
wards that the Duke played sometimes likewise games of hazard on 
particular occasions : (< Solemnibus quoque diebus nonnunquam 
alea lusit." 

Towards the end of the fourteenth century these naibis of instruc- 
tion were made subservient to the amusement of older persons, 
probably, as Merlin supposes, by some ingenious Venetians, with 
the hope of restraining their countrymen from the immoderate use 
of dice and games of hazard. To effect this intention, and at the 
same time not to eliminate in toto the element of chance from the 
new amusement, the theory of numerical values was combined with 
that of emblems or symbolism, these values varying in benefit to 
the players according as chance might operate in the allotment 
of the cards. In creating the new game the principle followed 
apparently was to take about half only (twenty-two) of the original 
emblematic pieces, and while retaining some of the emblems, as of 
the re, imperator, papa, justicia, temperancia, luna, sol, &c, to have 
displaced others by emblems of a moral character, more directly 


bearing on the dangers and consequences of gambling play, such, 
e.g., as the roue de la fortune, le pendu, la mort, le diable, le jugement 
dernier. The figure of a juggler, placed first in the series, was in- 
tended, perhaps, to point as caution against the way in which certain 
dexterous hands might play the cards which followed in the sequent 

A distinct series of fifty-six cards was then added to the above, 
in which numerical values were to play a part, and into which 
series four emblematic cards only were admitted, viz., le roi (or re) , 
regina, cavalier (or chevalier) , valet (or fameio) . These fifty-six 
cards were divided into four suits of fourteen cards each suit, the 
latter being distinguished by the symbols of the two theologic and 
two cardinal virtues of the original naibis, as represented in the 
fourth decade (B) of the Carte di Baldini, viz., Fede, Charita, Jus- 
ticia, Fortezza. One suit had for its mark the cup (coppa) of 
Faith, another the money (danaro) of Charity, a third the sword 
(spada) of 'Justice, and a fourth the club (bastone) of Force. Each 
suit had the four emblematic pieces — re, regina, cavallo, fante — 
king, queen, knight, and knave, the remaining ten numerals of the 
suit being marked with increasing numbers from one to ten of the 
particular sign of the suit. These two series — tarots and numerals 
— being brought together, made up a total of seventy-eight cards. 
To the first twenty-two emblematic pieces, or tarots proper, was 
given the privilege of being superior to all the other cards when 
the game was played, each tarot having a number regulating its 
order and value in its own suit. To these pieces the name of atutti 
was also applied, and then very commonly the term of tarots was 
assigned to the general combination of atutti and numerals, though 
properly belonging to the atutti only. In this way most probably 
originated the two characteristic types of playing-cards, which two 
types were united together at a very early period, or at least as 
soon as cards began to be used for the recreation of grown persons, 
or for the purposes of gambling, and the latter was unquestionably 
soon effected. 

It would appear that to this combined series of atutti and 
numerals the original term naibis also continued to be applied for 
some time after the union, since we find contemporary writers and 
moralists countenancing one kind of instructive amusement in which 
chance went for little or nothing as afforded by the employment 
of naibis, and another game which they reprobated, since it led to 
gambling as bad and as surely as did the use of dice. St. Bernardin 
of Sienna, writing and preaching against their use (circa 1430), thus 
expresses himself in a sermon contra alearum ludos : — 

u Et idem est judicium si cut de tabulariis ita etiam de tabellis 
taxillis taxillorum, tertii autem participantes sunt qui fiunt parti- 
cipes ex Naibis seu Charticellas de quibus innumerabilia mala egre- 


The love of excitement and gambling, however, was too strong 
for the moralist to subdue ; men were captivated by the new amuse- 
ment, and even the clergy were not always proof against its seduc- 
tions. The use of tarots {i.e., naibis combined with numerals) 
spread rapidly throughout Europe, but each nation soon began to 
modify and alter the combination and marks of the cards according 
to its own particular fancy. 

It does not seem possible now to determine which was the first, 
Spain, France, or Germany, to imitate the original Venetian tarots 
game of seventy- eight cards. The Germans unquestionably were 
not only very early in so doing, but began to be the card-makers for 
other nations, favouring Venice in particular with their exportations, 
against which her own card-makers publicly remonstrated. In 
Italy itself Florence soon began making alterations in the new and 
popular game, increasing the emblematic pieces to forty in number, 
and producing her MuicJtiate. At a later period Bologna suppressed 
some of the numeral series, reducing the pack of seventy-eight to 
sixty- two cards, thus establishing her Tarocehino, while Venice her- 
self very early instituted changes connected with both atutti and 
numerals under the name of Trappola. 

Among the various modifications to which the old tarots game 
was early subjected, the most important was undoubtedly that of 
the elimination of the whole of the atutti, or emblematic series 
proper, leaving the numeral series to stand and work by itself 
under some such forms as we have it now. The more men played 
with cards the more fascinated they became with them, and strove 
to render them less cumbersome than they were, more amenable to 
rapid and exciting play, and their games still more dependent on 
hazard. So the first of the five suits, the true tarots, was thrown 
aside, the emblems of justice, temperance, death, and judgment not 
being needed, being, in fact, found de trop. The four suits of the 
numeral cards were taken, and one coate-card or "honour" expunged 
from each suit ; variations were made in the figure designs and in 
the marks of the suits, while of the thirteen numerals of each suit left 
different nations suppressed certain pieces in establishing what may 
be deemed their national games. Spain had its Hombre, France its 
Piquet, and Germany its Landshnechtspiel or Lansquenet. Though 
such was the rule, some games still retained an emblematic series, 
and to this day cards may be purchased in Italy and the south of 
France of the true old tarots character. 

The pervading principle throughout all the changes — with one 
exception, the Minchiate of Florence — which the original Venetian 
game has been made to undergo, has been the principle of reduction. 
Nor is this to be wondered at, considering the purpose to which 
cards tended at the outset to be popularly applied. As observed by 
Merlin : — 


" Tho game of tarots with its numerous cards was a game of 
intricate combinations, which could never please the taste of common 
players accustomed to dice, in the use of which chance alone gene- 
rally governed everything. From the new game, therefore, every- 
thing that could render its course difficult or slow was eliminated. 
Its members were reduced to less than half their number [in certain 
games], and it was at this price that cards became popular." (p. 62.) 
Popular indeed have they been, and still are. As these pages are 
being written remonstrances are appearing in some influential public 
journals against the continuous and "high play" which is introduced, 
surreptitiously, as it were, into clubs which have standing rules 
against the practice. Mr. Chatto pointedly remarked : — 

' ' He who devised the game of cards as now usually played appears 
to have had a thorough perception of at least two of the weak points 
of human nature, for next to man's trust in his ( luck ' in all games 
of chance is his confidence in all games of skill. The shuffling, cut- 
ting, and dealing of cards, together with the chance afforded by the 
turn-up of the trump, place the novice, in his own conceit, on a par 
with the experienced gamester, who, on the other hand, is apt to 
underrate his opponent's chance from his over- confidence in his own 
skill." (p. 79.) 

Section IV. 


OF PAPER, &c. 

¥I^e2j HE general history of playing-cards thus far developed 
includes the periods of the last quarter of the fourteenth 
and the first quarter of the fifteenth century, or a few 
years more. Within this time is likewise embraced the 
origin of wood-engraving, the earliest known example of which, with 
a date to it generally allowed to be authentic, is the " Buxheim 
Saint Christopher of 1423." Still there is sufficient reason for 
thinking that the St. Christopher was not the first of its kind, and that 
for some years before the date connected with it the art of wood- 
engraving had been known and practised. Nevertheless the positive 
history of wood-engraving can be said to commence a.d. 1428 only 
as the positive history of playing-cards begins in 1392. In both 
cases dates are connected with recorded objects. One object, the Saint 
Christopher, still exists ; while the other, the so-called Gringonneur 


cards, though questionable, yet unequivocally affords in the history 
associated with it the record of the precise date of the production of 
certain cards, and the price paid for them. 

It has been maintained by some that wood- engraving must have 
been known and well practised, too, before 1423, since playing-cards 
never could have been in anything like general use without their 
production by some comparatively facile and cheap procedure. That 
cards were obtainable by the commonalty in 1397, however they may 
have been manufactured, is unquestionable, for on the 22nd of 
January in that year, the Prevot of Paris issued a decree forbidding 
working people to play at tennis, bowls, dice, cards, and ninepins on 
working days. 

Heinecken, Yon Murr, and Leber advanced the doctrine that the 
first wood-engravers were card-makers, and that the production of 
the more profane objects preceded and, as it were, led to that of 
the Helgen, Helglein, or "little Saints" and Scriptural pieces, 
which were among the earlier efforts of the wood-engraver. Mr. 
Chatto was once of the same opinion, remarking in his " Treatise on 
Wood-Engraving" (1836):— 

"It has been conjectured that the art of wood engraving was 
employed on sacred subjects before it was applied to the multiplica- 
tion of those ' books of Satan ' — playing-cards. It, however, seems 
not unlikely that it was first employed in the manufacture of cards, 
and that the monks, availing themselves of the same principle, 
shortly afterwards employed the art of wood- engraving for the pur- 
pose of circulating the figures of saints, thus endeavouring to supply 
a remedy for the evil, and extracting from the serpent a cure for its 

At a later period the same authority expressed himself as fol- 
lows : — 

" As there are no cards engraved on wood to which so early a 
date as 1423 can be fairly assigned, and as at that period there were 
professional card-makers established at Augsburg, it would appear 
that wood- engraving was employed on the execution of Helgen 
before it was applied to cards, and that there were stencilled cards 
before there were wood- engravings of saints. Though this conclusion 
be not exactly in accordance with an opinion which I have expressed 
in another work, it is yet that which, on a further investigation of 
the subject, appears to be best supported by facts, and most strongly 
corroborated by the incidental notices which we have of the progress 
of the Briefmaler, or card-painter, from his original profession to 
that of a wood-engraver in general." (Bibl. 4, p. 87.) 

It is now impossible to decide whether cards were or were not the 
first objects on which the wood-engraver practised his art; but 
taking into consideration what has been already stated, and what has 


to follow, it must be conceded that while there is much evidenc< 
apparently of a positive kind, against their having been so, there ii 
only presumption, based on hypothetic grounds, that they were. 

In the first place, as before observed, the most ancient cards whicl 
have come down to us have been executed by hand, and records 
exist of other early cards having been so executed, as well as fc 
whom, and the price paid for them. 

In the second place we are told that when Saint Bernardin, of 
Sienna, preached at Bologna in 1423 against the use of " Charti- 
cellas seu Naibos," and so forcibly that his hearers made a fire in the 
public place and threw their cards into it, a card-maker who was 
present and heard the denunciations even against those persons who 
supplied the obnoxious article, exclaimed : " I have not learned, 
father, any other business than that of painting cards, and if you 
deprive me of that, you deprive me of life and my destitute family of 
the means of earning a subsistence. " To this appeal the Saint re- 
plied, " If you do not know what to paint, paint this figure, and 
you will never have cause to repent having done so.'" Thus saying 
he took a tablet and drew on it the figure of a radiant sun, having 
in the centre the sacred cipher, I.H.S. 

In the Paris collection of prints, there is a celebrated engraving 
of the style known as the Maniere criblee, A. d. 1474, supposed 
to bear reference to this story. The Saint is holding aloft, in his 
right hand, the symbol which he recommended to the card-painter. 
A facsimile of the engraving may be seen among the early pieces 
in the British Museum. 

At the date above mentioned (1423) wood- engraving was already 
practised, since the Saint Christopher is of the same period \ yet we 
learn that cards were still painted. 

In the third place, though card-making was a regular trade in 
Germany early in the fifteenth century, and the name of a 
Kartenmacher occurs in the burgess books of Augsburg for 1418, 
yet the name of a wood-engraver proper, i.e., Forms chneider , is not 
to be met with until 1449, when it is entered in the civic archives 
of Niirnberg, and as for twenty years afterwards it is frequently 
entered on the same page with that of a card-painter, Kartenmaler, 
there can be scarcely a doubt that there was a distinction between 
these avocations, though like the barbers and surgeons of former 
days, the followers of each business belonged to the same guild or 

" From the circumstance of so many women occurring as card- 
painters in the town books of Nurnberg between 1423 and 1477, 
there appears reason to conclude that they at least were not wood- 
engravers." (Chatto, p. 82.) 

In the fourth place, though it be admitted with Lacroix, that " in 


the interval between 1392 and 1454, means had been discovered of 
making playing-cards at a cheap rate, and of converting them into 
an object of commerce/' and that painting or hand- work alone conld 
scarcely suffice for this purpose, yet it by no means follows that 
cards were the work of the wood-engraver. According to Chatto, 
on the oldest cards he had ever seen the figures had been executed 
by means of stencils, this being the case both in the cards of 1440 
(Gr 122) and those known as the Stukely cards. The oldest German 
examples which had come before Passavant belonged to the first 
half of the fifteenth century, and had been produced from stencils. 
(Vol. i. p. 12.) 

In the fifth place, it is quite possible that more stress has been 
placed on the statements of the old chroniclers with respect to the 
extent in which cards were spread among the commonalty than is 
justifiable. To quote the words of Merlin, " Doubtless cards were 
then [1397-1423] known, .... but we would add that at the 
beginning of the fifteenth century they were not in such general 
use probably as has been supposed/' .... "Women's labour would 
then perfectly suffice to keep pace with the demand for them, and 
if the interdictions launched against their use during the first half 
of the fifteenth century show that the taste for them made 
advances alarming to morality, they do not prove that cards were 
then destroyed as quickly as they are at the present time. The 
more they cost the more carefully would they be husbanded. Are 
not houses, and even public places of resort in the country, to be 
found in our own day, where the same cards have lasted for several 
years ? To change cards when they have become a little soiled is 
quite a modern luxury, and a duty to which our ancestors attached 
but little importance." (p. 68.) 

After all that can be said, however, in favour of the opinion 
that the earlier cards were painted and stencilled, and not the work of 
the wood-engraver, the question is yet an open one, except as 
regards such " cartes de luxe n as were executed with great delicacy, 
like the miniatures of MSS., on gold grounds, diapered on the 
backs and richly bordered. Leber thus wrote : — 

i( The greatest adept in a knowledge of the earliest products of 
xylography, Baron Heinecken, was satisfied that the first im- 
pression which appeared in Europe received from a coarsely en- 
graved block, was a card. In his opinion, which we think well 
founded, the engraving of cards led to that of the figures of Saints, 
which in its turn gave rise to the engraving of inscriptions or 
legends, from which sprung the art of printing. To think that a 
card should produce the press ! What a mother, and what pos- 
terity ! n ("Etudes Historiques," &c. p. 3.) On this Chatto remarks : 
u He who can thus persuade himself that the germ of wood-en- 




graving in Europe is to be found in cards, will doubtless feel great 

pleasure in tracing its interesting development 'ce n'est que le 

premier pas qui coute/ " and therein lies our difficulty. 

A circumstance worthy of notice is that cards were in use i 
certain countries before the manufacture of paper went on there. 
Such cards must then either have been introduced ready made, or 
manufactured from paper imported for the purpose. 

Exceptionally they may have been made of other material, as we 
find to be the case still as respects some Oriental cards, which are 
thin painted tablets of wood, ivory, metal, and even dried leaves. 
Canvas and leather cards have been recorded, embroidered silk 
cards have been exhibited at Kensington, and the writer has been 
assured by a dealer that cards of tortoiseshell and of small tiles had 
passed through his hands. Both Breitkopf and Merlin refer to 
cards on silver plates, the latter giving copies of thirty-four such 
cards in his own possession (plate 68). 

Cards were well known in England in 1463, and if they were 
made of paper, and in this country, the material must have been 
imported for such purpose, since paper is not considered to have 
been made here before the reign of Henry VII., or 1485- 
1509. As late as the reign of Queen Anne (1702) there were 
imported annually 40,000 reams of Genoa or white paper, chiefly for 
the manufacture in question. Nevertheless, it is reasonable to 
suppose that cards were manufactured, as well as imported, in this 
country during the first half of the seventeenth century, from the 
circumstance of the tradesmen having petitioned Parliament, in 
1643, against their importation, which could matter to them only as 
interfering with their own monopoly. Further, by a proclamation 
of Charles I. of June, 1638, it was ordered that all foreign cards 
should be sealed at London and packed in new bindings or covers 
(E 227) . From Samuel Rowland's satire, the " Knave of Hearts/' 
we may assume that cards were made here in 1612 also (E. 235 
— E 239) . 


Section V. 


( F the large size of some of the earlier cards of the 
tarots character, mention has been already made. A 
long, narrow form continues to be given to tarots, par- 
ticularly for the tarocchino game. The early cards were 
often very stout and inflexible, and so have been some of more 
recent Italian manufacture, which are peculiar likewise in having a 
narrow layer of paper, sometimes coloured, folded over the edges 
of the card in front so as to form a slightly elevated border. 

Some small metal plates were early engraved in Germany to 
serve as cards, and in recent times extremely diminutive packs have 
been manufactured ; the " Cartes Allemandes, jeu Lilliputien en 
Argent," given by Merlin, pi. 68, measure only ^ of an inch long 
and slightly more than ^ of an inch wide. Some modern French 
cards, to be afterwards described (F 63), measure If by -J of an 

The Italian tarots, I. 8, are but 1^ long, by |- of an inch wide. 
The Cartes Suisses, represented in plate 68 of Merlin's treatise, 
slightly exceed 1 inch in length and -| of an inch in width, but 
whether these are reduced representations, or are of the actual size, 
we cannot say, but we think the latter. Chinese cards are small and 
generally narrow in proportion to their length, not being wider 
than 1 inch and -| at the utmost. The cards of the Hindus and 
Persians are often circular, and of an average diameter of 2-^ inches. 
As a contrast to these small examples, the Stuttgart cards, of the 
end of the fourteenth or of the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
may be recalled to mind, which measure above seven inches in 
height and four inches in breadth. 

The figures on the coate-cards, or court-cards, or honours, of the 
numeral suits, represent in the early cards a king, queen, cavalier, 
and fante, or man-servant. When the numeral series was dis- 
joined from the emblematic set or the atutti, one of these figure 
cards was suppressed. The cavalier, or man on horseback, was the 
piece more generally omitted. The Spaniards, however, would not 
allow of a lady or dame in their packs, and retained a king and a 
first and second caballero or caballo, or a king, a caballo, and a 
sota, or valet. The Germans had with the king often an upper and 
an inferior knave in place of queen and knave. The figures on 


some of the oldor coate-cards, as also on certain of the modern 
ones, have occasionally resemblance to the persons and objects they 
were intended to represent. But about the latter time of the reign 
of Charles VII. of France, and the reign of Henry VII. of Eng- 
land, the figures ' on the honours began to change, and grad- 
ually passed into the grotesque and strange-looking things to be 
seen on the true old-fashioned English cards, and in many foreign 
packs. For some time past in France, and more recently in Eng- 
land, there has been a tendency to displace the whole-length figures 
and to substitute for them mere heads or busts, printed double and 
in reverse on each honour. Whichever way a card may be thrown 
the design on it thus becomes at once manifest. In most cases the 
busts have the strange and conventional character belonging to the 
upper portions of the old full-length figures, but in others it is 
much modified, and sometimes altogether displaced by a type quite 
modern or quasi historic. 

The French appear to have been the first to place on the coate- 
cards the names of well-known persons, such as David, Hector, 
Alexander, Rachel, Pallas, Judith, and others. This practice con- 
tinued from about 1480 to the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
since which time it has been resorted to only exceptionally. 

The suits of the numeral cards from their first introduction have 
been always four in number. The signs or marks of the suits have 
varied, however. Those of the earliest cards have been coppe, 
danari, bastoni, and spade, or cups, money, clubs, and swords. 
These marks have been very generally retained in all tarots packs 
and in the cards of the Spanish people, though exceptionally in 
some modern tarots the marks are spades, clubs, hearts, and 
diamonds, which is likewise the case in some packs manufactured 
by the French for the Spanish market. 

The Germans early employed other marks for the suits, viz., 
herzen (roth,) schellen, laub (grun) , and eicheln, or hearts, bells, 
leaves, and glands (acorns) . Some of the more ancient cards exist- 
ing have these marks of suits. 

During the second quarter of the fifteenth century the French 
adopted the signs of coeurs, carreaux, trefles, and piques, or hearts, 
diamonds, clubs, and spades. These marks have been very gene- 
rally employed throughout Europe for pure numeral sets (i.e., cards 
without any emblematic figures), and as before remarked may 
occasionally be found even in tarots packs, and in cards used by the 

Germany and England also generally accepted the French sym- 
bols. The former nation, however, during the latter part of the 
fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century, frequently 
had recourse to animals, real or chimeric, flowers, fruit, and fancy 


objects for marking the suits, the pieces composing many of which 
have been termed animated cards. 

From some of the few remaining of early hand-executed cards, 
it is evident that miniatori and decorative painters of great abi- 
lity in their time, were occasionally employed in the production 
of these objects, both emblematic and numeral. The desirable 
volume published by the Society of Bibliophiles Franc ais, on the 
" Jeux de Cartes Tarots et de Cartes Numerales," proves this 
in its carefully executed facsimiles of the fine Venetian tarots of 
the fifteenth century, as do also the copies of the four numerals 
of the Mus^e Correr on plates 8 and 9 of Merlin's treatise. The 
four large and beautiful cards of the Stuttgart cabinet, represented 
on plates 60 and 61 of the same work, are likewise further 
evidence. These latter examples of early art are supposed by some 
to have been productions of the end of the fourteenth century, 
though others with more probability refer them to the commence- 
ment of the fifteenth century. How exquisitely the French 
could work in this way is shown by plates A and B of Merlin's 
treatise, where fourteen cards of the fifteenth century, in the 
cabinet of Le Carpentier, are represented. 

" The grace and slender delicacy of the figures, the good taste 
of the ornamentation, the elegance and lightness of the scroll-work 
and floriation running round the 'pips/ and connecting them to- 
gether, do not allow us to doubt that they were the work of an 
artist of talent and belonged to a set destined for some rich and im- 
portant person." (p. 107.) 

It is on record that a set of cards " containing figures of the gods 
with their emblematic animals and figures of birds likewise," was 
painted for Filippo Visconti, Duke of Milan (who died in 1447), and 
cost 1500 pieces of gold. According to Cicognara the piece pre- 
viously mentioned commemorating the union of Beatrice Tenda with 
Filippo Visconti belonged to this series, but this is doubtful. 

Even as late as the last century playing-cards have been exe- 
cuted solely by hand. A pack was exhibited at a meeting of the 
Archaeological Association, in January, 1857, by Mr. Syer Cuming, 
the pieces of which had been painted by one E. Locker, in 1799, 
whose name was inscribed at the lower corner of the ace of 

" They are not printed but limned — the whole of the figures are 
spiritedly executed and well coloured — the character of the pack 
may be described as of the amusing character." (" Archaeological 
Journal/' vol. xiii. p. 244.) 

In Germany, particularly, some of the best engravers of the 
time, i.e. a.d. 1450 to 1550, undertook occasionally the production of 
cards. Thus we have the " cards of the Master of 1466," those of 


the " Master of the round cards," copies of the latter by Telman von 
Wesol, the cards with the signature F. C. Z., the cards by Virgil 
Solis, by Erhard Schoen, H. S. Beham, and at a somewhat later 
period those from, the designs of lost Amman. In Italy the beau- 
tiful engravings known as the Tarocchi of Mantegna (now generally 
ascribed to Baldini and Botticelli) , were produced, likewise the Vene- 
tian tarots of 1491 described by Cicognara, and of the Alb er tine 
Cabinet of Vienna (Pass. vol. v. p. 129), and the tarots of Nicoletto 
da Modena (?) (Pass. vol. v. p. 132.) In France, at a later period, 
the artistic series of card-pieces by Desmarests and Stefano Delia 
Bella saw the light. Examples of most of these cards are now of 
great rarity, and some realise in the print market extraordinary 

Further details connected with the subjects of this section will 
be given when describing the cards of various countries. The 
following tabular arrangement of the chief marks which have been 
employed in different places to distinguish the numeral suits, along 
with a short commentary, may appropriately conclude the present 

Marks and names of the suits in early numeral cards when combined 
with tarots (proper) or an emblematic series. 





Italy . . 

. Coppe 

. Danari . 


. Bastoni. 

Spain . 

. Copas 

. Oros or Dineros 

Espadas . 

. Bastos. 

Portugal . 

. Copas 

. Oiros — Ouros . 

Spadas . 

. Paos. 

France . 

. Coupes . 

. Deniers . 

Espees . 

. Bastons. 

Of the early cards of 
Germany. . Roth or Herzen Schellen . . LauborGrun Eieheln. 

Of the suits of numerals from the times of Charles VII. of France 

and Henry VII. of England, and when unconnected 

with tarots (proper) . 

France . . Coeurs . . . Carreaux . . Piques . . Trefles. 

Italy . 

Spain . 



Do. (Cuori) . . Do. (Quadri) . Do. (Picche) Do. (Fiori). 

Do. (Corazones) Do. (Ladrillos) Do. (Picas) . Do. (Palos). 

Do. (Herzen) . Do. (Rauten) . Do. (Spaten) Do. (Kreuzen). 

Do. (Hearts) . Do. (Diamonds) Do. (Spades) Do. (Clubs). 

The following remarks of M. Merlin in connection with this 
portion of the subject are worthy of attention. 

u That the Italian and Spanish cards have descended in direct 
line from the ' Jeux de tarots Venetiens/ is at once evident from 
observation of the cards — the distinctive signs of the suits 
are the same ; but this is not so apparent as regards the French 
and German cards. Nevertheless, on reflection we may recognise 
the parentage of the latter, and show how, in spite of their 


differences, the French and German cards may be restored to an 
Italian origin. 

" In the first place, let us determine the geographic distributions 
of the three types which M. Leber has truthfully arranged in three 
regions according to their distinctive marks. 

" 1 . Southern region (Italy, Spain, and Portugal) , cups, money, 

swords, and clubs. 
"2. Central region (France, England, and at the present day nearly 

all Germany), coeurs, carreaux, piques, et trefles, or hearts, 

diamonds, spades, and clubs. 
" 3. Northern region (Ancient Germany, Switzerland), hearts, 

bells, leaves, and glands. 

" At first sight these three families of signs do not appear to have 
any analogy with each other, but let us study their names and com- 
pare their forms, and we shall find the family connections, which 
were not before appreciable. In the first place, let us compare the 
names of the suit marks of the French cards with those of the Italian. 

" The Italians name tlieir suits . Coppe, Danari, Spade, Bastoni. 
„ French „ . Coeurs, Carreaux, Piques, Trefles. 

„ English „ . Hearts, Diamonds, Spades, Clubs. 

" The latter a translation of the French terms, as the English adopted our 
cards from the first. 

" Now is it not evident that the word spades (hoyau, beche) , given 
by the English to our piques, recalls the spade of the Italian 
symbols ? That the term clubs, by which they distinguish our 
trefles, and which means in English massue, is equally a remi- 
niscence of the Italian bastone? It is, therefore, more than pro- 
bable that our last two signs represent weapons like those of 
the jeux d'ltalie. 

11 Another indication : — It has been shown (page 1 9) that in 
the jeux de Tarots, and afterwards in the national game of the 
Spaniards, Hombre, the four numeral series are divisible in two 
sections : one composed of cups and money, in which the value 
of the cards is in an inverse ratio with the number of the pips ; 
the other formed of swords and clubs, where the value is pro- 
portionate with their numbers of points. 

" This arrangement has passed over in the games which France 
borrowed from Spain, as in Hombre, and in Quadrille and Mediateur, 
derived from it ; but in order to render it practicable with our 
cards, it became necessary to divide our four French marks into two 
groups — a red and a black group. In the red division (coeurs et 
carreaux) the value of the cards in the games mentioned is like that 
of the Spanish in cups and money, viz., inverse to the number of 



points ; while in the black division (piques et trefles) this value 
follows the number of points, as in swords and clubs. It may be 
added, also, that in these games of Spanish origin, the ace of piques 
is called espadille (petite epee) , and the ace of trefles baste {baton) . 
"Thus, then, may be perceived the charactor of piques and trefles, 
which were regarded by our fathers as replacing swords and clubs. 
Further, there is another proof which does not admit of the least 
doubt ; when the Portuguese employ our cards, they term our coeurs, 
copas ; our carreaux, ouros ; our piques, espadas ; and our trefles, 
paos." (Bibl. 6, p. 64.) 

Equivalents of the coate, court, figure cards, or honours in the 
numeral suits. 

Regina or Reina . . Cavallo . Fante. 

1st Caballo or Reyna Caballo . Sota. 

Reine or Dame Valet. 

Ober-mann Unter-mann. 

Queen Knave or Jack. 

Terms for Playing-cards. 

Italy .... Carte da giuocare. 

Spain . . . Naypes ; Naipes cartas. 

France . . . Cartes a jouer. 

Germany . . Spiel-Karten ; Karten; Briefe. 

Italy . . 
Spain . 
France . 

. Re . 
. Rey . 
. Roi 

England . 

. Konig 
. King . 

Italy . . 
Spain . 
France . 
Ens-land . 

Terms for a pack of cards. 

. Un mazzo (or pajo) di Carte. 

. Una baraja de naypes. 

. Un jeu de Cartes. 

. Ein Spiel Karten ; Ein Spiel Briefe. 

. A pack of cards. 

In a note to a recent edition of Massinger's plays, it is stated 
that " in our old poets a pack of cards is called a deck." In Shake- 
speare's Henry VI., part 3, act v. scene i., occurs : 

" The king was slyly fingered from the deck." 

And in the well-known song, " The night before Larrey was 
stretched," it is said that 

" De deck being called for dey played 
Till Larrey found one of dem cheated." 

A correspondent in " Notes and Queries " (vol. v. p. 198, 1870 ; vol. ii. 
p. 405, 1850), informs us that " a pack of cards is so called [deck] at 
this day in the states bordering on the Mississippi river." 

Formerly a pack of cards was called likewise a " paier of cards," 
as by Roger Ascham in his " Toxophilus," e.g. (see note in Singer, 
p. 56). 


Section VI. 


J/ (/M^ 




'ITHOUT considering it proven that playing-cards had 
their origin in modern times and in Europe, and not in 
remote ages and in the East, we are yet of opinion that 
there is more direct evidence in favour of the first 
hypothesis than for the latter, which appears to derive its chief 
support from theories of a fanciful and romantic character. From 
what has been already stated, and that which may be found in sub- 
sequent pages where tarots and cards of divination come under dis- 
cussion, it will be seen, however, that the views of those who have 
adopted the Eastern, and in particular the Egyptian, theory, have 
not been neglected. 

In accordance with the views towards which more decided incli- 
nation is here given, Italy will be regarded as the birthplace of 
cards , as seen in the primitive naibis, and Venice as that particular 
district which so modified them by changes connected with the 
emblematic series, and the addition to it of a numeral sequence, as 
to acquire a right of parentage in respect to modern playing-cards 
not readily to be set aside. It is true that the earliest engraved 
examples of Italian cards, 1 the so-called Tarocchi of Mantegna, or 
the Carte di Baldini, have more of the feeling of the Florentine 
school than of any other, though the names below the figures 
on them are in the Venetian dialect. But these pieces, it must 
be recollected, transmit a form of the old instructional naibis 
combined with more recent emblematic figures, constituting a 
sequence scarcely adapted or intended for the purposes of ordinary 
play. Between the time of the production of this set of fifty pieces 
and that of the original or primitive naibis (of which latter many 
of the former were purely transcripts), there had sprung up a series 
combining an emblematic virtue and a numeral power, offering the 
excitements of chance and gambling, along with whatever purpose 
the emblematic series might subserve. It was to this arrangement 
that Venice probably gave birth, an arrangement which was the 
positive source of the playing-cards of modern times, as seen in the 

1 The word "cards" is here used in a general sense, not in that of our modern 
numerals only for games of hazard ; the assumption is made likewise that the 
engravings in question come under this category. The question is discussed 
further on. 


numeral scries divested of all association with cards of emblematic 
character (antea, p. 23). 

Though various nations hastened to adopt the acceptable modifi- 
cation of the Venetians, they did not hesitate, sooner or later, to 
make changes of their own, and to stamp their cards and the games 
played with them with national characteristics. What these were 
it is now our business to inquire, and we shall first notice how Italy 
herself undertook to modify the character of her offspring. 

It must bo admitted that Italy in general long continued to 
preserve the tarots game, i.e., the game played with both an em- 
blematic and a numeral series, while other nations very soon dis- 
carded it for games played with the numeral series only. The latter, 
however, exceptionally retained the tarots game, and even now 
tarots packs of cards are published both in France and Germany, 
while in modern Italy they are still more common. In recent 
tarots proper the designs, particularly in Germany, are often of a 
totally different character from those in the older and typical series. 

In Italy there were formerly three kinds of tarots games, two of 
which have been preserved to this day. These games are known 
as the tarots of Venice or of Lombardy, the tarocchino of Bo- 
logna, and the minchiate of Florence. The first of these — the 
old Venetian tarots — is the parent of all. The sequence con- 
sisted of seventy-eight cards in toto,i.e. } of twenty-two tarots proper 
(or twenty-one numbered atutti, and one unnumbered, the fool) , and 
fifty-six numerals, made up of sixteen figure cards, or u honours," 
and forty pip cards, i. e., four suits, of four honours and ten 
plain cards in each suit. As might be expected, the subjects, as 
well as the actual designs of the emblematic series in the old 
Venetian sequence, approach more closely those of the encyclopaedic 
or instructive naibis, as seen in the Carte di Baldini, than do those 
in the Florentine modification. The matto has a positive resemblance 
to the misero of the naibis, while in the minchiate it has the attri- 
butes of the true " fool." 

" The figures of the Venetian tarots offer but few particularities 
requiring notice ; still there is one point worthy of remark, which is 
the introduction among them of a figure entitled la Papesse. 
What motive, it may be asked, could the author have had to prompt 
him to recall to mind in these designs that absurd fable of a woman 
asserted to have occupied the Chair of St. Peter, a fable that rea- 
sonable Protestants themselves have abandoned? No doubt the 
Venetians were often at war with the Popes, but how many 
times were they not leagued with them against their common 
enemies ? Besides, the manner in which this design is composed 
does not reveal any malevolent, nor even an ironical intention. Per- 
haps the author designed his tarots at a time when the story in 


question still continued to bo generally accepted. Or it might be 
that this singularity was the result of a contemptuous whim of the 
artist. The original author of the tarots, after having copied the 
design in the naibis, where the Pope is represented without a beard, 
desired to oppose to him the Patriarch of Constantinople, and in 
order to distinguish the latter adorned his second design with an 
oriental beard. This explanation receives some support from the 
fact that in the modern minchiate cards where the Pope does not 
appear at all, an emperor of the west and an emperor of the east are 
to be found, the first being characterized by an eagle, the second by 
a star placed above the globe of the world, which the personage 
holds in his hand. It should be noted also that, like the beardless 
Pope of the naibis, la papesse of the tarots holds a book on her 
knees. In the case of the old hand-painted tarots, as in the minchiate 
cards of the present day, we do not find any names inscribed on the 
latter ; this want of indication would readily assist in the error of 
the earlier engravers, and such error .might be transmitted without 
attracting attention." (Merlin, pp. 81-83.) 

The Pope in the seventeen tarots of the French Cabinet, known 
often as the hand-painted cards of Charles VI., is without a beard, 
while in the tarocchino cards of Mitelli there are two bearded 
Popes, one being seated, the other standing. 

The second tarots game — the tarocchino of Bologna, though a 
direct descendant of the ancient Venetian tarots, is not so old as the 
third game, or minchiate of Florence. The tarocchino sequence 
consists in toto of sixty-two cards, *. e. } twenty-two tarots proper, 
and forty numerals. The emblematic subjects and designs are 
nearly identical with those of the Venetian series ; slight modifica- 
tions occur in modern sets, which will be afterwards noticed. 

The chief characteristic of the tarocchino of Bologna is the sup- 
pression in it of the two, three, four, and five of each numeral suit, 
thus reducing the numeral cards to forty, which in the Venetian 
series are fifty-six in number. This modification of the tarots game 
was invented at Bologna, early in the fifteenth century, by Francesco 
Fibbia (Prince of Pisa) , an exile in that city, dying there in 1419. So 
pleased were the Bolognese civic authorities with the ingenuity of 
the new game that they awarded Fibbia the privilege of placing 
his own shield of arms on the queen of bastoni, and that of his 
wife, who was of the Bentivoglio family, on the queen of clanari. 
(Cicognara, "Bibl."5.) 

According to Cicognara the emblematic designs of the tarocchino 
remained very similar to those of the Venetian tarots until the end 
of the fifteenth century. After 1513 the Republic of Bologna 
passed under Papal domination, and then the designs began to 
vary slightly. Some of the more modern ones are very bad, and 


one or two designs have been borrowed evidently from a Florentine 
minchiate set. At tho beginning of the eighteenth century an attempt 
was made by an artist and engraver of Bologna — Giuseppe Maria 
Mitelli — to introduce a series of tarocchino cards of unquestionable 
artistic merit. This series will come under notice afterwards. (I. 7.) 
The word tarocchino is a diminutive of tarocchi, a name early 
applied to any game with tarots. Thus may be found in " Costa 
e Cardinali Dizionario della Lingua Italiana, Bologna, 1826 ; n 
" Tarocchi sorta di giuoco ; ed anche diconsi ' tarocchi ' alcune delle 
carte, con che si giuoca. 

" Taroccare dicesi del giuoco delle Minchiate quando alcuno non 
ha del seme delle cartacce dove sono figurati Danari, Coppe, Spade e 
Bastoni e conviene che risponda alia data con qualche ' tarocco/ f - 

The third tarots game is the minchiate of Florence. This, 
instead of being simpler than the old Venetian game, is much more 
complicated. In place of the twenty- two atutti of the latter, there are 
forty-one in the Florentine series, which contains, with the numerals, 
ninety-seven cards in toto. (See Merlin, p. 87, and plates 13 to 19.) 
The designs of several of the Venetian tarots are frequently 
altered, and the twenty additional ones are often of grotesque cha- 
racter, as, e. g., in the emblems of the four elements of the ancients 
— fire, air, earth, and water, and in those of the signs of the zodiac. 
Not any title or name is printed below the subject; the relative 
value of the card is indicated by a number above. The concluding 
eight atutti are drawn on a red ground. 

There are differences in the numeral series likewise. The cavalli 
are chimeric figures composed of human busts on equine or other 
trunks, with tails, while the fanti or valets are warriors in the suits 
of spade and bastoni, and servants (fantiglie) in those of coppe 
and danari. The marks of danari have heads in their fields, with 
the exception of those on the nine, which have birds on them. The 
marks of spade are straight swords instead of curved ones, as in the 
Venetian numerals. Finally, in some of the blank spaces between 
the marks of the suits there are all kinds of small ornaments in the 
way of cats, elephants, monkeys, deer, and other things, though not 
to the overcrowding of the field. These ornaments would appear to 
be proper to the minchiate cards, since they may be found both in 
the older and more recent packs. Nevertheless: — 

" However numerous have been the additions made by the 
Florentines to the tarots of Venice in order to devise a new game, 
these changes cannot prevent us from perceiving that the founda- 
tions of the latter exist in the Venetian series. If we take from the 
Florentine emblems the three theologic virtues, the four elements, 
and the twelve signs of the zodiac, we arrive very closely to the 
Venetian tarots from which the other tarots games have descended, 


as the tarots of Venice themselves have been derived from the fifty 
encyclopaedic Naibis." (Merlin, p. 87.) 

According to Singer, in a comparatively modern version of min- 
chiate, published at Munich, the number of cards had been in- 
creased to 103 by doubling the twenty-two atutti, the king and 
knave of hearts. (p. 30.) 

The derivation of the term l ' Minchiate" is not known ; it is one 
" dont on ne retrouve aucune trace dans nulle langue connue, et 
qui par sa structure comme par sa signification accuse pour ety- 
mologic le noni du jeu de Florence." (Merlin, p. 85.) 

Costa and Cardinali (op. cit.) give its character as a game only : 
" Egli si fa al piu in quatro persone o in partita ai compagni a due 
per due (e questo e il vero giuoco) ovvero ciascheduno da per se 
separatamente. Dicesi altrimenti { tarocchi ' e ' germini/ M 

There is a tradition extant that minchiate was invented by 
Michael Angelo to teach children arithmetic. 

Information concerning the methods in which the preceding tarots 
games were played may be obtained on reference to Singer's 
treatise (notes 12 and 13, pp. 349-354, Appendix). 

Venice herself was not long before she modified her original 
game of tarots, and this she did with decision enough, if not with 
morality. Some of her people were satisfied that they could gamble 
far more quickly if they suppressed not only all the atutti, but like- 
wise some of the numerals. So a game was formed and termed 
Trappola, in which the true tarots were abolished, as likewise the 
three, four, five, and six of each numeral suit. This game was still 
in vogue in Silesia when Breitkopf wrote (1784), and according to 
Merlin packs made up on the trappola principle are to this day 
published at Vienna under the name of Brapulir Karten, the suits 
and figures retaining their old Italian names (modified) and symbols, 
viz., reh, reina, cavall, fantell ; coppe, danari, spade, and bastoni. 

Singer is surely in error when he states — influenced, it is likely, 
by the remarks of Gazzoni — that H Trappola is probably the most 
ancient European game at cards " (p. 236) , and " probably played 
with the very cards obtained from the Arabians, if it be not the 
Eastern game itself." (p. 22.) It may be fairly assumed that the 
reduction and suppression of the pieces before mentioned were 
made solely for the purpose that chance should play a very im- 
portant part in the game, and necessitates the previous existence of 
more perfect series, and of games less hazardous in character. If 
Singer's supposition be correct, all these changes were made by 
Muhamedans, and the result — a simple and perfected game for 
gambling — forwarded as a present to the unsophisticated European ! 
A like priority has been bestowed by others on the games of 
Hombre and Lansquenet. 


Breitkopf, Leber, and others, have spoken of trappola cards as if 
they were cards having characteristic marks of suits. But they are 
not so ; numerals of any suits, no matter what their marks may be, 
having the three, four, five, and six of each suit suppressed, are 
capable of being converted into trappola cards, i.e., cards with 
which to play trappola (postea, G. 121). The marks usually on 
the cards are, however, not more necessary for trappola than for 
hombre, which the Spaniards play either with the same marks, viz., 
swords, cups, money, and clubs, or with those of piques, coeurs, 
carreaux, and trefles, just as we could play whist with cards the 
marks of which were spade, coppe, danari, and bastoni. 

With respect to the derivation of the word " trappola,'' Peignot 
observes: " Selon le Dictionnaire de la Crusca le mot l trappola ' 
signifie cosa ingennese insidia, una sorta di reta, et trappolatore est 
la meme chose que ingannatore, giuntatore (trompeur, fripon). 
D'autres font deriver ce mot de trappe, piege." 

It will have been understood from what has been already stated, 
that the marks of the suits of numerals attached to the Italian 
tarots proper are coppe, danari, bastoni, and spade. Italian nu- 
merals very often retain these marks when not any longer combined 
with an emblematic series. Yet modern uncombined Italian nu- 
merals have frequently the French marks — coeurs, carreaux, trefles, 
and piques. A distinctive character of the marks themselves in the 
suits spade and bastoni of Italian numerals, is the mode in which 
they are interlaced or connected together in place of standing 
separately or apart. The curved forms, too, of the spade or swords 
are specially Italian in design. 

Spanish Caeds. — Not any remains of very old Spanish cards 
have reached our time. It is true that some specimens in the 
Rouen Cabinet have been accorded by some archaeologists to the 
last quarter of the fifteenth century, but it is probable that Merlin 
is right in the statement that the earliest examples now known had 
not an origin before 1600. (Merlin, p. 99, note.) But if there be 
not evidence in the shape of actual cards of Spain's early possession 
of the new materials for play, strong proofs of it are apparent in the 
name which always has been and still is applied to playing-cards, 
viz., Nay pes. 

Spain as the inventor of cards found a strong champion in the 
Abbe de la Rive, whose tractate may be found in the appendix to 
the work of Singer. He maintained that they were given to Italy 
by Spain at the time when the Spaniards entered Sicily and 
Calabria under the Castilian princes, in 1267, or under Peter III. of 
Arragon, circa 1282. But although several passages have been 
brought forward from early MSS. alluding to cards in Spain, they 


have turned out on close inquiry to have been glosses and interpola- 
tions of an after period. De la Rive stated that Guevara, recording 
in his " Epistola Familiares" the statutes accorded in 1332 to the 
military order of La Banda, had mentioned that Alphonso XI. of 
Castile had included amongst them a prohibition to play at cards. 
Now it has been found that not one of the earlier Spanish editions 
of these epistles (1539) contains a syllable about cards, which latter 
are first mentioned in Gutery's translation of the Epistles into 
French in 1588, and which it seems the Abbe de la Rive must have 
made his authority. Further, in the " Recopilacion de las leyes 
destos reynos," 1640, a prohibition of John I. of Castile is given — 
de jugar dados ne nay pes en publico ne escondido — yet the word 
naypes is not to be met with either in the edition of the u Orde- 
nances Reales de Castilla" of 1545 (Medina de Campo), nor in the 
edition of 1508. It was simply an addition made to the Recopila- 
ciones of 1640. It must be admitted, nevertheless, that the cha- 
racter of the two national games, Hombre and Quadrille, proves 
that they had their origin in a chivalric age, and that the Flemish 
author Eckeloo, or Pascasius Justus, who lived about 1540, and had 
travelled in Spain, represents the people as passionately fond of 
cards, and says that " he had travelled many leagues in that king- 
dom without being able to procure the necessaries of life, not even 
bread or wine, yet in every miserable village cards might be met 
with." The Spaniards took with them this passion for play to the 
New World, and finding themselves in St. Dominique unprovided 
with the necessary agents, they made cards of certain leaves and of 
leather, according to De la Vega. 

" Herrera mentions that upon the conquest of Mexico by the 
Spaniards Montezuma took great pleasure in seeing them play at 
cards; this was in 1519, and it shows that this amusement must for 
some time previous have been common in Old Spain." (Singer, p. 38.) 

Spanish cards are characterised by certain peculiarities evinced 
to us in actual examples, and by historical allusions. It should be 
observed, in the first place, that Spanish tarots are unknown, and 
it is doubtful if such ever existed. All Spanish playing-cards are 
of the numeral kind. Secondly, in a legitimate Spanish pack 
there are only forty-eight cards, instead of fifty-two. This arises 
from the suppression of the ten in each suit. Thirdly, in agree- 
ment with certain Oriental and some German cards, not any queen, 
dame, or woman is admitted among the honours. Her place is 
supplied by a caballero or caballo. Fourthly, the old Italian marks 
are retained as copas, oros, espadas, and bastos, but the Spanish 
designs differ from the former, as they do likewise in the figures on 
the coate- cards. 

" While the Italian kings are seated the Spanish kings are erect, 


and their vast mantles are surcharged with largo ornaments, as in 
the case of the French kings. As regards the points (pips), the 
swords are straight double-edged rapiers, the batons are knotty 
branches of trees, and these knotty branches and rapiers are placed 
sometimes horizontally, sometimes vertically, close to each other, but 
always so arranged that they are never interlaced in the inconvenient 
manner common to the numeral cards of the Italian tarots. Herein 
lies an undoubted advantage, as the power to count at a glance 
the number of points on each card is much facilitated." (Merlin, 
p. 97.) 

It is not known when Spain first began to manufacture her own 
cards, but there is evidence to show that France early supplied the 
Spanish market. To some extent she does so now, and this ex- 
plains why in some modern packs of Spanish cards the marks of 
the suits are coeurs, carreaux, piques, and trefles, and that a dame is 
admitted in place of a caballo. 

Eeferring to plate xxx. in his " History of Playing-cards," Mr. 
Taylor remarks that, " though of Parisian workmanship, it is a 
Spanish knave of clubs under the form of a Peruvian, with crest of 
blue and scarlet feathers. Singer says that the Spanish govern- 
ment maintains a monopoly of cards, but we have besides this 
another proof of that country being supplied from other quarters in 
the Senora Morin, who we have seen made naypes for the Spanish 
market at Paris in the Rue Greneta, and immense quantities of cards 
are produced in London, many of which have the suits of cups, 
money, clubs, and swords, those intended for the Spanish settle- 
ments being actually marked de la Real fabrica para las Indias ! " 
(p. 177.) {postea, S. 15.) 

M. Merlin states that the oldest cards truly of Spanish origin 
that he had seen, were four kings kindly presented to him by M. 
Carder era, court painter to the Queen of Spain, and author of the 
beautiful work on Spanish iconography. 

" The pale and slightly bistre-coloured ink with which they have 
been printed might, on first inspection, cause them to be attributed 
to an early period, did not a circumstance, easily to be overlooked, 
betray their more recent origin. This is the number twelve en- 
graved at the corners of each of these four cards. We have seen 
that the Spaniards have suppressed the tens and the dames, which 
reduces their pack to forty- eight cards or twelve per suit, from this 
it results that the valet, the cavalier, and the king are the three 
cards superior to the nine, and possess the numbers ten, eleven, and 
twelve. The custom of inscribing on the cards of each suit the 
numbers of their values is comparatively modern, and of which we 
are ignorant of any example before the eighteenth century." (p. 98.) 
(postea, cards of Jehan Volay, S. 15, of the game alluetle, S. 43.) 


Portuguese Cards. — Copies of Portuguese cards may be seen in 
the " Jeux de Cartes Tarots et de Cartes numerales." (Bibl. 2.) The 
coate-cards in this pack, supposed to have been executed in 1693, 
are king, queen, and cavalier, and the suits money, cups, clubs, and 
swords. The " honours" and aces have letters on them both at top 
and bottom indicating the suit, the rank, and names of the cards. 
The presence of the queen must be regarded as exceptional to the 
Portuguese series. 

" In a pack," writes Chatto, " of modern Portuguese cards now 
before me, there is no queen, and the suits are hearts, bells, leaves, 
and acorns. The figures of the coate-cards are half lengths and 
double, de duas Gabegas, so that a head is always uppermost which- 
ever way the card may be held." (p. 251.) 

Was not this pack made in Germany for the Portuguese market ? 

French Cards. — That France possessed cards very early there is 
direct historic proof, from the entry in the accounts of the treasurer 
of Charles VI., a.d. 1392. That she did not have them, of a gambling 
character at least in 1369, is fairly presumable from the circumstance 
that cards are not mentioned in the long list of games prohibited by 
Charles V. in that year, while there is an order of the Prevot of 
Paris extant of 1397 forbidding their employment. 

The earliest French cards known are probably those of the 
Carpentier collection, described by Merlin, p. 107, and plates, A. B. 
38-39. These cards are fourteen in number, painted by hand about 
the commencement of the fifteenth century. The pieces are 
numerals, being all the " honours " (except the dame de coeurs), with 
the six of piques and the five of trefles. The costume is that of the 
previous century. Not any names are on the cards. The next 
examples are those of the sheet of strange figure pieces bearing 
the name of F. Clerc on a scroll held by the valet of carreaux, and 
which are in the collection at Paris. These cards belong probably 
to the last quarter of the fifteenth century. The third specimens 
of old French cards which follow, are known wherever the history 
of playing-cards is studied. They are termed the Coursube cards, 
and belong to the last quarter of the fifteenth century ; though it 
has been maintained by some that they were executed as early as 
the first quarter. 

It is evident from the Carpentier cards that early in the fifteenth 
century the French cards did not necessarily retain the old Italian 
marks of the suits, but had new ones of their own. The cups, 
money, batons, and swords had given place to coeurs, carreaux, 
piques, and trefles, and so persistently were these marks maintained 
and introduced on cards exported to all countries, that a regular 
type or class of cards became known as French cards, as opposed 


to Italian cards on the ono hand and to German cards on tho other. 
Thus, in fact, became established the geographic types of cards before 
mentionod (p. 33), at the beginning of what may be termed the 
second epoch of playing-cards. At this epoch, too, the art of wood- 
engraving gave to the designer tho power of easily and perma- 
nently fixing national characteristics. 

Our limits prevent all discussion on tho origin and hidden mean- 
ings of the French marks of suits. These subjects may be found 
copiously treated in Chatto, p. 206 ; Merlin, p. 105, and in other 
systematic writers. 

At first the figure cards or honours were without names on them, 
but about the last quarter of the sixteenth century names were 
attached, the earliest example of this practice known being found 
in the Goursube pieces before mentioned. These cards belong to 
the Paris Cabinet ; they are ten in number in two rows of five'pieces 
each row, in the following order : valet, roi, dame (trefles) ; roi, 
dame (carreaux); valet, dame, roi (piques) ; dame, roi {coeurs) ; on 
each card-piece, except the roi de coeurs, is an inscription in Gothic 
letters. On the king of carreaux is the name Goursube, on the 
king of piques is Apollin, the queen of piques bears the motto 
Leaute due (leal homage), the queen of carreaux, en toi te fie, while 
other cards have other legends (Jeux de tarots, &c, Bibl. 2, pp. 
13-17, and plates). 

Four very early knaves in the British Museum cabinet (F. 42), 
bear the names Lancelot, Hogier, Rolant, and Valery. On other early 
French cards may be found the names of the Knights of the Round 
Table, the Neuf Preux, and of various heroes of chivalry. Some 
specimens in the Dijon Cabinet bear historic titles, such as la Pucelle, 
the Dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, Guyenne, the Counts of 
Flanders, associated with mythologic and legendary personages. 
Paris, Helene, Venus, La Sybille, Melusine, likewise make their ap- 
pearance. Some cards found at Narbonne present a very strange 
mixture, but the only example which need be particularized is the 
rare sheet of the fifteenth century, in the collection at Paris, and 
which for the first time bears the names of Alexander, Julius Caesar, 
Charlemagne, and David {neuf preux) , and which at a later period, 
under Henri IV. and Louis XIII., were definitely adopted as the 
names of the four kings. Until then, judging "from the often com- 
plete absence of names, as likewise from the variety of those which 
occur, it may be reasonably concluded that the card-makers did not 
follow any determinate rule nor definite system, and that the Parisians 
were the only ones who finished by fixing and retaining the names 
which prevail to the present day." (Merlin, p. 112.) 

With these names for the kings, viz., David, Alexander, Caesar, 
and Charlemagne, became associated Rachel, Argine, Pallas, and 


Judith for the queens, and Hector, Lancelot, Roland, and Hogier, 
for the valets. 

French playing-cards having on them the suit marks, coeurs, car- 
reaux, trefles, and piques, are often termed Piquet cards ; the game of 
piquet being supposed to have originated about the time the Coursube 
cards were made, the latter being considered, therefore, the earliest 
piquet cards known. Nevertheless, there is not satisfactory evidence 
to show either the date at which piquet was first played, or that the 
ten-figure Coursube specimens belonged to a piquet pack. The 
game of piquet, it should be borne in mind, is one in which the 
pack for playing it, up to the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
consisted of thirty-six cards, i.e., the two, three, four, and five of each 
suit were suppressed, as in trappola, and the tarocchino of Bologna. 
From the date mentioned, the^ six of each suit has been omitted 
likewise, so that the piquet pack has now but thirty-two cards. 
The Coursube cards, being all figure cards, do not assist us in deter- 
mining whether the game was in use at their period. Further, 
piquet was clearly not the primitive French game in which numerals 
having the present marks of suits were used, for the beautiful cards 
belonging to the early part of the fifteenth century, done by hand 
and in the Carpentier cabinet, present both a five and six of trefles. 

Endeavours have been made to associate the origin of this game 
with the epoch of Charles VII., but a decisive solution of the ques- 
tion cannot be attained. Singer observes : " those who know the 
game well, agree that it is one of the most amusing and most com- 
plete games played with cards." In Macready's Diary is the entry 
in 1840, " October 9th, played at piquet in order to learn the game 
for the new piece, f Money/ " 

From the circumstance that certain cards dealt may be discarded 
by the players, and others taken from the stock undealt in their 
stead, there is a choice, as it were, granted to each player. 

" From this choice Bullet pretends the game has its name, for piquo 
in Keltic signifies to choose, and the word still preserves the same 
meaning among the people at Besancon; choice grapes or choice 
cherries are called pique des raisins or pique des cerises. The word 
is still in use among the military. A piquet is a certain number of 
men chosen by companies, to be ready to mount at the shortest 
notice." — Singer, Appendix, p. 272. 

At the end of the eighteenth century the French Revolution not 
only changed governments and dethroned kings of the earth, but 
overthrew those of cards. Yet — 

" In effacing the signs of royalty it had not destroyed the passion 
for play ; indeed, it had never dreamt of doing so, for in granting 
free trade to cards it had, on the contrary, offered more facilities to 
players. But it was obliged to pursue royalty vigorously, even on 


to cards, and it was in the choice of subject that the revolutionary 
spirit found its scope. Since, however, the imagination of the card- 
makers was not very fertile, the same circle was continually gone 
round, but fow entirely distinct types were evolved, and fewer still 
of designs from clever artists. Once more we find the kings de- 
throned, and by whom ? by emblematic personages, by sages, by 
philosophers ; the valets are displaced by warriors, or Roman heroes, 
or by sans- culottes ; and the queens have to resign in favour of the 
virtues and liberties ; and what liberties ! the liberty of marriage, of 
worship, of the press, and of commerce." . ..." As soon as the 
period of sanguinary executions and of public terror had passed by, 
the passion for play revived, and with it returned the old cards." 
. . . . " The conqueror of Marengo and of Austerlitz endeavoured 
to cicatrize the wounds opened by the Republic." . . . . " The 
civilizing genius, whose glance embraced everything at once, did 
not pass over the designs on cards, and on the 13th of June, 1808, 
the painter David was appealed to." (Merlin, p. 114.) 

David, Mongez, and Gatteaux obeyed the high decree, and the 
artistic cards of 1809 and 1811 were the result. (See F. 57 (2) 
postea.) Nevertheless — 

" Whether it was that players did not appreciate the changes, or 
from some other reason, the new designs were not of long duration, 
and from the year 1813 the old cards reappeared, and triumphing 
so completely over the innovations, that the official mould was 
adopted by the Restoration, which contented itself with only sub- 
stituting the fleur-de-lys for the bees and the imperial eagle." 
(Merlin, p. 114.) 

Again, fresh attempts were made in 1816 to introduce other 
designs, but the enterprise did not succeed, and cost the Govern- 
ment a considerable sum of money. " To-day," says M. Merlin, 
"we have returned to the mould of 1813, which is multiplied by the 
galvano-plastic process in sufficient numbers to keep in constant 
activity three steam presses at the Imperial Printing Office." (p. 

German Cards. — It is generally allowed that Germany rightly 
claims a high place in the early history of playing-cards. According 
to trustworthy authorities allusion is made to them in the " Pflicht- 
biicher" of Niirnberg for 1384, and there is extant an ordinance of 
the Town Council of Ulm for the year 1397, prohibiting their em- 
ployment. Even by 1441 the Germans imported cards into Venice 
to such amount that the senate were appealed to to stop the supply, 
as injurious to the interest of the Italian card-makers. 

It is probable that the Germans very soon altered for themselves 
the Italian marks of the numeral suits, making use of the figures of 


animals for differentiating the latter. At any rate, the earliest German 
cards known — those of the Stuttgart Cabinet — have dogs, falcons, 
stags, and ducks for the suit marks. These " animated'' cards were, 
however, soon followed by a series having the more national signs 
of roth or herzen, laub or griin, eicheln, and schellen, or hearts, 
leaves, glands, and bells. The latter cards were of smaller size 
than the first animated ones, which were purely handwork. But 
though numerals of the national suit marks continued to be manu- 
factured, some of the early German copper-plate engravers of the 
end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth century reverted 
to the animated types, and exercised their talents in designing cards 
in which all kinds of animals — natural and chimeric — flowers, and 
fruits, were made to do duty as marks of suits. Some examples of 
these engraved cards known to the iconophilist are admirable speci- 
mens of the early German burin, and are highly prized and paid for 
by the collector. 

The German cards of the end of the fifteenth and of the sixteenth 
centuries are much more ornamented than are the cards of other 
countries, for — 

"In addition to the pips or the marks of the suits, they fre- 
quently contain figures of men and women, quadrupeds, birds, 
foliage, and such like, introduced by way of ornament at the caprice 
of the designer. These ornamental appendages are frequently of a 
grotesque character, and sometimes indecent." (Chatto, p. 236.) 

Very peculiar devices were sometimes employed. There is a set 
of cards by Jost Amman, in which the marks of the suits are books, 
printers' inking-balls, wine cups, and goblets with bosses of glass 
or earthenware. Some very pretty diminutive cards, having leaves, 
bells, hearts, and acorns for the marks of the suits, were produced 
by the Germans during the sixteenth century. 

Much has been written concerning the origin of these national 
signs, but most interest attaches to the source and meaning of the 
sign, schellen, grellot, or bells. Reference may be made for informa- 
tion to Chatto, pp. 239-245, and to the work of Boiteau D'Ambly. 

A peculiarity of the true German pack is that the queen is omitted 
from the court cards, and an upper valet or obermann is put in her 
place ; thus the honours are composed of king and superior and 
inferior valets. In modern packs, and particularly those made on 
the French principles, the queen displaces the superior valet. 

A German writer of the seventeenth century, in pointing out that 
tarots figures should always be regarded as symbolical, observes 
that even the marks of the German numeral series are intended to 
have a deeper meaning than is usually supposed. For example, the 
initial letter of the suit schellen (bells), S, with that of the suit 
aicheln (glands), A, of the suit roth (hearts), R, and with that of 


tho suit gn'ln (leaves), G, compose the German word SARG, equi 
lent for coffin. 

" Alii ex Uteris initialibus colorum istorum aus Schellen, Aichet 
Roth, und Griin einen Sarg, composuere quia chartae historic ssepe 
fiunt marsupii et lusoris sepulchrum." (Lehmen, " De Varii Luden 

Like other peoples, the Germans fashioned a national game of 
their own. This was Landsknechtspiel, or Lansquenet. The actual 
date of its invention is uncertain ; some have stated that it was known 
in France in 1392, in the reign of Charles VI.; if so, it must bo 
indeed a very old game, since the French borrowed lansquenet from 
the Germans. The military and German origin of the game is 
evident from its title, which is derived from landshnechtj lanzen- 
knecht, or lanzknecht, i. e. } a foot soldier armed with a lance, such 
as may be seen, e. g. 3 playing at cards in the print by Anthony of 
Worms (Bartsch, vii. p. 491, n. 10), of which a copy is given by 
Singer, p. 235. Lansquenet is still played, and, writes Singer, "if 
it be the same game which has come down to us, and that now bears 
the name, its invention required no mighty effort, and it might 
easily be learned and played by the common soldier." (p. 44.) 

" The pipe was not then invented to solace their bivouac, and 
where so likely an origin of a game requiring so little talent to com- 
prehend it, and yet offering such opportunity for trickery, as a corps 
de garde of these rough warriors?" (Taylor's Ed. of (t Boiteau 
d'Ambly," p. 279.) 

Lansquenet is described in the edition of " Hoyle's Games," pub- 
lished at London in 1786, and must have continued to have been 
played occasionally as a gambling game in French houses to within 
the last twenty years, since Paul de Musset, in a " recit des moeurs 
contemporains" (" Histoire d'un Diamant"), in the "Revue des 
Deux Mondes" for September, 1874, tells us that the hero of his tale, 
" se laissa mettre a une table de lansquenet. En moins d'une heure 
il y perdit douze mille francs." 

It has been before stated that cards having the old Italian marks 
of suits, cups, swords, money, and clubs, are still employed in cer- 
tain parts of Germany in playing a trappola game borrowed from the 
South. True tarots games, also, are yet occasionally played, and 
modern sets of cards published for the purpose. The designs on 
these latter cards, however, are often totally different from those of 
the old emblematic series. They are numbered in the same way, 
which serves, we presume, the main purpose of the modern player. 

Spielhagen acquaints us in his fi Aus meinem Jugend Stadt" 
(1868), Skitzenbuche, p. 27, that both tarots and hombre were 
played, with other games, at the " Abendgesellschaften" in his youth- 
ful days. 


The entire company had now placed themselves by threes and 
fours — according to whether tarot, ho?nbre, whist, or boston was to 
be played — at tables." 

After the party had broken up — 

11 The host went from table to table to take up the f card money' 
that had been placed in the ' pot' — full price of two packs if the 
cards had been quite new, if not, a discretion" (p. 29.) 

" We desired/' writes M. Merlin, " to be able to point out in a 
satisfactory manner what were the names and structure of the Ger- 
man games, but have not met with information precise enough 
on the subject. We must be contented with communicating a few 
remarks with which the examination of cards has furnished us. 

" For figures we meet with kings, superior and inferior valets. 
Sometimes the kings are seated, sometimes they are on horseback. 

" The point cards are the ten, nine, eight, seven, six, and two, a 
composition resembling our own Piquet, in which the ace has been 
displaced by the two. This structure is that of our own Lilliputian 
silver series represented on plate 68. It is likewise that of the 
Saxon game termed Schvjerter Karte — cartes a I'epee. 

u What appears to confirm our conjecture as to the analogy of 
piquet with this jeu a Vepee, is the fact that in the modern cards 
manufactured at Vienna for playing the German game, and in 
which the kings are mounted, and we see the flute and the drum (as 
in the old cards of the Musee Hal at Brussels) , the six is suppressed, as 
it is in the French piquet since the end of the seventeenth century." 

( P . 121.) ' 

The adoption of the French marks of suits is followed in German 
packs, which often refuse to reinstate the dame or queen in the place 
of the obermann or superior valet. In such cards double busts, in 
place of whole-length fc^ures on the coate-cards, are usual. 

Swiss Caeds. — The old cards of Switzerland were evidently de- 
rived from those of Germany at a time posterior to the period of 
animated cards. " There are always four kings, four superior and 
four inferior valets, and one, two, six, seven, eight, and nine, in the 
cards of Schaffouse, and from one to nine in those of Soleure. 
The marks of the suits are slightly different, for while the glands 
and the bells are retained, the hearts are displaced by shields, and 
the leaves by flowers. Further, the attitudes of the figures, with 
their naive and bourgeoise tournure, indicate design of the commonest 

"The Swiss have retained the marks of the aces on banners, 
such as may be seen for example in the small cards from engraved 
wood-blocks preserved in the Musee Hal at Brussels." (p. 122.) 

Modern Swiss cards are either French or German. 


English Caiids. — It is most probable that cards made their way 
into England through Franco, and it must not be forgotten that 
onco Normandy, Touraine, Anjou, Maine, Poitou, and other dis- 
tricts wore either in the real or nominal possession of the kings of 
England for nearly three hundred years. When cards were intro- 
duced here is not known, but we are safe in believing they were not 
in use among us until after the reign of Henry IV. (1405), and 
that they were certainly employed previous to 1463, for in the Par- 
liament Rolls of that year (Edward IV.) their importation was pro- 
hibited. About 1484 they formed a common English Christmas 
pastime, at least among the upper classes, and in 1495-6 (eleventh 
of Henry VII.), an edict of the king expressly forbade their use to 
servants and apprentices, except during the Christmas holidays. 
That the English made cards as well as imported them by 1463 is 
clear, or the card-makers would not have petitioned in favour of 
their own monopoly. Such cards as were home-manufactured must 
have been made of imported paper, or else of some other material. 

England appears to have adopted at once the French suit marks, 
and the king, queen, and knave of the figure cards or honours. 
Nevertheless, the names of the suit marks are in part of Spanish 
descent, e. g., clubs for bastos, and not trefoil for trefles, and spades 
for espadas, instead of spear for piques. Some writers have as- 
serted that Spanish cards, in fact, were introduced into this country 
before the French, and point out that our knave or jack, and jack- 
a-napes have more affinity with the Spanish sota or the Italian fante 
than with the French valet, which in the earlier French cards bears 
the name of some person in romance or history. If Spanish cards 
were introduced early into England they must have soon yielded 
place to the popular French ones, though at an after period attempts 
were made to bring them into fashion, as the following from the 
"Postman," of December, 1702, testifies. 

" Advertisement. 

" Spanish cards lately brought from Vigo. Being pleasant to the 
eye by their curious colours and quite different from ours, may be 
had at Is. a pack at Mrs. Baldwin's, in Warwick Lane." 

Most inquirers have failed to meet with any proof that the old 
tarots cards were ever used, or even known in this country. 
Singer remarks, p. 240, however — 

" We gather from the following passage, in Cleland's ( Institution 
of a Nobleman/ that Taroceo was played in England in the early part 
of the reign of James I. (1603) . Chap. 24 of f House Games : 9 — His 
Majesties permission of honest house games, as Cardes, French 
Cardes called Taraux, Tables and such like plaies, is sufficient to pro- 
tect you from the blame of those learned men who think them 
hazards," &c. 


The English figure cards or honours retain to the present day 
more or less of the character and costume marking the reign of 
Henry VII., when they were probably first designed. 

Mr. F. A. Rep ton in an article on " the costume of Coate- Cards," 
in the " Gentleman's Magazine M for November, 1843, vol. xx., 
New Series, p. 471, writes: 

u Many of the readers of the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' may not 
be aware that the dresses represented on our coate-cards are actu- 
ally the same as those which prevailed about the time of Henry VII. 
or Henry VIII. The lappets which fall on each side of the faces 
of the queens are in fact a rude representation of the dress of the 
females of that period, i. e., about the year 1500-1540. But the 
crown or coronet as being placed at the back of the head, may be 
traced as late as the reign of Elizabeth or James." 

11 . . . . The knave of hearts in Rowland's poem (a.d. 1611) com- 
plains against the old-fashioned flat caps. These flat caps having 
several cuts round the rim may be compared with the old paintings 

and the tapestry of the date 1500-40 So late as 1585 Strutte, 

in his ' Anatomie of Abuses/ mentions the flat caps as being ' broade 
on the crowne like the battlements of a house/ . . . The knave of 
hearts also complains against the striped stockings, l My stockings 
idiot-like red, grene, and yalowe/ These striped stockings may 
frequently be found in old wood-cuts, particularly in those in the 
Triumph of Maximilian." (Op. cit.) 

Mr. Taylor writes : 

" The costume and attributes of our modern court-cards vary 
slightly in different pacA, though they have a general similarity. 
The knave of clubs stilt hoids his arrow, now distorted into a bed- 
post, with the ( head- end upward/ but with the feathers gone. It 
has been suggested that the instrument held by some knaves of 
spades is a kind of spring fork, formerly used by constables to catch 
runaway offenders. Hearts has the ' rustic browne bill/ and dia- 
monds apparently what Falstaff (Hen. IV. Pt. 1, act ii. sc. 4) calls 
a Welsh hooky which Mr. Knight says was a pike with a hook 
placed at some distance below its point, like some of the ancient 
partisans." (Bibl. 9, p. 185, note.) 

England does not appear to have worked out, at an early period, 
a national game of her own. The game of 'Primer (Spanish or 
Italian) , was probably one of the earlier games played in this country, 
and it continued to be the fashionable amusement at cards during 
the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth, and 
James. A game termed Maw'e succeeded Primer 0, then came 
Gleek, Hombre, Quadrille, Reversis, and Bassett. Ruff and Honours 
introduced Whist, now, par excellence, the English game. 

Some time about 1650, according to Barrington, however, he 


f< learned from a gentleman, much advanced in years, in 1786, that 
whist was not played upon principles until about fifty years before, 
when it was much studied by a set of gentlemen who frequented 
the Crown Coffee House, in Bedford Row; of these, the first Lord 
Folkestone was one ; before that time it had been chiefly confined 
to the servants' hall with All-fours, and Put." (Singer, p. 271.) 

A tax was levied upon cards first in the reign of James I., 1615 
(B. 225, E. 226) . In 1825 the duty was 2s. 6d. per pack; in 1827 
it was reduced to one shilling ; it is now threepence. In 1850, duty 
was paid on nearly 300,000 packs. A paragraph in the " Times * of 
February 20, 1875, is as follows : — 

" There was a decrease in the stamp duties on ' playing-cards/ in 
the year ended March 31st, 1874. In 1873 the duty was £12,865, 
in 1874 £12,584." 

From the same Journal for November 29th, 1875, we learn that 
H In the year ended the 31st of March last, the stamp duty of 3d. 
on every pack of cards made for sale in the United Kingdom, 
amounted to £13,130 9s. The number of packs was 1,050,476." 

Sellers are now obliged to take out a licence. 

There are two circumstances connected with the history of modern 
playing-cards particularly noteworthy. One is that all attempts to 
improve the bizarre figures derived from the coate- cards of the old 
standard packs have been unwelcomed by the true card-player, 
whether in France, Germany, or England. The attempts to effect- 
that object have been manifold, and occasionally the designs desired 
to be substituted have been good in themselves, and well drawn and 
coloured. Not any wide or permanent degree of success has attended 
them, and, as remarked by Singer, " So pertinaciously have the 
original figures been adhered to, that although the improvement 
has been applauded and the cards admired, they have rather been 
purchased as curiosities than for use, and for the serious purpose of 
card-playing the old figures have ever been preferred." A sort of 
compromise between the parties has been sometimes attempted, and 
even recently one of our first manufacturers attempted the feat, as 
may be seen in the following passage from the " Athenaeum " of 
October, 1874:— 

" Messrs. De la Rue will issue this season a pack of novel playing- 
cards, in which, whilst historical personages of the present time 
are introduced as the honours, the traditional quaintness of the 
old playing-cards is preserved, so that the card-player's attention is 
not disturbed." (E. 173.) 

Taylor tells an amusing story, illustrative of the Conservative 
feelings club-players have for the old pack, and nothing but that 
pack. (Bibl. 9, p. 450.) 


The number of improved! Parisian packs is considerable, but 
their very variety and, after all, much repetition of the new forms, 
show that not one has any endurancy. Some change no doubt is 
gradually creeping in, as may be seen in the increasing frequency 
of figure-cards having on them busts printed double and in reverse, 
in place of single whole-length figures. Should this change con- 
tinue to hold its ground, the old, conventional, whole-length figures 
may disappear, though the busts which displace them may remain 
of conventional character. Of the substitution of modernised or 
historic persons on the figure-cards for the old forms, however, we 
anticipate but little success. 

We were informed (1875) at one of the principal card-makers, 
that they supplied now only two London clubs with cards having 
the old full-length figures. It would not be surprising, however, 
to find the old cards re-assert themselves, for it is scarcely to be ex- • 
pected that any compromise which artistic or other merit may offer, 
will be accepted as a permanent departure from the ancient types, 
as long as old associations can be cherished and preserved among a 
brotherhood so exclusively occupied with but one object — that of 
play — and so intently that not the slightest distraction of thought 
by any secondary matter could be tolerated for a moment. 

The second circumstance worthy of notice is, that all attempts 
— and they have been many — which have been made in modern 
times to render cards capable of communicating information and 
instruction while ordinary games were being played, have never 
been received with favour beyond that which their novelty would 
insure. Packs of cards having the ordinary suits and symbols 
more or less distinctly marked have been devised over and over 
again, by which, through the addition to them of illustrations and 
inscriptions, the most varied forms of knowledge were sought to be 
conveyed. Cards with such a secondary purpose may be met with 
intended to teach arithmetic, grammar, geography, history, heraldry, 
mythology, astronomy, astrology, the use of mathematical instru- 
ments, and the principles of military science and engineering. Be- 
sides such cards as these, others of a satirical, proverbial, caricature, 
and amusing kind have been produced, provided with the marks of 
the usual suits so that they might be employed in the ordinary way. 
In all these endeavours it appears to have been forgotten that those 
persons who desired to learn grammar, &c, did not want to play at 
cards ; and that such as would willingly play at cards might be blind 
to the blandishments of grammar. Even were such not the case, it 
is doubtful whether grammarian or card-player would be more con- 
fused in the double duty he undertook to perform, since the definition 
of the " points" and figure-cards was generally so imperfect, or so 
subservient to the other illustrations, as to render ordinary play more 


a penance than a pleasure, while the grammatical or other knowledge 
was given in so concentrated, terse, or tabular a form as not to be 
intellectually digestible at a moment's notice. Be this as it may, 
such cards have generally found a resting-place in the cabinets of 
the curious, but little favour being shown them by either the student 
or the player. So apparent to many caterers to popular instruction 
and amusement has been the inutility of trying to combine informa- 
tion with ordinary play, that they have seized on merely the most 
general principles involved in cards, discarding altogether true 
playing-card games, and made the pack a vehicle for the relaxation 
and laughable amusement only of children or older persons at Christ- 
mas, and other festivities. In such packs the ordinary suits and 
marks are unknown, each series forming a special game of its own, 
sometimes very simple — mere question and answer — at other times 
rather complex in character. Such cards may be fairly termed 
" Cartes de Fantaisie." Fortune-telling by the Norwood Gipsy, 
the Tender Passion, Manners and Customs of the Day, the 
Fashions, Charades, Riddles, Pictorial illustrations of an amusing 
character, grotesque and . laughable changes, and cognate themes 
form their subjects. Of examples of such cards every Christmas 
furnishes a new though now limited supply. Here, as in the pre- 
vious case, a sort of compromise has been occasionally tried, but not 
with more success as regards card-players. The following extract 
from Chatto will help to illustrate it : — 

" It was in December, 1692, that the London papers first an- 
nounced to the world the invention of the ' Game of Carving at 
Table/ This precious announcement is conceived in the following 
terms : ' The Genteel Housekeeper's Pastime, or the mode of Carving 
at Table represented in a pack of playing-cards, with a book by 
which any ordinary capacity may learn how to cut up or carve in 
mode all the most usual dishes of flesh, fish, fowl, and baked meats, 
with the several sawces and garnishes proper to each dish of meat. 
Price Is. 6d. {Sold by J. Moxon, Warwick Lane." 

" In those cards the suit of hearts is occupied by flesh, diamonds 
by fowl, clubs by fish, and spades by baked meats. The king of 
hearts presides over a sirloin of beef, of diamonds over a turkey, of 
clubs over a pickled herring, and of spades a venison pasty. A red 
stamp on the ace of spades belonging to a pack which I have had an 
opportunity of examining, contains the word ' sixpence/ If this 
was the duty on each pack, it was certainly great for the period." 
(p. 156.) 

It has been supposed by some good authorities that in former 
times cards were prepared in a special manner for ecclesiastics to 
play with. The figure cards represented saints and holy persons, 
and the latter were introduced even on the pip cards. Descriptions 


of pieces, both from wood and metal engravings, considered to 
belong to such packs, may be found in Passavant, vol. i. p. 14 ; 
WeigePs " Anfange der Drucker Kunst," and Sale Catalogue, Nos. 

In recent years cards have been prepared in such way that blind 
persons might play with them. The marks or pips are slightly 
raised, so that touch can distinguish them. 

Oriental Cards. — Between the statement of the Brahmin of 
Southern India who, in presenting Captain Smith, in 1816, with a 
pack of cards, assured him that it was a thousand years old, and had 
been handed down in his family from time immemorial, and that of 
M. Merlin, 1869, that " not any historic document, monument, nor 
quotation from Eastern writers can be adduced in support of the 
theory that cards had either an Arabian or Indian origin" (p. 57) ; 
<l an attentive study of the various theories of the Oriental origin 
of cards will very soon show that they have nearly all been the re- 
sults of imagination, and that the conjectures on which they have 
been based cannot bear serious examination," — there is ample op- 
portunity for arriving at conclusions of less assured and positive a 
character. An attempt to do so here, however, would be a task 
beyond both the purpose and limits of this essay. Further, as the 
question of the Eastern origin of cards has been touched upon 
already, a few remarks on the general characters of Oriental cards 
as we know them at present is all that is required. 

Cards of India and Persia. — The cards of India are of two kinds ; 
viz., those made and used by the Hindus themselves, and those 
made and used by the Persian and Muhamedan sects of India, who, 
less severe in their observance of the precepts of the Koran than 
others of their religion, have recourse to them for amusement. To 
these may be added the cards of the Persians of Teheran. 

The cards of India, whether having Persian relations or not, are 
generally circular in form, while those of Teheran are of the 
European shape. The circular cards are about 2§- inches in dia- 
meter, and the figures and marks on them are executed purely by 
hand. The material of which they have been composed has been 
found to be canvas, card, and thick paper, and " in Malacca they 
are more cheaply supplied by leaves of the cocoa-nut or palm 
tree, dried, and their distinctive characters traced with an iron 
style." (Chatto, p. 55.) 

The Hindu canvas and paper cards are covered front and back 
with a ground of paint, afterwards highly varnished or lacquered. 
The Persian cards have on them designs and paintings much ex- 
ceeding in merit those on the Hindu pieces. Singer describes and 
gives representations of some beautiful Persian cards, painted with 


much delicacy on ivory, and as highly illuminated with gold as the 
miniaturos in missals and manuscripts. 

The following objects have been met with as marks of suits in 
Hindu cards, viz. : the ten avatars or incarnations of Vishnu, birds, 
with two figure- cards also in each suit, certain marks, some o 
which are of doubtful character, while others are swords (tulwars) 
suns, and money. These marks are painted on different- colour 
grounds (red, green, yellow, &c), which latter also indicate som 
kind of series or suit. Packs of eight suits, each suit containin 
two honours and ten common cards, and of ten suits of twelve pieces 
each suit, have been described. 

Persian cards are recorded as having for suit marks crowns, full 
moons, sabres, slaves, harps, suns, letters (or firmans, or diplomas) , 
and cushions, the pieces being ninety-six in number. Five cards 
from a Persian pack, very prettily painted on carton vernis, are 
given by Merlin (pi. 74, p. 124), on which are represented the shah 
(king), the bibi (queen), the couli (dancer), a lion (ace), and serbas 
(soldier) . All these figures have been painted on different-coloured 
grounds, from which it is assumed that the colours form distinctive 
marks of five suits, and that the entire pack consisted of twenty-five 

Though — as far as our knowledge extends — the true Hindu 
cards, like the typical Spanish and some other early European sets, 
do not admit a female, or queen, into the series, it is plain that the 
Teheran Persians permit of the admission. 

Three kinds of games have been described by writers as of 
Hindu or Persian character. These games are named Tehaturanga, 
Ghendgifeh, and Nds, or Tas, or Taj. Close inquiry has shown, 
however, that the first is more like European tric-trac or back- 
gammon than a game with cards, and though there may be in it a 
mixture of chance and computation, the evolution of both is effected 
openly, and the nature of the combinations of hazard and calculation 
is as different as the objects with which they are associated. (See 
Merlin, p. 21.) The second, or ghendgifeh, which is of Persian 
origin, is played with a pack of ninety-six cards, i.e., of eight series 
of twelve pieces, of the suits, crowns (tas), full moons, swords, 
slaves, &c. On reading an account of the details of this game, one 
is struck first by the circumstance that " the marks of the suits, as 
well as the rules of play, offer considerable analogy with those of 
the national game of the Spaniards, Hombre. Thus dineros (oros) 
is displaced by moons and suns, but the true character of the latter 
is recognisable not only by their forms, but likewise by their names, 
and which are (as already pointed out) simply abbreviatipns of 
words signifying in the language of the country, gold money, silver 
money (zuri soorlch and zuri soofed) . Swords are equally apparent in 
the shumsheer or sabres/' (Merlin, p. 15.) 


Secondly, from the rules of the game, ghendgifeh " appears to 
bear some resemblance to that which the French call L' Ombre a 
trois, three-handed Ombre. In both games the suits appear to be 
considered as ranged into two divisions, in the Hindostanee game 
as the Red and the White, and in the European as the Red and the 
Black. In the Hindostanee game there are eight suits, and six or 
three players ; and when three play the cards are dealt by fours. 
In the European game of four suits and forty cards — the tens, nines, 
and eights being omitted — there are three players, and the cards 
are dealt by threes. A person who can play at ombre will scarcely 
fail to perceive several other points of similarity between the two 
games/' (Chatto, p. 45.) 

To return to M. Merlin : — " In noticing these singular analogies 
is it not reasonable to suppose that the Hindustani game has been 
borrowed from the Europeans ? This supposition has not escaped 
Mr. Ghatto, but his conclusion is opposed to our own; for, while 
allowing that the resemblances of the distinctive marks and rules 
observable between ghendgifeh and the European games might 
prove the importation of cards from Europe into India, while admit- 
ting that cards had been in use already in the West nearly a hun- 
dred years before the Portuguese conquered India, Mr. Chatto 
nevertheless persists in maintaining their Oriental origin ! And 
upon what does he rely ? On an imaginary genealogy of cards from 
chess, and on a pretended Indian tradition, of which not a trace can 
be found in ancient authors, as even Mr. Chatto himself allows." 
(p. 16.) 

The third game, As Nas, is a Teheran one, and according to M. 
Querry, Secretary to the French Embassy in Persia, it has some 
analogy with the European game Trente-et-un. 

Chinese Cards. — Strongly inclined as the Chinese are to 
gambling of every kind, it would have been surprising not to have 
found them provided with cards. Those which they employ are 
much smaller than the cards of Europe, being generally from 2 to 
2 1 inches in length to \ an inch or I inch in breadth. Some are 
much narrower than this, while others are of a squarer form ; those 
represented by Breitkopf on plate 6 of his work, " Versuch den 
Ursprung der Spielkarten zu erforschen " (1784), being 2 inches 
long by 1|^ wide. 

Chinese cards are made of thin cardboard, having the designs 
and marks printed in black ink on them. The marks of the suits 
are not easy to define, but chains, money, arms, and typographical 
characters are decipherable, as well as human busts and whole- 
length forms. At the upper portion of some cards, particularly 
those which are figure pieces, a margin is reserved, on which are 
other marks, and as if writing. The backs aro sometimes coloured 
red, at other times they are black, and frequently quite plain. 


Packs of thirty-six cards in nine suits, of thirty cards in three 
suits, and of thirty-two cards have been described. 

The execution is sometimes very clear and distinct, at other times 
the work is rather heavy. 

According to M. Vailsant, the Chinese have a drawing divided 
into compartments or series, based on combinations of the number 7. 

" It so closely resembles the tarot, that the four suits of the 
latter occupy its first four columns ; of the twenty-one atouts four- 
teen occupy the fifth column, and the seven other atouts the sixth 
column. This sixth column of seven atouts is that of the six days 
of the week of creation. Now according to the Chinese, this repre- 
sentation belongs to the first ages of their empire, to the drying up 
of the waters of the deluge by Iao ; it may be concluded, therefore, 
that it is original, or a copy of the tarot, and under any circum- 
stances that the latter is of an origin anterior to Moses, that it b 
longs to the beginning of our time, to the epoch of the preparation 
of the zodiac, and, consequently, that it must own 6,600 years of 
existence." (!) ("Les Homes, histoire vraie des vraies Bohemiens," 
Paris, 1857.) 

Fancy domino cards have been recorded by Breitkopf, to whose 
work in particular reference should be made for representations of 
Chinese cards and games of various descriptions. 

Japanese Cards have been stated not to differ in size, but only in 
marks, from the Chinese varieties. 

" Those which I have seen," writes Blomhoff, " are marked with 
numerical figures, pictures of images, and arms coloured and orna- 
mented with gold and silver ; they have as well figured as numerical 
names, and are somewhat larger than the fourth part of an English 
card, the same shape, but a little thicker." (Singer, Appendix, 
p. 364.) 

On the subject of Oriental cards generally, reference may be 
made as follows, with advantage: — Singer, Bibl. 8, pp. 16, 49, 59, 
63, 364; Chatto, Bibl. 4, pp. 30-59; Merlin, Bibl. 6, pp. 13, 19, 
24, 122. 

Some beautiful representations of Hindu, Persian, and Chinese 
cards are therein given, together with references to the transactions 
of various learned societies which contain papers on the subject. 






The following arrangement has been adopted in describing the 
various playing and other cards in the National Collection : — 

Division I. — Eueopean Cards. 
Division II. — Oriental Cards. 

Division I. includes — 

The cards of 



>> >> 



}) )> 



>> i> 



jt J? 

• . 


)t tt 



)) 3i 



. . 



Division II. includes — 

The cards of . 


a )> 


3f J) 



The cards of each country are divided into genera, and described 
in the following order : — 

Genus 1 
„ 2 
„ 3 
„ 4 

Tarots (pure and combined) . 
Numerals (pure). 
Cards with a secondary purpose. 
Cards purely fanciful. 

German Numerals are subdivided into — 

Cards having national marks of suits. 
Cards having animated marks of suits. 



Cards with a secondary purpose are arranged as — 

1. Educational, Instructive Cards. 

2. Biographic, Historical. 

3. Politico-Historical. 

4. Satirical. 

5. Divinatory, Astrologic (occult sciences) . 

6. Amusing, Humorous. 

Under the head Miscellanea, various prints, broadsides, adver- 
tisements, &c, are referred to, which did not well admit of arrange- 
ment elsewhere. 




I. i. 


QUARTO volume containing a series of fifty early 
Italian engravings, known by the various names of the 
Giuoco di Tarocchi di Mantegna, Carte di Baldini, 
Italian Tarocchi Cards, Ancient Venetian Tarots, &c. 

The sequence of prints to be passed immediately under 
review is of important and interesting character. Its 
members are not only among the more ancient ex- 
amples of the early art of engraving in Italy, but may 
be considered with much probability direct descendants — as far as their subjects 
and designs are concerned — from the original source from which the primitive 
Na'ibis, tarots, or immediate forerunners of our playing-cards, were derived. They 
have been long a subject for animated discussion, whether as regards their place 
and date of production, their author, or their original purport, and their acquisition 
has continued to be a cherished object of the iconophilist who can afford- the 
means for procuring them. They are of rarity under any conditions, and as a 
complete series very scarce indeed, but as an uniform and intact sequence in the 
state in which they were originally published, probably not more than three 
examples are known; one of these, M. Galichon's copy, was recently (1875), s °ld 
by auction, at Paris, for 17,000 francs, or £680, plus commissions and duty. 
This same set realised at the Seratti sale in 1 8 1 6, £43 ; and at the auction of 
Sir M. M. Sykes in 1824, £78 55. M. Galichon gave for it in i860 ten thou- 
sand francs. It is once more in England, and a choice impression indeed it is. 

Detailed descriptions of each engraving of the series, accompanied by more or 
less critical discussion, may be found under the following heads : — 
Bartsch, vol. xiii. pages 120-138. 

Ottley's " Inquiry," vol. i. page 379, and "Notices of Engravers," vol. i. art. 
Baccio Baldini. 

Cumberland, " Ancient Engravers of Italian School," pages 51-74. 
Passavant, vol. v. page 1 1 9. 

" Kunstler-Lexicon," Meyer's Edition, 1875, vol. ii. page 589. 




Merlin, Bibl. 6, page 34. 

An accurate copy of the entire sequence of prints is given in the " Jeux d< 
Cartes Tarots et de Cartes Numerales," published by the Societe des Bibliophiles 
Franqais, in 1 844. Copies of one or two pieces may be seen in the treatises of 
Cicognara and Singer, and reduced representations may be found in the work of 
M. Merlin. 

The series consists of fifty pieces of full-length emblematic figures with the 
symbols, divided into five sets or suits. Each set contains ten pieces, and has one 
of the letters A B C D E common to it marked in Roman capitals at the 
lower left-hand corner of each member of the suit. A continuous numeration 
runs through the entire sequence from 1 to 50, the numbers being marked at the 
lower right-hand corner of each piece in Arabic numerals, and also in Roman 
numbers after the title of the subject, which is engraved at the centre of the 
lower margin in the Venetian dialect in Roman capitals. 

Number l commences with the set the diagnostic of which is the letter E ; 
number 1 1 begins the set D; number 21, C ; number 31, B ; and number 41 
the set A. 

The figures represented in the first series, or E, or that commencing with 
number 1, illustrate various conditions of life, from the beggar and servant to 
the Emperor and Pope. Those of D (l l), portray the Muses and the Arts ; of 
C (21), the Sciences ; of B (31), the Virtues ; while the members of set A (41) 
symbolise the Planets, or system of the world. Thus : — 


1. Misero. 

2. Fameio. 

3. Artixan. 

4. Merchadante. 

5. Zintilomo. 

6. Chavalier. 

7. Doxe. 

8. Re. 

9. Imperator. 
IO. Papa. 


1 1 . Caliope. 

12. Urania. 

13. Terpsicore. 

14. Erato. 

15. Polimnia. 

16. Talia. 

17. Melpomene. 

1 8. Euterpe. 

19. Clio. 

20. Apollo. 

21. Grammatica. 

22. Loica. 

23. Rhetorica. 

24. Geometria. 

25. Aritmetricha. 

26. Musicha. 

27. Poesia. 

28. Philosofia. 
29- Astrologia- 
30. Theologia- 


31. Iliaco. 

32- Chronico. 

33- Cosmico. 

34. Temperancia. 

35. Prudencia. 

36. Forteza. 

37. Justicia. 

38. Charita. 

39. Speranza. 

40. Fede. 

41. Luna. 

42. Mercuric 

43. Venus. 

44. Sol. 

45. Marte. 

46. Jupiter. 

47. Saturno. 

48. Octava Spera. 

49. Primo Mobile. 

50. Prima Causa. 

The emblematic figure " Astrologia " has been numbered in the original b} 
mistake 39 instead of 29. 

The pieces vary slightly in size ; each is about 7 J- inches high by 4 inches 
in breadth, 1. e. from the outermost engraved lines. All have good margins 
in the British Museum example; some pieces, as Euterpe, 18, and Saturno, 47, 
have margins |- of an inch wide. To " Zintilomo " (No. 5 E) some gold has 
been applied on the collars and borders of the draperies, as likewise to the breast 
of the hawk and the hair of the gentleman. 


The teclmic or manner in which the engraving has been executed is similar 
in style and equal in merit throughout, while the design and drawing vary in 
artistic power and taste. The engraving generally may be described as careful, 
formal, and dry, the outlines heavier in character than the rest, and of uniform 
thickness. The shadows are rendered always by means of short strokes, rarely 
crossing each other or interlaced more than once, the one set of lines being 
generally horizontal in direction, the other set being oblique, and frequently 
arrested rather abruptly at the edges of the light parts. The incisions of the 
burin within the contours are everywhere delicate, and, as observed by Dela- 
borde, "a fleur de peau," the metal being rather scratched, or as one might say, 
caressed, than incised. The whole design is enclosed within a spirally banded 
or woven border like that which usually surrounds the Etruscan scarabeus, and 
having the marks of the holes at the four corners by which the early engravers 
fixed their plates to a table or board, to prevent their moving when ploughed by 
the graver. The borders at the upper corners are connected by a four-leaved 
flower or rosette. 

The earlier impressions have been worked off with ink of a bluish or grey 
tint, which gives a very characteristic appearance to these primitive efforts of the 
engraver's art. "While being printed, the plates were not so carefully wiped or 
cleaned as was afterwards done, and thus a smear of ink was left upon their sur- 
faces, imparting to the paper a faint bluish fond sale which conoscenti may at 
once remark. 

Opinions have differed as to whether the earlier proofs were taken off by 
means of the cylinder or by the hand press. Some persons have seen, as they 
believe, the marks left by the damp linen layer impressed by the roller, while 
others have looked in vain for any such vestigia, but have easily observed the 
marks of the plate edges to have been impressed with such strength and distinct- 
ness as at once to certify to the use of a press. 

The taste and style of some of the designs, as the Fameio, 2 ; Merchadante, 
4; Chavalier, 6; Doxe, 7; Clio, 19; Rhetorica, 23; Astrologia, 29 (39); and 
Primo mobile, 49, in particular are worthy of much praise ; on the other hand, 
Caliope, 1 1, Talia, 16, and Euterpe, 18, are much inferior. Several of the Muse 
series, D, are the least to be commended of the whole sequence. 

According to Kolloff, the impressions in the Paris Cabinet have been delicately 
gilt with a brush on the hair, wings, weapons, trees, buildings, and symbolic 
attributes : " a practice adopted only on impressions taken from plates which had 
already suffered from use." As before observed, the Zintilomo, 5, of the British 
Museum copy has had gold applied to portions of the drapery and of the hawk ; 
this piece is one of the faintest impressions in the series, and thus confirms 
KollofFs statement. The latter applies in its general bearing, we presume, to the 
series possessed by the " Bibliotheque" previous to the obtainment of the fine 
example belonging to M. Gatteaux de l'lnstitut, and which " avait une valenr dix 
fois plus grande" than the former. (See "Notice Historique suivie d'un Catalogue 
des Estampes, &c," par Le Vicomte Henri Delaborde, Paris, 1875, page 165.) 

The sequence now before us appears to be composed of impressions in three 
different states. First, of very early proofs of bluish grey tone, and from the 
plates before they were either worn or retouched. Secondly, of impressions 
from the plates when " wear and tear" betrayed themselves, but the metal was as 
yet untouched. Thirdly, of impressions of a brownish hue, and after the plates 
had been more or less retouched. Dr. Waagen states that a late Keeper of the 
prints, Mr. Carpenter, informed him that, judging from other impressions he had 
seen, the Museum copy of these early Italian engravings should be regarded as 
only from retouched plates. If this was intended to apply to all the pieces, an 
examination of the following ones will show, we believe, that the judgment was 
much too sweeping, viz. : — Misero, E l ; Fameio, E 2 ; Zintilomo, E 5 ; Doxe, 
E 7; Clio, D 19; Rhetorica, C 23; Musicha, C 26; Theologia, C 30 ; Cos- 


mico, B 33; Luna, A 41 ; Mercurio, A 42; Venus, A 43 ; Sol, A 
Primo mobile, A 49 ; Prima causa, A 50- 

A careful comparison of the Museum specimens with the fine examples which 
had belonged to M. Galichon did not authorise the conclusion that more than 
the following pieces were clearly from plates which had been more or lea 
retouched, viz.: Caliope, D 11; Urania, D 12; Erato, D 14; Talia, D 16; 
Loica, C 22; Geometria, C 24. On the other hand, of the pieces — Clio, D 19 ; 
Grammatica, C 21 ; Rhetorica, C 23; Aritmetricha, C 25 ; Philosofia, C 28; 
Cosmico, B 33 ; Temperancia, B 34 ; Forteza, B 36 ; Justicia, B 37 ; Charita, 
B 38 ; Fede, B 40 ; Octava spera, A 48 ; and Primo mobile, A 49, some were 
fully equal to the Galichon impressions, while others very closely approached 
them in excellence. 

It may have been observed that in the preceding remarks certain points have 
been assumed, for the purposes of general description, which claim to be sup- 
ported by some show of argument or proof. It may be asked, for instance, to 
what school of art do these engravings belong, at what period were they executed, 
and by whom and what was their purport ? 

In reply to the question — to what school of art do they belong ? — it may be 
said, to the Italian school unquestionably. Not only do the general style and 
feeling of these engravings at once indicate their birthplace, but certain intentions 
which pervade them evince a like fact. These latter, as M. Merlin points out 
(p. 80), reveal the Catholic and Italian ideas of the fourteenth century. The 
Pope has supremacy over the Emperor, the latter is represented with the 
attributes of the Empire of the West. The crown of the king is an Italian 
crown, and the valet, the merchant, the knight, and the gentleman are in Italian 
costumes. Further, the arts and sciences are arranged in the order of a trivium 
and quadrivium; the three theological and four cardinal virtues, Apollo and the 
Muses, are accompanied by the attributes allotted them in the West during the 
Middle Ages, and not by those with which they are associated on the monuments 
of Greece. 

As to the particular school of Italy from which these designs and engravings 
have proceeded, it may be stated that Florence, Venice, and Padua have each had 
their supporters. From the circumstances that several of the inscriptions are in 
the Venetian dialect, and that the Venetians are known to have early employed 
certain emblematic playing-cards, held by some to have sprung from these 
particular engravings, their birthplace has been assigned to the once luxurious 
city of the Adriatic. Some authorities, considering them to be the vechissime carte 
padovana, alluded to in " Le carte parlante " of Pietro Aretino, have given them 
to Padua. The weight of authority, however, is in favour of their being of 
Florentine origin, as based on their general style and feeling. It is not an unfair 
supposition that the original designs were Florentine, while the series as we now 
have it was engraved by a Venetian, or by a Florentine with particular adaptations 
to the Venetian market. Those critics who have looked on these prints as 
coming from the school of Padua, have usually associated with them the names 
of Andrea Mantegna and Marco Zoppo, while such as have favoured Florence 
have considered them as the conjoint productions of Botticelli and Baldini, though 
the name of Finiguerra has not been without an advocate. 

If doubt prevails as to their author, is there more surety as respects the date 
of their production ? All that we are fairly warranted in maintaining is that it 
was previous to 1485, since in another, and to all appearance later version 
or edition of the series than the present one, this date is borne on the tablet 
which the figure of Arithmetic (C 2$), holds in her hand (see I. 2.). Taking 
into consideration the style of design and manner of technic, with their evident 
assimilation to the period and schools of Botticelli and Baldini, the time allotted 
to these early Italian prints by Duchesne, viz., circa 1470, may be regarded as 
closely approximate. Kolloff gives them a somewhat later origin, contending 
that : — 


The engraver must have continued working several years, allowing pro- 
>ably impressions from single plates, or of the various decennary series to 
appear before he published them collectively." ... . "As regards their technic 
these pieces have close relationship to the ' Prophets and Sybils,' and the orna- 
mental work of the goldsmiths ; we see the same cold monotone shadows formed 
of delicate layers crossed by finer lines in several places, but the line has at the 
.same time more sharpness and sureness of intention, is more docile and amenable 
to the drawing, if not of more aims and of greater variety. These excellences 
are so marked in some pieces, particularly in the angel of the Primo mobile, 
that they at once attain the perfected art of the Renaissance period. These 
admirable engravings, therefore, had an origin later than that of the Prophets 
and the decorative work of the goldsmiths, an origin somewhere about 1490- 
1495." .... "The highly graceful and elegant, though occasionally mannered, 
but always attractive figures, the character of the beautiful female faces and the 
noble heads of the men, the preference for profile, the great delicacy of the 
drawing of the hands and feet, the tasteful cast of the draperies, are undoubted 
characteristics of Florentine art .... nevertheless, inequalities may be 
discerned in the composition and drawing which show that the designs for the 
engraver proceeded from various hands." Kolloff in Meyer's " Lexikon," vol. ii. 
p. 590.) 

M. Le Vicomte H. Delaborde, in his article on La Gravure Florentine au X V. 
Siecle ("Gaz. des Beaux-Arts," 1873, vol. vii. p. 99), advocates strongly the 
Florentine origin of the prints under notice : — 

" If it be allowable to say that the figures composing the sequence called the 
Tarocchi were designed by various artists, it is not the less certain that these 
productions may be attributed to a single engraver. There is not any inequality 
of merit in the work, nor any difference in the modes of procedure, whether in 
defining the contours or indicating the shadows, and the calm serenity with which 
it is carried on does not belie itself, even where an energy of technic would 
appear to have been natural to the expression, and where the types to be repro- 
duced were those of Saturn, Jupiter, or Mars. Thus are we led to the conclusion 
that the engravings of the Tarocchi are not the result of a collective undertaking, 
and tli at he who produced them trusted to his own resources alone to consum- 
mate his purpose. But it is probable we shall not discover anything beyond this, 
and must be content to remain ignorant of the name of the engraver, though we 
may recognise him elsewhere, and be convinced of his talent and fecundity. 
Writers and iconophilists may choose — and most unfortunately in our own 
opinion — the names of Finiguerra and Mantegna alternately, or less imprudently 
the name of Baccio Baldini. The Florentine source being once established, we 
are satisfied with admiring in themselves these precious examples of primitive 
engraving, and refuse to sacrifice to the regret of an absent signature, or to an 
obscure inquiry, that which is exacted from us by the picturesque beauty and 
unhesitating tokens of ability everywhere present." {Op. cit. p. 100.) 

A not less interesting question than any yet replied to is — What was the 
general motive in this sequence of emblematic figures, and to what purpose was 
it applied? 

Two chief views have been held. According to one theory, these symbolic 
designs were intended to serve simply as a source of instruction in various ways. 
Certain philosophic doctrines and precepts of morality have been supposed to 
have been therein illustrated, and likewise the occult sciences of the Middle Ages 
to have been therein veiled. 

If each series of the general sequence be closely examined it may be perceived 
that the highest or most important subject has the last number — 50, and the 
least or most subordinate the first number — 1. Thus, e.g. the Pope, the highest 
dignitary of the Christian world, has the last number — 1 o, of the series E. Apollo, 
chief of the Muses, has the last number — 20, of the series D ; the most important 




branch of knowledge, Theology, has the last number— 40, of B, and finally, the 
First Cause, the lowest number of the series — A 50, the terminal of the entire 
sequence. On the other hand, the order according to which the letters dis- 
tinguishing the series are placed appears to say — if we begin with the First 
Cause — "Before all things, think of God who made the world — series A; next 
practise the Virtues — series B ; then cultivate knowledge — series C ; seek t 
Muses, D, and lay stress on the various fortunes of life, last of all — series E.' 

M. E. Galichon preferred regarding the entire sequence as representing t' 
" Encyclopedic System of Dante, or as being an astrological speculation, striving 
to assimilate the phases of celestial revolutions to those of terrestrial life ; as 
constituting a book, in fact, in which the burin of the engraver displaces the pen of 
the writer, while recounting in five chants, the rewards which await an upright 
and industrious man." 

Lastly, the mystic secrets of the Hebrew Kabbalah have been held by some 
to have been concealed in certain of the original designs, unfortunately afterwards 
modified and added to in number, while to others the philosophy of India and the 
secrets of the Egyptian mysteries lay in them, but hidden, save to the eyes of the 
illuminati, and to the questionings of an unhesitating faith. (Postea, " Cards of 

Under the second head may be classed those theories which involve in the 
character and purport of these emblematic figures some kind of amusing game. 
The difficulty of pointing out the exact nature of the game which could be played 
with such pieces (or cards) as bore on them the symbols of Logic, Rhetoric, 
Theology, Primo mobile, Prima causa, &c, has given rise to various conjectures. 
Some persons, like those who recognise in these emblems the mystic learning of 
the East, have supposed the sequence to have been used — as the gypsies and 
others use modern cards — for the purposes of divination and fortune-telling, 
falling back for support on " Le Sorti di Francesco Marcolini," and Fanti's 
"Triompho diFortuna" (a.d. 1526), (Singer, Bibl. 8, pp. 64-66), the latter fur- 
nished with the Papal " Privilegium," and dedicated to Pope Clement VII., as 
proving that analogous emblematic figures were then employed for these purposes. 

Other archseologists have regarded the sequence as forming what is now known 
as a tarots game of cards, or at least some adumbration or modification of it. 
This school points out that a like general economy pervades the admitted tarots 
games, and the sequence of the Mantegna tarocclii. The latter, e.g. is composed 
of five series, and five divisions go to form a tarots game. Each series of the one 
is made up of ten pieces, and in the other four series are composed of ten likewise, 
whose " points " proceed from one to ten. Further, the decades of the taroccki 
of Mantegna are distinguished by the letters A B C D E, while the five series 
of more recent tarots are differentiated by objects, the initials of the names of 
which are the letters A B C D E — atutti, bastoni, coppe, danari, espada (spade, 
Ital.). It is true that in the Italian names for the tarots series the E does not 
occur, since the proper word begins with S, but the Spanish word may have been 
common at Venice formerly, and thus we find E {Espada for spade, Ital.) in the 
early pieces, and it is not the less noteworthy that in the second edition or later 
version of 1485 the E has been displaced from the last series, and S substituted, 
as though the engraver, aware of the previous mistake or inconsistency, sought 
to remedy the error. This view of the matter has been opposed by high authori- 
ties. They dwell upon the fact that these early Italian pieces do not bear any of 
the characteristic marks of suits, even were it to be admitted — which it should 
not be — that the interpretation of the letters of the several decades above given 
were in the least satisfactory. 

Secondly, the number of the pieces of the sequence — fifty — does not coincide 
with any combinations involved in the old and true Venetian tarots game of seventy- 
eight cards. 

Thirdly, that in the only two or three truly perfect or originally uniform sets 


known, the prints are bound together apparently as they were at first, and have 
large margins, and not any impressions have been met with as yet, printed on 
paper strong enough to resist the wear and tear of play. Lastly, their size is too 
great for cards, and they are uncoloured. 

To these objections it has been replied that it was not intended to maintain 
these emblematic engravings were used loose, and were wont to be shuffled like the 
cards of an after age. On the contrary, they formed originally a sort of book or 
album, which might be employed by youth and moral persons, but to which, 
afterwards on other occasions, " suit " members were added, so that they could 
be used in a game of pure amusement and hazard. Further, their size is not 
greater than that of the German painted cards of the Stuttgart collection, nor — 
in height at least — than that of the numerals of the Musee Correr at Venice. 
Colouring is not essential to a sequence of playing-cards, for several sets of four 
suits each, evidently intended for play without having been coloured, were 
delicately engraved on copper before the end of the fifteenth century. 

It can be shown in addition that above one-half of the atouts of the compara- 
tively modern games of chance called tarots have been borrowed from the figures 
of the present sequence. Take the tarots (combined) of Besanqon, Marseilles, 
and Geneva, which represent pretty faithfully the older Venetian games, and it 
may be seen that out of twenty-six figures, fifteen have been borrowed, even to 
minute details, from the early Italian engravings. Of the cards of the Florentine 
tarots game, minchiate, which are in number ninety-seven (forty being true tarots), 
having twenty more atouts than the Venetian game, it may be seen that the addi- 
tions have been borrowed really from the same source. Lastly, the general 
principle of the tarots game appears to have been taken from it likewise. The 
atouts, e. g. which have more value in the jeux de tarots, are such as have the 
higher numbers, and these latter belong to such pieces as correspond exactly 
with the higher numbers of the ancient sequence, and which are included in the 
numbers 41 -50. 

We may say — speaking generally — that the relationship of the so-called 
tarocchi of Mantegna to more recent playing-cards, through the medium of the 
older tarots, has been placed in a clearer light, and has been better defined since 
1869 by M. Merlin, the juror who prepared the report on the playing-cards sent 
to the Parisian Exposition of 1855. According to this authority, long before the 
production of the fifty early Italian emblematic pieces as a combined series of 
engravings, and even anterior to the invention at Venice of games of hazard with 
cards, there existed in Italy a series of pictorial representations called Na'ibis, 
which were employed for the purposes both of instruction and simple amuse- 
ment. The "Chronicle " of Morelli, a.d. 1393, and Decembrio's " History of the 
Life of Philip Visconti, Duke of Milan," who was born in 1391, afford evidence 
of this, and also lead to the belief that the subjects of these pictorial representa- 
tions were the same as those of the tarocchi of Mantegna. In other words, it 
may be implied that the engraver — whoever he was — of the latter copied the 
devices of the former, just as the authors of the succeeding tarots have copied 
the emblematic figures of the first engraved sequence. 

From this latter circumstance, indeed, the early Italian engravings received 
the names of tarots and tarocchi, names which there is not any reason to believe 
belonged to them at first. These early prints, thus derived from the Na'ibis, 
cannot, therefore, be regarded as original conceptions of the times at which they 
were produced, but mast be considered as based, at least, on a common type 
certainly existing a century before. The truth of this is shown, according to 
M. Merlin, in the critical analysis of a MS. of the early part of the fifteenth century, 
undertaken by M. Douet d'Arcy, in the " Revue Archeologique " for 1858. This 
MS. contains, inter alia, a treatise on blazon — the earliest known. The latter is 
composed of two portions, one portion consisting of twelve chapters of elementary 
instruction on the art, and the other being a sort of petit armorial, in com- 


bination with some rules on heraldic procedures. The latter section of t\ 
armorial is as follows : 

" Sensuyvent les ditz et armes de ix femmes dictes et appellees Muses. 1 

" Caliope la premiere, porte de synople, une trompette d' argent en bende 
dit : jusques aux nues. 

" Uranyes, ii e porte de sable, ung cerne dargent ung compas de masson 
mesmes Son dit : la non pareille. 

" Terpsicore iij e porte dargent, ung leut de pourpre Son dit : Seule y suis. 

" Erato iiij e porte dor, une meule de molin de sable [c'est un tambour de bas- 
que] Son dit : jatens l'heure. 

" Polymnya v e porte dazur, unes orgues d' argent Son dit : moy mesmes. 

" Talia vi e porte de gueules, une vielle dor Son dit ; a mon devoir. 

" Melpomene vii e porte de pourpre ung cornet dor Son dit : jamais lasse. 

" Euterpe vij e porte dargent, une doulcene de sable Son dit : tant mest 

" Clio ix e de sable ung signe dargent Son dit : a la mort chante. 

" Sensuyvent les vij ars. 

" Grammaire, la premiere. — Une vieille ridee, beguinee, esmantelee, porte 
pourpre, une lime d' argent, ung pot de mesmes. 

" Logica ii e . Une femme jeune, les cheveux crespes, les bras tout nudz hault 
recoursez d'une chemise jusques aux piedz, es mammelles et au nombril troussee 
— porte de gueules, une serpent volant d'or envelopee d'ung drap d'argent. 

" Rethorica iii e . Une jeune dame, d'ung heaulme et une coronne par dessus 
sa teste, ung manteau et une riche cotte vestue, en la main dextre tenant une 
espee — porte de synople, deux enfants nudz d'argent soufflant deux trompettes 
de mesmes. 

" Geometria iiii e . Une jeune dame issant d'une nue, tenant en sa main une 
esquarre [une equerre] pour compasser et mesurer pierres — porte d'argent, une 
nue d'asur. 

" Arismetica v e . Une femme ancienne, de crevechiefs sa teste affublee, d'une 
robe longue abillee jusques aux piedz, contant argent — porte de sable, six besans 

" Musica vi e . Une jeune dame en cheveux, bien adornee, d'une fine chemise 
vestue les bras tous nudz, assise sur un signe, les jambes entrellees et nudz piedz, 
unes orgues, ung lehut et plusieurs autres instrumens empres elle, ung flaiol — 
porte de synople, deux flaiolz d'argent. 

" Philosophia vii e . Une jeune dame les cheveux pendens, d'ung corset de 
guerre a escailles, armee d'ung targon, au milieu ung visaige insculpe, tenant en la 
main senestre, en l'aultre main ung dart ferre et empane — porte de gueles de dars 
d'argent de mesure. 

" Une jeune dame 2 les cheveux pendens, ung chappelet de fleurs par dessus, 
touchant de la main dextre ung flaiol, de l'aultre main espenchant a ung pot de 
terre de l'eau qui sourdait d'une fontaine, et en ses piedz le firmament — porte 
d'assur le firmament d'argent." 

It will be at once apparent that in the foregoing descriptions are delineated 
the emblematic figures of the Muses, Arts, and Poetry, exactly as they are repre- 
sented in the pieces of the sequence of Mantegna. If it be a correct opinion 

1 " The nine Muses form the subject of the second decade of Mantegna, the 
seven arts are included in the sciences and arts, the third decade of the same se- 
quence. The perfect identity may be at once recognised. The colours and 
mottoes only are wanting." (Note by M. Merlin, op. cit. p. 48.) 

2 The name of the person is wanting, but on comparing the description with 
the engraving it will be found that it is — Poetry. 



that the MS. in question is as early as the first quarter of the fifteenth century, 
the Italian designs are brought on a level, quoad time, with those alluded to by 
Decembrio as having composed one of the favourite amusements of the young 
Duke of Milan, born in 1 391 , an amusement qui ex imaginibus depictis Jit. 

About the end of the fifteenth century some inventive genius, probably 
Venetian, selecting a certain number — twenty-two — of the original emblematic 
Ndibis (now converted into atutti, atouts, or tarots), added to them a series of 
numeral cards by which the excitement of chance and interest of gain might be 
added to the instruction, or more innocent amusement, the emblematic series was 
intended to afford. This modified game, though adopted pretty generally, never- 
theless soon underwent a further and most important change. This was the elimi- 
nation of the whole of the emblematic (atutti, tarots) series, leaving the numeral 
cards alone to play with (antea, " General History," p. 23). Some countries, 
however, still retained an emblematic series in combination with the numeral cards 
for certain games, though adopting, at the same time, packs of cards made up of 
numerals only. To this day, even, packs of cards of the true old tarots character 
may be purchased in Italy and the south of France, and are not unknown in Germany. 
It is, therefore, through these tarots cards, whether ancient or modern, 1. e., the em- 
blematic series conjoined with numerals, that the connection between the tarocchi 
oj Mantegna and playing-cards should be sought. Traced as above indicated, the 
connection is quite apparent, and thus there is not either mistake or exaggeration 
in regarding the original Ndibis transmitted to us through the early Italian engra- 
vings before us, as the source from which playing-cards may be said to have sprung, 
the engravings in question simply representing that series of -earlier hand-painted 
devices from which the old tarots' games of Venice and Florence made a selection 
for their atutti series. 

[7 in. X 4 in.] [Backs plain.] 

I. 2. 


QUARTO volume of like character to the preceding one (I. 1.), 
containing forty -five early Italian engravings, known as the Giuoco 
di Tarocchi di Mantegna, ancient Venetian tarots, &c. 

The pieces herein contained constitute a second edition or ver- 
sion with numerous variations of the sequence before described. The follow- 
ing pieces are wanting : Misero, 1 ; Fameio, 2 ; Lnperator, 9 ; Primo mobile, 
49 ; Prima causa, 50. On the tablet held by the emblematic figure C Arit- 
metricha, xxv. — 25, are these figures in the following arrangement : — 


. 7 .8 . 9 . 10 

J 4Qg.5 

Duchesne, Passavant, Merlin, and other writers, have considered the lowest 
row of numerals to imply the date 1485, and the period when the engraving was 


executed. Kolloff ridicules this opinion as " an highly wonderful conjecture." , 
" The counting-slate is intended to represent a so-called magic quadrature, i. c, 
table with numbers so placed, that in whatever direction they may be added ii]>. 
the resulting amount or sum shall be the same. Albert Diirer also has repre- 
sented arithmetic by such a table in his famous piece of the 'Melancholy.' 
I fare the numbers run from one to sixteen, and the sum is forty-four [sic] [34]. 
The Italian engraver was not aware evidently of what he had to represent.' 
(Meyer's " Kiinstler-Lexicon," p. 594, vol. ii.) 

Bartsch looked on the present series as the earlier or original set of the 
Cartes de Tarots, (vol. xiii. p. 1 20,) and considered the one before described as 
the second edition or copy of the present sequence. 

In connection with this point two questions present themselves for considera- 
tion; there is that of priority of production, and that of actual transcription. The 
present series may have been, and we believe was, engraved after the precedii 
one [I. 1.] ; but if so it need not have been directly copied from the latter. Tl 
opinion long since broached by Ottley, "that many of the pieces of the one 
series are rather the repetitions of the same subjects engraved with variations ii 
the designs of the figures than what may be properly called copies," has sin< 
been more fully stated by Merlin, who maintains that neither series is a dire 
copy from the other, but that both have been based on another and more prii 
tive example. Before referring to the particular marks on which this judgmei 
is founded, it may be well to notice those circumstances in which these two ve 
sions or editions differ from each other. 

In the first place, the pieces of the present sequence are somewhat smaller in 
size than are the others. The initial letter S supplants the letter E of the decade 
containing the emblematic figures of the various stations of life ; the inscriptions 
and numbers are of heavier, coarser, and apparently of later form, the points or 
dots before and after them are here absent, and the marks of the nail holes at the 
corners are wanting. 

Secondly, the majority of the figures, which are turned or advance towards 
the left of the spectator in the former version (I. 1 .), are here (I. 2.) turned to- 
wards the right, but though thus reversed in direction, the actions are duly per- 
formed with the right hand. 

Thirdly, though the figures represent like subjects, several of them are of 
different designs, and are accompanied by symbolic accessories of different 

Fourthly, there is much disparity between the technical merits of the two sets, 
the present version being inferior in all respects to the one already described. 
The expression of the heads is quite changed, the drawing is inferior, and the en- 
graved work is of a harder, stiffer, and inferior kind. In one instance, however, 
the author of the second version has improved on the earlier issue, viz., in the 
drapery of Temperancia xxxiiii., which in the present series is superior on the 
whole to the heavier forms in the figure of the version of 1470. 

M. H. Delaborde observes : — 

" It is quite certain that one of the two series, that in which the first ten pages 
bear the letter E in lieu of an S inscribed in like places in the second, has far 
higher merit as regards drawing and style. Is not this sufficient to decide the 
question of priority in its favour, or at least to render it thus highly presumptive ? 
If, in fact, it be supposed with Bartsch that the inferior one of the two versions 
is the older one, we shall be forced to admit that, by a singular exception, the first 
engraver of the tarocchi did not know how to profit either from the examples or 
progress which had occurred during several years. Further, how could the 
mediocrity of his work have awakened the spirit of imitation ? How, at a time 
and in a country which were cognisant of the nielli of a Finiguerra, and the 
prints of Botticelli, could the desire have arisen to plagiarise pieces which could 
be made to undergo comparison so easily, and could be so satisfactorily judged ? 


At any rate it is at least rare that a copy is better than the original work." 
(" Gazette des Beanx-Arts," 1873, vol. vii. p. 101.) 

Reference may be made now to the data on which Merlin confides, as proving 
that neither of the editions in question was copied one from the other. This 
writer proceeds to say, " the comparison which we have made of the first two 
editions does not allow of our admitting, as is generally done, that one is a copy 
of the other. The notable differences which may be observed between certain 
subjects, do not indicate the work of two different burins simply, they reveal a 
liberty of drawing incompatible with the fetters of a copy. A like circumstance 
unquestionably happened in connection with these drawings as frequently occurred 
in respect to MSS., before printing arrived to fix the tests. A first or original 
model served as a point de depart, and the artists who reproduced it, though seiz- 
ing fundamentals and numerous details, departed more or less from the primitive 
type, an occurrence attended with far less risk in the case of drawing, however, 
than as regarded texts. 

" A further proof that the two engravers copied a different model is the fact 
that in the edition of 1485, the first decade of the figures bears as a distinctive 
mark of the series the letter S, while in the other edition the letter E dis- 
tinguishes the like series. Now, this difference could not have been the result of 
chance nor of inadvertence on the part of the engraver, for had it been it would 
have appeared on two or three only of the subjects of the series, and not on the 
whole ten. 

"Another and a conclusive argument is this : while in the version of 1470 
nearly all the figures are turned towards the left of the spectator, in that of 1485 
they are directed to the right, yet the care which has been taken by both engravers 
to preserve the pre-eminence of the right over the left hand in its proper offices, 
shows that neither of these editions was copied one from the other. Thus, when 
the person represented uses a weapon or any other object which he should hold 
in the right hand, it is in this hand that the object is found in both versions, 
though the figure has a contrary direction in each engraving, and the reversal of 
position has bestowed occasionally a work of some difficulty on the draughtsman. 
It may be added, likewise, that several figures, though representing similar sub- 
jects, are of quite different designs in the two editions, nor are the accessories 
always the same. We believe, then, that we are justified in regarding these two 
editions as perfectly independent one of the other, and as owing their resem- 
blances to the primitive model only from which they originated. Nor is this model 
anterior to the engravings under consideration a chimera of our imagination, for 
we have already shown that the types followed by the engravers were common in 
the fifteenth century. As regards the question of priority of production rela- 
tive to these two versions, we leave that to competent judges to decide; it has 
been sufficient for our purpose to have demonstrated that the two engravers did 
not copy one from the other, but reproduced anterior or original designs, designs 
which could not be anything else than the Naibis cited by Morelli in 1393, as ob- 
jects for recreation fit to be used by children, and exempt from the chances of 
hazard." (Merlin, p. 78.) 

The writer above quoted has the following note at page 79> m reference to 
the question of priority of production, which is worthy of extract. 

" As a proof of the anteriority of the sequence which M. Duchesne supposes 
to be of the date 1470, that writer observes, that in this edition the figure of 
Arithmetic (25) reckons with counters, while in that of 148 5 this same figure 
holds a tablet containing the signs of numeration known as Arabic numbers. He 
adds : ' It is quite certain that when numerals were written with Roman figures, 
reckoning could be performed with counters only ; the use of Arabic numbers 
being more recent, they could not be indicated by the engraver before the time at 
which their employment had become general.' Notwithstanding our high esteem 
for the learned iconophilist whom we have cited, it is impossible for us to adopt 


his conclusion. In the first place, the introduction of Indian figures, known under 
the name of Arabic numerals, was long anterior to 1470? Further, the Arith- 
metic, to which he alludes, does not reckon with counters, she counts money in her 
hand, as may be readily seen. M. Duchesne has not borne in mind that calcula- 
tion with counters can be done only on a table and not in the hand, the value of 
the counters being subordinate to the respective places which they occupy on the 
table, and of which we retain the practice in marking games with counters." 

On a fly-leaf of the volume containing the present version are the following 
remarks in MS. : — 

" Query — if not Ant da Brescia." " Wanting Nos. 1 , 2,9, 49, 50." 
" Duchesne states that of two sets he had seen, Nos. 1 and 50 were wanting 
and supplied by facsimile drawings." 

In the Slade collection, forming part of the British Museum cabinet, there 
two pieces of the earlier edition (1470), and one of the second (1485). The 
former pieces are the Astrologia, xxxviiii, altered to 38 in the restoration 
of the right-hand lower corner, and the Octava spera, xxxxviii. — 48. The 
Astrologia is a remarkably fine and early impression, but the Octava spera is from 
a much-worn plate. 

The piece from the second edition (1485), is a fine early impression of bluish- 
grey tint of Sol, xxxxiiii. — 44. 

Besides these repliche there are other two pieces of the second edition, viz., 
the S Doxe, vii. — 7 an( ^ * ne C Loica, xxii. — 22. These pieces are fine 
and early states of bluish-grey tone, but having their surfaces worn and rubbed 
and being cut down to the innermost lines of the borders. The inscriptions and 
numbers are thus wanting. 

By measurement, these two pieces will be found to be slightly larger, particu- 
larly in length, than the engravings contained in the volume of the second edition, 
I. 2. This is due to the paper having been much damped to receive the im- 
pressions, and to the direction of the press or cylinder in motion having been that 
of the long axis of the plate. Careful comparison of these repliche with the other 
pieces in this volume will show that they are all from the same plates. 

In volume I. l ., containing the first edition, may be found a copy of the A 
Saturno, xxxxvij. — 47 of that series. 

This piece is comparatively of modern execution, and of inferior workman- 
ship. We assume it to be one of the " Copie du Jeu des 50 Tarots, par Hans 
Ladenspelder d'Essen," alluded to by Passavant, vol. v. p. 127. 

Passavant remarks : — " Although we have never met with an entire sequence, 
we have not any hesitation in believing that Ladenspelder engraved one. This 
copy was made from the original series {i.e. of 1470], and all the pieces have 
the same primitive border, a wound ribbon, the same inscriptions, the same 
numeration, and the distinctive letters from E to A. Some of the pieces have 
the mark of Ladenspelder, among others, Hope, Faith, the Sun, and Geometry, on 
which the monogram is inscribed on a tablet. The master of Essen has not 
imitated in the least the manner of the old engravers, but has used the burin in 
the style of the ' Little German masters,' with simple, very fine hatchings, and 
without much drawing power. The impression is not at all like that of the 
ancient cards — in pale ink — but in one of a decided black, though not heavily 
loaded" (p. 127). 

Johann or Hans Ladenspelder von Essen, a well-known engraver of the 
Lower Rhine school, was born in 1 5 1 1 ; the date of his death is unknown. (See 
Nagler, " Monogrammisten," vol. iii. n. 1520.) 


I- 3- 

{Prints of the early Italian School, vol. ii.) 


OUR cards of the numeral series of a tarots sequence, of which as 
yet but thirty-one pieces have been described. 

One card is the Cavallo di Danari. It is represented by a 
thick-set man with a buckler on his left arm, and mounted on 
horseback. He gallops towards the left. Part of the horse's mouth, chest, 
and nearly the whole of the forelegs are cut across by the boundary line of the 
engraving. Below the foot of the horseman, and at the left is the mark of the 
suit — Danari. At the upper right-hand comer is the title, Sarafino. 

A second card is the Fante di Danari. A young man stands erect, inclined 
backwards towards the left of the piece, directing his actions towards the right. 
Though his back touches the left-hand marginal border of the engraving, his 
right foot advances so far as to be within three-eighths of an inch of the right 
border. He holds a bird in his left hand, and points to the ground with the 
index finger of the right hand. On a large perch, projecting from the right of 
the engraving, is a hawk, the cord affixed to which is wound loosely round the 
perch. Below and between the right-hand border of the piece and the valet's 
left leg is the mark of the suit — Danari. Not any title is present. 

A third card is the Cavallo di Spade. It shows a young man on horseback, 
advancing towards the left, the right foreleg of the horse being cut across by the 
left marginal line of the engraving. The man holds with both hands a long 
drawn sword, as if about to strike some one on the ground. From his left side 
hangs the long sheath of the weapon. At the upper left-hand corner is the title 

The fourth piece is the Dama di Bastoni. A coroneted female is seated at 
the left hand in a throne-like chair. She raises her left hand, and is directed 
and looks towards the right. In her right hand she holds a baton-like sceptre, 
which she likewise supports by her right shoulder. At the upper right-hand 
corner is the title Palas. 

Of these designs the Fante di Danari is by far the best, and has some 
resemblance to the style of the Chavalier and Zintilomo in the previously 
described sequence, I. 1 . The technic of these pieces has a strong affinity with 
that of many of the prints ascribed to Baldini. There is, however, a grotesque- 
ness of design and want of proportion about some figures, and especially the 
horses, which do not say much for the artistic powers of their author. 

These four engravings are very interesting in some respects. They appear 
to form a portion of the set mentioned by Zani at p. 72 of his "Materiali," by 
Cicognara, p. 162, and by Passavant, vol. v. p. 127. 

The latter writer gives the following account of it under the title, " Venetian 
Tarot Cards of the year 1070, after the foundation of Venice" : — 

" The Count Cicognara in his memoirs on ' Nielli and Playing Cards,' alludes 
to a set of Venetian cards which Zani had met with at Naples dispersed in two 
collections, but of which a complete series (coloured), was preserved in the 
cabinet of the Marchioness Busca (born Duchess Serbelloni) at Milan, and some 


separate pieces in that of the Marquis Durazzo, at Genoa. Cicognara gives in his 
work, plates xii. and xiii., copies of seven of these cards, offering a fair idea of 
the manner in which they are engraved. He states afterwards that certain 
pieces of the series are numbered, while others bear the marks of the suit 
swords, money, and cups. He adds further that on the piece of Bacchus 
No. xiv., the following inscription may be read : ' Col permesso del Sent 
Veneto nelV anno ab urbe condita MLXX.' ; which would assign the execution 
these prints to the year 1 49 1 , if the date of the foundation of that city be take 
as a.d. 421, and not 453, as is usually done. 

" The design and composition of these cards is remarkable in this, that the 
actions of the figures and the play of the muscles have a certain exaggeration 
which so recalls the style of Pordenone, that in adopting the date 453 as that of 
the foundation of Venice, one would be tempted to refer their execution to 1523, 
if the details of costume — which latter is the end of the fifteenth century — did 
not fulfil better the conditions of the other hypothesis. 

"Further, the comparatively poor design and somewhat coarse technical 
execution by means of oblique hatchings, correspond better with the work of the 
first epoch of Mantegna. 

"We have seen twenty pieces of this series in the Albertine collection 
Vienna, these came from the cabinet of Count Fries ; three other pieces in 
the cabinet of the Baron de Haus, in the same city, eventually passing into the 
Imperial Library, and four others in the British Museum at London. Neverthe- 
less, we could not maintain that all these cards belonged to one and the same 
edition, though they are of similar dimensions and treated in a like style, since 
some might be copies only, as would appear to be actually the case with respect 
to the two numbers 14 afterwards described, and which differ from each 

" Although Cicognara saw at Naples and Milan two complete series of these 
cards, he gives but an incomplete account of their number, contours, figures, and 
design. We would observe only that if the figure of Panfilio be marked with the 
number 1, it may show that the pieces before us formed part of a Ginoco del 
Fante di Spada, in which, according to the Venetian custom, this card is the 
highest of all the pieces. 

" As far as we can judge from the thirty-one cards known to us, there should 
be twenty numbered figures, while the other cards (king, queen, knight, and 
knave) bore the marks of the suits of spade, coppe, danari, and bastoni." (Pass., 
vol. v. pp. 127-129.) 

[Si X 2f- in.] [Backs plain.] 

I. 4. 


TAROTS 1 pack, representing the old Venetian tarots set of twenty- 
two atutti, combined with the full numerals, fifty-six in number, 
i. e. seventy-eight in toto. As here arranged, the true tarots 
series is the last series in the book. It begins with "Le Fol," 
unnumbered as usual, followed by "Le Bateleur," Number i., and terminating 
in the typical manner with "Le Monde," xxi. Each emblematic card follows 

1 The force and meaning of the words tarot and tarots are fully considered 
antea, p. 19, and under French " Cards of Divination," postea. 


exactly the common old titles and sequences, as are given by Merlin, p. 32. 
Each of the tarots is numbered at the top in Roman numerals, and has the title 
below the design. 

The numeral suits are of the marks always accompanying the old Italian com- 
bined tarots sets, viz. coppe (here coupes), danari (deniers), bastoni (baston), and 
spade (spee). Each suit has here of course an additional coate card or honour — 
the chevalier — in accordance with the rule of this typical series. Each numeral 
card has the number of its value marked in Roman characters at the sides. The 
coat-cards have their titles inscribed below the designs. On the two of coupes — 
here the first card in the arrangement — is the following inscription at the lower 
portion : Tarochi Fini Di Francesco Berti in Bologna. 

On the two of deniers is inscribed " Carte Fine " within an ornamental scroll 
connecting the marks of the suit, while on the four of deniers is " Al Leone " on 
a tablet in the centre, on which is likewise a large bird pecking the ground. 

The back of each card in all the series has a full-length figure of a man with 
a turban, and in Oriental dress. He holds by the tail a live bird in his left hand, 
and a dead bird, apparently, in his right. This figure, printed in black, is relieved 
from off a ground watered or clouded in rose-madder colour. Below it in a 
margin retained for the purpose is the address al leone. 

The whole of the designs, which are from wood-blocks, are of the commonest 
and coarsest character. The colouring is in keeping with the rest. 

This series of cards is noteworthy, as illustrating the following remarks of 
Taylor, Bibl. 9, ix. p. 229. 

" With regard to the tarots, it is singular that so many of the packs, no 
matter where manufactured, bear French titles, some of them, as we have seen, of 
very barbarous orthography. A pack, however, in our own possession, inscribed 
on the deuce of cups, Fabbricatore Gumppenberg, and on the backs of the cards, 
which are tarottes in blue, l in Milano] has the titles in Italian, corresponding 
with those of the French pack of 1 500." 

In the set under notice, the titles of all the atutti are in French, e.g. Le 
Bateleur, La Imperatrice, Le Empereur, Le Ermite, &c. The same is the case 
as respects the honours of the numeral series, as, e.g. Valet de Spee, Reine de 
Spee, Roy de Spee. 

These cards are stiffly mounted, and like those of many Italian packs, have 
the paper of their backs turned over the edges of the front so as to form a border. 

[3 J X if- in.] [Backs figured and coloured.] 

I- 5- 


PACK of seventy-eight cards, representing the old Venetian 
tarots, i. e. twenty-two atutti and fifty-six numerals. There are 
four honours in each suit, which latter are coppe, danari, spade, 
and bastoni. 
The emblematic figures or true tarots are numbered at the tops in Roman 

numerals, and have the titles below the designs in the Italian language, 

viz.: 1. II Bagattello ; 2. La Papessa; 3. LTmperatrice ; 4. L'Imperatore ; 

5. II Papa; 6. Gli Amanti; 7. I Carro ; 8. La Giustizia; 9. L'Eremita; 10. 

Ruot. dellaFor; 11. La Forza; 12. L'Appeso ; 13. Without title (Death); 

14. La Temperanza; 15. II Diavolo ; 16. La Torre; 17. Le Stelle; 18. La 


Luna ; 19. II Sole ; 20. II Giudizio ; 2 1 . II Mondo. II Matto is without 

The honours bear the titles: Re di Danari, Reg. di Danari, Caval di 
Dinari, Fan di Danari. 

Re di Spade, Reg di Spade, Caval di Spade, Fante di Spade, Re di Bastoni, 
Reg di Bastoni, Cav. di Bastoni, Fan di Bastoni, Re di Coppe, Reg di Coppe, 
Caval di Coppe, Fante di Coppe. 

On the Re di Bastoni is the address Gius e Felice Rossi, and the govei 
ment stamp, bearing the divided crown of Austria, beneath which is : F. 1 . c. V 

On the two of coppe may be read " Nuova Fab di Milano," and on numbe 
iii. of the tarots series, " L'Imperatrice," " Tarocco Fino." 

The designs and execution of these cards are common and coarse. The 
backs are stamped in blue with a lace-work-like ornament, below which is 
inscribed E di Milano. 

[3t x l h1 [Backs decorated.] 

I. 6. 



MODERN pack of sixty-two cards, viz., twenty-two atutti and forty 
numerals, being a perfect set representing the game known as the 
old Tarocchino of Bologna. 

This version of the tarots game is stated by Cicognara and others 
to have been invented in Bologna at the end of the fourteenth or beginning of 
the fifteenth century, by Francesco Anteminelli Castracani Fibbia, Prince of 
Pisa, who was an exile in that city, and died there in 1419. 

The game of tarocchino differs from the typical Venetian tarots series in the 
number of the numeral cards. In the former, the two, three, four, and five of each 
suit are suppressed, thus reducing the old Venetian sequence of seventy-eight cards 
to sixty -two. The true tarots, or atutti, are identically the same in number and, 
speaking generally, similar in design and subjects. In modern sets, however, a 
modification has been introduced which will be noticed presently. 

The authorities of Bologna were so well pleased with Fibbia's alteration of 
the Venetian game, that they allowed the prince the privilege of placing his owi 
shield of arms on the queen of bastoni, and that of his wife, who was of the Ben- 
tivoglio family, on the queen of danari, a distinction which, as Duchesne remarks, 
" should not prevent us from hoping that Francesco Fibbia, who had been general- 
issimo of the Bolognese troops, had rendered his country more important services 
than teaching it to play at tarocchino." (B. 2, p. 11.) 

In the pack before us the actual numeration of the atutti series begins with 
the emblem of love, or L 'Amoreux, as it is often written. This is marked with the 
Arabic numeral 5 at the upper left-hand and lower right-hand corners in reverse. 

The atutti continue to receive numbers up to the sixteenth card, L'Etoile. 

Not any titles nor names occur on the pieces, whether atutti or numerals. The 
peculiar numeration here practised agrees with the account given by Merlin, p. 
32. It receives an explanation in the circumstance that this modern pack of 
tarocchino cards has the four " Moor's heads or satraps " in lieu of the emblematic 
figures JJEmpereur, L ' Imperatrice, Le Pape, and La Papesse, which are present 

TAR0T8. 8i 

in the old Venetian tarots, and the old tarocchino cards of the Paris cabinet. In 
some still more recent tarocchino sets than the present series, the original emblems 
have been restored (Mitelli cards). 

" Several of these variations are due evidently to political circumstances. In 
1513 the republic of Bologna acknowledged the sovereignty of the Pope. It was 
probably after this revolution that the four figures of the tarots were displaced by 
the four Moors. Other variations have been due to mistakes of the engravers, 
while changes in costume occurring in time have produced the rest." (Merlin, 
p. 84.) 

All the figures in the present series, both atatti and numeral honours, are 
busts, printed double and in reverse on each piece. 

The numeral suits are of course coppe, danari, basto?ii, and spade. On the ace 
of danari, above and below the symbol of the suit, is a running hare looking be- 
hind her as she runs, backed by some bulrush-like plants. On the large central 
mark itself is a bust, like that on coins. The six of danari bears two government 
stamps, the upper one is inscribed l827» and has a baldacchino with two cross 
kevs below it; on the lower stamp is the word case (B), (3). The designs and 
execution of these cards are of the commonest character. The colouring is in 
keeping with the rest. 

The Matto or Fou of the atutti is a fancifully dressed man playing on a horn 
and a drum at the same time. The card intended here for the ace of spade is 
peculiar. It is probably a piece of a suit of hastoni crept in by mistake. 

The long narrow form of these cards is characteristic of a tarocchino pack. 
The backs are stamped in black with a large floriated or arabesque-like ornament, 
which is the best designed thing in the entire set. 

[4| x If in.] [Backs decorated.] 

I. 7 


(Il Giuoco del Tarocchino di Mitelli.) 

SET of sixty-two cards, viz., twenty-two atutti and forty numerals, 
representing the tarocchino of Bologna. The two, three, four, and 
five of each numeral suit are suppressed in accordance with the 
original game. 

These cards, well known as Mitelli's, had some repute in their day, and were 
included by Bartsch in his description of the works of this artist in the nine- 
teenth volume, p. 305, of " Le Peintre Graveur." 

Giuseppe Maria Mitelli was born at Bologna in 1 634, and died there in 171 8. 
He studied painting in the schools of Albano, Guercino, Torri, and Cantarini, was 
a proficient in music, and greatly addicted to hunting. Mitelli gave up much time 
to engraving, but his designs are — as observed by Bartsch — " more remarkable 
for their strange and sometimes ingenious character, than for the manner in which 
they are executed. The drawing is not always satisfactory, and the contours 
want in general purity and taste." — " The works of Mitelli are etched with a light 
point, but without much feeling, and from the openness of the technic, and 
the faintness of the shadows formed by simple or but rarely crossed lines, they 
have a cold look about them. They are, in fact, but designs sketched without 
force and efTVct, owing what merit they possess to the subjects they represent." 
(B. xix. p. 270.) 



According to Bartsch, the engravings of Mitclli, after the designs of Titian, 
Albano, Cagliari, and others, are not superior to those of his own designing. To 
this judgment objection may be taken. Some of the former are surely very much 
better than the execution of his own bizarre and grotesque compositions. Among 
the better of the latter and devoid of any extravagance are these designs for ;i s< i 
<.(■ tiiroccliino cards, engraved by Mitelli for one of the family of Bentivoglio. The 
copper-plates were still in the possession of the latter when Cicognara wrote, and 
who perceived on the designs: " tanta grazia, che pu6 dirsi una delle migliori 
sue produzioni, salvo quel po di manierato, del quale ogni opera dell' Arte 
comincio a risentirsi in quell' epoca" (p. 138). 

According to Cicognara, the Mitelli cards had become (1831) scarce, and in 
request by virtuosi. 

Of this series of tarocchino cards, the Museum possesses three distinct sets. 

Set A. — Italian School of Engraving. Worhs of Mitelli. 
(Vol. iii. Nos. 274 — 277, 308 and 309.) 

This is a proof set of impressions from six large plates, varying from 14 in. 
to 14^- in. in width, by 1 1 in. to llf- in. in height. The first or lower plate 
(275), contains ten of the atutti series of emblematic figures in the following 
order, beginning at the right-hand corner of the lower row : L'Empereur 
barbu, No. 2 ; L'Empereur imberbe, 3 ; Le Pape assis barbu, 4 ; Le Pape debout 
barbu, 5 ; L' Amour les yeux bandes, 6 ; Venus, 7 ; La Temperance, 8 ; La 
Justice, 9; La Force, IO; La Fortune, 11. The second or upper plate (274), 
contains ten other figures, viz. : Le Temps (veillard aile avec des bequilles), 1 2 ; 
Un homme qui va tuer avec un maillet un jeune homme endormi (Le pendu, le 
traitre), 13 ; La Mort, 14 ; Le Diable, 15 ; Un homme frappe de la foudre, 16 ; 
Un chiffonier et au ciel une etoile (L'Etoile), 1 7 ; Diane et la lune au ciel (La 
Lune), 18 ; Appollon (Le Soleil), 19; Atlas (Le Monde), 20; Un ange sonnant 
de la trompette (Le Jugement Dernier), 21, 

Each of these plates of unseparated card pieces bears at the upper margin 
the inscription, " Gioco di carte di Tarocchini," and at the lower margin at 
the right-hand corner, " Gioseppe Maria Mitelli, Inv. diss. e. Int.'''' 

The third plate (276), contains (commencing at the left-hand corner of the 
upper row), Le Fou qui Saute, Le Bataleur qui joue du tambour de basque l . 
Then follow the figure cards or honours of the numeral series in the following 
order after Le Bataleur : Roi d'Epees, Roi de Batons, Roi de Deniers, Roi de 
Coupes, Reine d'Epees, Reine de Batons, Reine de Deniers, and Reine de Coupes. 

The fourth plate (308), contains ten honours in the following order, com- 
mencing at the upper row, left-hand corner : Cavalier d'Epees, Cavalier de Batons, 
Cavalier de Deniers, Cavalier de Coupes, As d'Epees, Cavalier d'Epees, Cavalier de 
Batons, Valet de Deniers, Valet de Coupes, As de Batons. On a scroll on the As 
d'Epees is the motto, " Custody Custos." On the As de Batons is " Ardua 

Both these plates have inscriptions on the margins like to those previously 

The fifth plate (277), contains eleven numeral pieces, viz., the as, six, seven, 
eight, nine, and ten of coupes, and the six, seven, eight, nine, and ten of batons. 
The as de coupes is rather an elegant design, having on it the arms of the 
Bentivoglio family. The designs of the cups on the other cards are all of 
different character to each other. 

The sixth plate (309), contains eleven numeral pieces of the suits deniers 
and epees. The ace of deniers bears a female bust in an oval shield, below which 
on a pedestal is the address, " Gioseppe Maria Mitelli Inv. Dis. e. Int." 


The symbols of the six of deniers bear birds, those of the seven, grotesque 

lasques, the eight and nine male and female heads. On the ten of deniers are 

small, full-length figures in various actions, such as painting, fencing, shooting, 

fiddling, &c. Both plates bear inscriptions similar to those on the other 


This particular set is interesting, as showing the actual sequence in which 
the pieces were executed, and being uncut and uncoloured, admits of a full 
appreciation of such merits as the designs in it possess. Cicognara remarks : — 

" A. Bentivoglio caused it to be engraved, and in this family are preserved 
the worn plates. The emblems of the armorial bearings of the Bentivoglios may 
be seen on many of the cards, and in particular the queen of Danari has all the 
ornamental portions of her dress cut like a saw, which was the original arms of 
this signiority." (Bibl. 5, p. 138.) 

To the writer above quoted, and to Merlin (Bibl. 6, p. 1 28), reference may 
be made for further information. 

Set |3. — Tarocchino di Hitelli. 

A pack (62), of the tarocchino cards of Mitelli before described. This set 
is bound up as a book lettered "Playing Cards, Bologna." The pieces are 
coloured, but in general less carefully and less appropriately than in the set 
presently to be noticed. The tarots emblematic figure of La temperance is 
uncoloured. The atutti series is placed last in the book, and follows a some- 
what irregular sequence. The first card of the whole series is here the as 
de deniers, on which, engraved on a pedestal, is the address : " Gioseppe Maria 
Mitelli Inv. Dis. e. Int." 

Set y. — Tarocchino di Mitelli. 

A pack (62) of the tarocchino cards of Mitelli. This set is contained in the 
original case, lettered : " Mitelli. Carte del Taroc." 

The cards are well and carefully coloured. Each piece has the margin edged 
with a yellow border formed by the overlapping edges of the back-mounting paper 
of the card. 

The as de deniers bears the usual address : " Gioseppe Maria Mitelli Inv. 
Dis. e. Int." 

\_4f X 2 in.] [Backs plain in all the sets.] 

Among the works of Mitelli (vol. iii.), are three pieces, representing scenes 
connected with playing-cards. 

No. 227. — A party of four persons is here represented, seated at a table and 
playing at cards. Twelve others are variously disposed, looking on. Diamonds 
are being played. On the floor lie some upturned cards ; on a perch, projecting 
from the wall on the left, sits an owl ; opposite is another bird (? a raven) ; 
between these are three birds of nondescript character. Two dogs are snarling 
at each other in the foreground. The centre scene is treated in a grotesque and 
comic manner. At the upper portion of the print is the inscription : " Conver- 
sacione Considerable." 

At the lower left-hand corner is the address: " Pietro de Rossi inv." ; and at 
the right-hand corner Mitelli's name, though barely visible. 

[l6f X 10 in.] 

No. 243. — Two persons are represented seated at an oval table, engaged with 
cards. The numeral suit danari is being played. The three of danari lies up- 
turned on the table, and the person on the left hand is about to play the five of 
this suit. Cards of the latter (some of which are torn in half) and of bastoni are 



on the table, along with four dice, counters, and a tray. On the floor lie to 

At the top of the plate is No. $ I at the bottom are two verses of four 
lines each in Italian, showing that a lazy man would gamble away even 
patrimony of the sun. 

The address of Mitelli is at the lower right-hand corner, and the date 1 6 
on the support of the- bench upon which the man on the left is sitting. 

A point worthy of notice in connection with this print is the circumstance, 
that although Mitelli made himself well-known by his cards for the game of 
tarocchino, the game here' being played is a different one, since the small cards 
which are suppressed in the former are being employed. 

[llf X 8f in.] 

No. 256. — A gambler is represented holding up in his right hand a pack of 
cards, with the six of danari exposed. He points with his left hand to a table, on 
which are cards, counters, dice, and money, together with trays and dice-boxes. 

On the floor lie cards of various suits, and balls and racket for playing tennis. 
On the wall hangs a racket, and three instruments with which gambling may be 

At the upper right-hand corner of the print is the number 9. In the lower 
margin are two verses of four lines each, in Italian, one verse purporting to be 
spoken by a gambler and one by Death : the former telling how play has always 
been his delight, and that without being a Jew, he could live on usury ; the 
latter replying that if by gambling a fortune may sometimes be gained, it generally 
follows that the player loses his soul. 

Immediately above the verse of the " Giuocatore" is the address of Mitelli. 
[10{-X 7| m.] 

I. 8. 


SERIES of diminutive cards, thirty-eight in number. It is composed 
of an aiutti suit (twenty-two), and the sixteen figure cards belonging 
to the numeral suits, apparently of a tarocchino sequence. 

The latter may be inferred from the circumstance that two Moors, 
or satraps, displace Le Pape and La Papessc in the atutti suit. 

The designs and execution are of common character; the pieces are un- 

I 1 tV x 4r m [Backs plain.] 



I. 9. 


SERIES of twenty-nine numerals from a pack of fifty- two Venetian 

The suits are coppe, danari, spade, and bastoni. 
The most complete suit is that of spade, which wants the seven, 
nine, and cavallo. Judging from the figure cards of the suit bastoni, which are 
re, cavallo, and /ante, there was not any queen admitted into this pack, probably 
from some Spanish influence or fashion prevailing at the time the cards were 
designed. Nevertheless, this exception may be due only to the " honours " of a 
tarots sequence having been taken, and the cavallo in lieu of the queen retained 
without any specific intention. 

On the two of spade is the following address : ■ " Mottavio Cartoler in Piazza 
di San Marco Tien i^. in segna La Perleta." 

The ace of spade bears the motto : " Di Spada Ben Gioca Chi Vince" on a 
tablet in the centre of the card. 

On the ace of coppe is the motto : " Chi Coppe Havera Dinari Trovera." 

The kings are full-length figures, seated, bearing a sceptre in their left hands, 
and the symbol of the suit in the right. The /ante of spade is an executioner, 
haying the sword in his right hand, and a decapitated head in his left. 

Though the designs and execution of these cards are coarse and common- 
place, yet from the mode of colouring which has been followed — bad as it is — », 
a kind of richness of effect is produced, characteristic of the Venetian school of 

Merlin reproduces on the cover of his book (Bibl. 6) : " Les deux parties 
de l'enveloppe d'un jeu du seizieme siecle a la perletta." It is evidently 
Venetian. The present pack was sold at the sign of " La perleta" 

[3f x H in -] [Backs plain.] 

I. IO. 


PACK of fifty-two numeral cards, having as the marks of the suits 
danari, bastoni, coppe, and spade. 

As in the previous set, a eavallo displaces the queen, and t\\efante 
of spade is an executioner. 
In the centre of the two of spade is the following inscription : " Al Aquila 
Coronata in Padova per Vicenza." 



Within a tablet on the ace of bastoni is the motto : " Non ti fidar di me 
il cor ti manca." 

On the backs of these cards is a full-length figure in outline printed in 
carmine ink. It represents a minstrel playing a guitar. 

The designs and execution of this pack are in all respects of the most infei 
character. Several of the inscriptions are quite undecipherable. In connection 
with these, however, plate 29 of Merlin's work should be consulted, where a 
" Jeux a deux Tetes de Vicence, 1 602," is represented having mottoes like 
present series. 


x 1 


[Back decorated with a figure.] 



1 1 


(Geographic and Heraldic.) 

SERIES of sixty-two cards, viz., twenty-two atutti and forty numerals. 
It represents a comparatively modern version of the tarocchino of 
Bologna. Originally the two, three, four, and five of the numeral 
suits were suppressed (as in modern piquet), but in the present 
sequence they exist, while the seven, eight, nine, and ten of each suit are 

A marked feature of the present series is the intention of it to impart instruc- 
tion. Each tarots card has a geographic table engraved on it. Above this 
table is the particular emblematic tarots device, e. g., Love, Justice, Force, &c, 
with a letter of the alphabet at the left-hand corner. The number of the tarots 
card is on the left-hand side, at the top of the geographic table. The matto, 
or fool, has the letter O and the number 22 above a table of the '* Jtegni dell 
Europa, e citta Regie.'''' 

In the numeral cards, the place occupied in the atutti by the geographic 
table is filled with shields of armorial bearings. The latter are numbered, 
No. 1 being on the queen of swords, 175 on the ace of clubs. Above the shields, 
in separate compartments, are the marks of the suits, which are here money, cups, 
swords, and clubs. 

The honours are indicated by busts, the marks of the suits being sometimes 
at the left-hand, sometimes at the right-hand corner. 

On the ace of cups (No. of shield 174) is the inscription : In vece del 7, 
8, 9, IO di Coppe, si prende il 2, 3, 4, 5 e cost di tutti, and on the shield, 
" Libertas." 

On the ace of clubs (No. of shield 175) is — Si da Lelio dall 
volpe ; while the ace of money offers — L'arme sono delli SS r% . Anziani del 1670 
smo al 1725. 


The ace of danari is here the first card in the series, and has on the shield 
(No. 175) the cross argent of Savoy. 

The cards of the atutti series are impressions from engraved metal plates ; the 
numerals are from wood. The devices and symbols of both are coloured, but the 
shields on the numerals have been printed off simply in black. Most of the 
pieces have either dots or ornamental figures on their faces, printed off in 
red ink. 

On the verso of each card is an impression of an allegorical figure holding a 
shield, chequered, in her left hand, and a spear in the right. She is seated, and 
looking towards the ground. The various portions of the figure are numbered 
up to twelve, and below, on the pedestal, is the inscription, " Divisione dell' 
Europa." This figure is from an engraving on wood, and is on all the pieces, 
both atutti and numerals. It is uncoloured. 

We presume it is to these cards, and to the book which was published with 
them, that Cicognara alludes in the following paragraph (Bibl. 5, p. 138) : — 

" A short digression relative to what occurred at Bologna in 1725 ma y not 
be out of place. A little book was there published, intitled, ' L'utile col diletto 
ossia Geografia intrecciata nel Giuoco dei Tarocchi,' dedicated to the Marquis 
Gio. Paolo Pepoli, and issued with the permission of the Archbishop and of the Holy 
Office. Nevertheless, the little work was severely anathematised a few days 
afterwards by Cardinal Ruffo, the Papal Legate, by order of the Court of Rome, 
and the unfortunate game at cards ran a sort of human political career at this 
epoch, when thoughts and dreams were not wont to be so severely scrutinized as 
is the case at present. A certain Luigi Montier wrote the dedication of the 
work, which is composed of twelve pages of text and twenty-two cards, along 
with those of the tarocchi already known. Certainly the adulations of the 
writer are not to be admired, who imitates the French not only in their invention 
of games, but likewise in their style of dedicatory address : ' Dedicated to the 
most glorious King Louis XIV. the Great. I dedicate it,' adds the author, ' to 
you, most noble Signior, as to a person of blood and royal mind, and as it appears 
suitable to do so to a monarch of a most flourishing kingdom, and to a conqueror 
of so many provinces, so does it seem proper to do likewise to a Signior of high 
and noble race, and to a cavalier who has travelled over so many parts of the 
world. In the cards dedicated to him we may see those kingdoms, empires, and 
states, in which from the high prerogatives of his spirit and mind more wonders 
have arisen than we have been accustomed to observe in other places,' &c. 

" But such bombast, very common at that age, and indeed too frequent 
at all times in which meanness and hypocrisy are the roads to reward, honours, 
and place, though able clearly to excite a little envy or jealousy, did not neces- 
sarily lead to such violent anathemas. 

" On reading the text, geography and heraldry were found to be applied to 
the game of cards, and in the divisions of the four quarters of the world, indicated 
below the symbols of the tarocchi, stood some elementary geographic notices in 
the form under which, in a table of pedigrees, the noble arms of the Bolognese 
nobility are printed, and those families who had been Confalionieri countersigned 
with an asterisk." 

[4|- X 2\ in.] [Backs decorated with a figure.] 




I. 12. 


(Geographic and Heraldic.) 

SERIES of fifty-nine cards from a tarocchino pack, intended to answer 
the purposes of instruction in geography and heraldry, as well as 
of ordinary play. 

Three coat-cards are wanting in the numeral suit bastoni. 
These cards form a duplicate set of I. 11. They resemble the latter in 
respects but the following circumstance. In the present series the backs of the 
cards are marked with ten shields, representing the various blazon colours anc 
metals by the respective lines and dots always adopted in such cases. The 
lowing inscriptions are contained in five scrolls between the shields of tl 
colours : — 

Azuro. Oro. Rosso. 

Verde. Argento. Porporin. 

Armelind. Nero. Varri. 

The numbers attached to the shields in this and the previous pack may be 
presumed to refer to the descriptive account alluded to by Cicognara. The 
pieces are coloured after the method adopted in I. 11. 

These cards are contained in the original case, which is lettered, " Montieri 
Carte del Taroc." 


x i\ 


[Backs decorated with shields.] 

I. 13- 



(Heraldic, Historic, Geographic.) 

SERIES of fifty-two cards of the suits piques, trefles, carreaux, and 
cceu?s. The pieces are bound up with an explanatory text, the 
whole being intended to afford instruction in heraldry, geography, and 
history. The volume is lettered : fine. Giuoco D'Armi napoli. 
1677. The card pieces are from engraved metal plates, and are uncoloured. 

The original character of this series may be gleaned satisfactorily from the 
following observations of Taylor (Bibl. 9, p. 197). 

" A pack of heraldic cards by M. Claude Oronce Fine, dit de Brianville, with 
a small l2mo. volume as a guide, was published at Lyons in 1659, probably 
executed for Desmarests, as in a later edition there is printed as an appendix, 
together with the letters patent before-mentioned, a transfer of his privilege, 


dated 13th May of that year, to Benoist Coral, Mavcband Libraire at Lyons, in 
so far as relates to the Cartes tie Blason. The title of this edition, which is the 
only one we have been able to consult, is ' Jen d'Armoiries des Sovverains et 
Kstats d'Europe, pour apprendre le Blason et la Geographie et l'Histoire curieuse. 
A Monseigneur le Dauphin. Par M. de Brianville, Abbe de S. Benoist le 
Quincay lez Poitiers. A Lyon, chez Benoist Coral, rue Merciere, a la Victoire, 
1 672. Avec Privilege du Roy.' l 

" The author commences with an advertisement to the reader, in which, 
after professing his obligations to Menestrier and others for their assistance and 
advice, he gives the following remarks and instructions on the method of play : — 

" ' The method of playing this game does not differ from that adopted with 
the ordinary cards, there being the same numbers of cards and the same points. 
The only change made is that of valet and ace into prince and chevalier, which is 
done to prevent any misconstruction {pour eviter tout equivoque)? 

" ' The games of Here, Malcontant, or Coucou, are the most suitable, because, 
being the easiest, they are not so likely to divert the attention needed for the 
blazonry, geography, and history. The players range themselves around a table 
covered with a map of Europe, and after the cards are dealt and exchanged to 
every one's satisfaction, the lowest pays according to the laws of Here. He who 
is first then describes the blazonry of the card 3 he holds, forfeiting one if he 
makes an error, either to the player who corrects him, or to the bank, if there is 
one. The next highest then follows suit, and so on through all the rest. The 
first round being completed, they then proceed to the second, describing this 
time the geography of each card, and forfeiting points for mistakes as before. At 
the third round they take the history in the same manner.' He recommends 
that at first only the blazon should be attempted, as the game can be played in 
each division separately, as well as in all three collectively. 

" The cards are divided into the four suits, caiurs, trejles, piques, and carreaux, 
distinguished respectively by the armorial bearings of the kingdoms, provinces, 
and great dignitaries of France, Italy, the North (le Nort), and Spain. The 
honours of course contain the most exalted, the King of Great Britain appearing 

as the prince (knave) of the spade, or Northern suit The geographical 

and historical lessons are very concise and comprehensive, the former giving the 
latitude, boundaries, chief towns, &c, and the latter entering minutely into the 
descent of the house whose arms are represented. 

" One can easily see that the utile in games like this predominates very mate- 
rially over the dulce, and it was doubtless deemed a very sorry recreation by the 
royal urchin for whose edification it was devised." 

Nevertheless, this historico-heraldic game was patronised, and was imported 

1 We are indebted for the loan of this rare little work to the valuable heraldic 
library of A. W. Morant, Esq., C.E., of Great Yarmouth. Notices of other edi- 
tions will be found in the Bibliographical Appendix. In these, De Brianville is 
otherwise styled " Mont-Dauphin," and " Conseiller et armoirier du Roy." The 
third edition (1665) is dedicated " A son Altesse Royale de Savoye." (Note in 
Taylor, op. cit.) 

2 An explanation of this expression, very characteristic of the times, is given 
by Singer. The aces and valets, it appears, bore in the first edition the arms of 
certain princes and nobles. This being considered offensive to their dignity, the 
plates were seized by the magistrates, and only restored on condition that princes 
and knights should be substituted. (See on this point " The Herald and 
Genealogist," vol. iii. p. 74. 1866.) 

3 As this could not be done without considerable acquaintance with heraldry, 
a M. Gauthier devised, in 1686, a new pack of heraldic cards, to serve the pur- 
pose of a kind of grammar of the science. 



into Naples in 1677, by Antonio Bulifon. Here Don Annibale Acquavn 
established a society under the name of " ArmerisW' 1 to play at blazon, it 
device being a map of Europe, with the motto : " Pulchra sub imagine Ludi.' 

At Naples, Bulifon published an Italian version of the cards, and the b( 
of instruction edited by Giustiniani, of which the series now before us is 
example, cards and book being bound up together. The collective work 
the following title : "Giuoco D'Armi Dei Sovrani E Stati D'Europa per Apprei 
dere L'Armi, la Geografia, e l'Historia, loro curiosa. Di C. Oronce Fine, detto 
Di Brianville. Tradotto dal Francese in Italiano & accresciuto di molte aggiunte 
necessarie per la perfetta cognitione della Storia. Da Bernardo Giustiniani 
Veneto. In Napoli 1677 Appresso Antonio Bulifon All' Insegna della Sirena 
con lie. e Privil." 

To this volume of 360 pages there are appended the " Lettera di Alessandro 
Parthenio intorno alia Societa de gli Armeristi et ad un Giuoco detto Lo Spen- 
dore della nobilta Napoletana ascritta ne' cuique Leggi. In Napoli 1678, Aj 
presso Antonio Bulifon." 

In respect to the conversion of the valet and ace into prince and chevalie 
alluded to by Taylor, Chatto (B. 4, p. 1 50), remarks : — 

" Les as et les valets were represented by the arms of certain princes an( 
nobles. Now, as this was evidently a breach of etiquette and a derogation of 
heraldic nobility, Mons. de Brianville, like Mr. Anstis, does not seem to have 
rightly understood his own 'foolish business.' The plates were seized by the 
magistrates." .... " Lord Chesterfield is reported to have said to Anstis on 
one occasion, when the latter was talking to him about heraldry: — 'You silly 
man, you do not understand your own foolish business.' " 

Though each card has a mark of its suit with the value on it at the left-hand 
upper corner, we presume not any person would attempt to use the set as 
ordinary playing-cards. 

The rot de trejles — the first card — bears the arms of Pope Innocent XI. 
la dame de trejles — the second — has the arms of Naples. Some of the pieces 
have not less than three shields on them, with a description of their blazon in 
Italian below. 

Following the " Licenze di Superiori Ecclesiastici " to this Neapolitan version 
is an engraved sheet, exhibiting the " Primi Elementi o Principy dell' Armi," 
illustrated with above sixty small shields, representing the various quarterings, 

This series, as it exists in the form of a large duodecimo volume, is 5 in. X 
3|- in. The card-plates are : 

[3f X 2 f in -] [Backs plain.] 

I. 13. 2. 


(Heraldic, &c.) 

LATER edition of the series last described. It is in the form of a 
bound duodecimo volume, printed at Naples in 1692, by Giacomo 
Raillard, who dedicates it: "All' illustriss. Signore D. Paolo Mattia 
Doria Nobile Genovese," &c. " Di Napoli a di I. di Febrajo 1692." 
Following the dedication is the third division only of the engraved sheet of the 
" Primi Elementi o Principy dell Armi," &c, present in I. 1 3. Next to this 


comes " Istruzioni per lo Giuoco." After certain poetic laudatory addresses and 
epigrams, is printed the original " licenza de Superiori " of the edition of 1677 
(I. 13) signed by the Vicar General: "Fr. Scanegata — Joseph imperialis Soc. 
Jesu Theol. Emin." This is followed by the request of Raillard to the Cardinal 
Caracciolo, Archbishop of Naples, for permission to reprint the edition previously 
authorised : " Excellentiss. Signore. — Giacomo Raillard supplicando espone a 
V E come desidera far stampare un libro intitolato, Giuoco oV Arme de' Sourani 
d 1 Europa, supplica V E per le solite Regie licenze e 1' havera a grazia, ut Deus, 
&c. R. D." 

The former censorship of the Apostolic prothonotary, Pompejus Sarnellius, 
is referred to, and thus confirmed : 

Visa supra dicta relatione, Imprimatur, et in 
publicatione servetur Regia Pragmatica. 
Galeota Reg. Carillo Reg. Cala Reg. Soria Reg. 


Reimprimatur die 28 Januarii 1692. Moles Reg. Montecorvinus." 

The first piece in the series is the Re dijiori, having on it the arms of Pope 
Innocent XII. (Pignatelli), below which is the description : " Campo di Oro con 
tre pentole in mezzo, o vero Pignate nere, due sopra et una sotto in triangolo. 
Lo Scudo coronato della Tiara, et ornato delle due chiavi della Santa Sede." 

The Giuoco oV Arme is followed, as in the former edition, by the Lettera di 
Alessandro Partenio intorno alia Societa Degli Armeristi, &c. 

The number of pages of the Giuoco oV Arme is here 285, in the former edition 
it is 262. 

The card-pieces are uncoloured. 

[Size of page, 4f X 2f- in.] [Backs plain.] 

I. 14. 



SERIES of fifty-two card-pieces of the suits cmurs, piques, trefles, and 
carreaux, intended to afford instruction in heraldry and history. 

This set is composed of the card-pieces only of the edition of the 
Giuoco a" Arme just described (I. 13, 2). The impressions have 
been worked off on very thin paper, and cut down close upon the border lines. 
The first piece — the king of clubs— -bears the arms with the three black pots 
of Pope Innocent XII., as in the edition of 1692 (I. 13, 2). Not any book or 
separate text accompanies this series. It is uncoloured, and the impressions are 
sharper and earlier than those of I. 13, 2. 

It is evident that there were several editions of this heraldic series ; a still 
later one than that of 1692 was printed at Naples in 1725 by Paolo Petrini. 

" The arms of the Pojoe in this are — Sbarra con una Serpe in campo d' Oro 
sopra una rosa in campo* d' Argento, sotto 4 Sbarre a traverso rosse in campo 
d' Argente. The first mentioned Sbarra is a fess, the campo a" Argento a chief; 
the lower half of the shield is engraved as if it were (in English blazon) Gules 
three bendlets argent. These were the arms of Pope Benedict XIII. (Ursini) 

" The arms of the Pope were evidently changed for every reign, but no other 



alteration appears to have been made for the several editions." (" Herald and 
Genealogist," vol. 3, p. 75.) 

The edition of 1 725 is supplemented by a geographical discourse from Michele 
Angelo Petrini. 

An interesting and instructive commentary on these and some other historic 
and heraldic cards may be found in " The Herald and Genealogist," vol. iii. p. 6* 
1866. (Sec postea, F. 79, 2.) 

[3J. x 2 in.] [Backs plain.] 

I. 14. 2. 

(Printed Books Department, Royal or Kiiig's Library, 269. c. 31.) 


BOUND duodecimo volume of 440 pages of text, combined with 
numeral series of fifty-two card-pieces and other plates of illustratioi 
The whole is intended to afford information on heraldry. 

This series is based on the design of Brianville (I. 1 3. 1. 1 3. 2, F. 72. 
2), and is meant to illustrate the armorials of the Venetian nobility. The author 
of this adaptation was Casimir Freschot, a Benedictine. The title-page of the worl 
bears the following inscription : " Li Pregi Delia Nobilta Veneta abbozzati in un 
Giuoco D' Arme di tutte le Famiglie. Presentato al Serenissimo Principe, et 
Eccellentiss. Senato Da D. Casimiro Freschot. B. In Venezia, M.DC.LXXXII. 
Appresso Andrea Poletti — con Licenza de' Superiori." 

In the " Notitia Succinta Del Blasone, 6 Arte Araldica," which prefaces the 
armorial, the author remarks : " Ho seguitato nel mio Giuoco 1' ordine del Signor 
Oronce Fine Gentilhomo francese nel suo Giuoco de Principi e Stati Sovrani 
D' Europa cogliendo di piu. la congiuntura di esporre tutte le specie di Scudi, ed 
aceompagnamenti di essi, che si trovano piu. usitati, tanto Ecclesiastici quanto 
Laici, tanto d' huomini quanto di Donne," &c. (p. 1 1). 

Following the " Notitia " is a chapter, " Dell' Origine Delia Nobilta Veneta 
in generale," which is succeeded by the armorial proper. 

The signs of the suits are here viola, rosa, giglio, and tulipano, on the marks 
of which are placed letters (R D P) to indicate the coat-cards, and numbers to 
determine the values. 

For the four kings, the dignities of the pope, emperor, king, and doge are 
taken ; for the queens, the armorials of princesses and provinces ; and for the 
princes, the foreign nobility, aggregated to that of Venice. Cavaliers represent 
the aces, which illustrate the generals of the armies of the Republic. 

The first card-piece in the series is the king of violets, on which are the arms 
of Pope Eugenio IV., of Cardinal Barbarigo, and of the Duke of Parma. On the 
coat-cards there are generally four shields of arms ; on the pip pieces as many as 
seven. All the armorials, which have been printed off* on thin paper, are carefully 
and distinctly engraved, and are uncoloured. The full page of the volume 
measures 5^ X 3 in. 

[Card-plate, 4| X 2 J- in.] 

[Backs plain.] 



S. 15. 


^^f ORTY-EIGHT cards of a pack of fifty-two Spanish numerals. 
They are of the usual suits in the cards of Spain, viz., bastos, 


\pi Zs|3£f^i oros, copas, and espadas. 

The valet, or sota, and eight of copas are wanting, as are 
likewise the four and five of oros. 

From the circumstance of the suits of bastos and espadas each 
being complete — thirteen in number — and from all the four tens being present, it 
is assumed that the set consisted originally of fiftytwo numerals, though the actual 
number of the cards present, and the substitution of a caballo for a dame, might at 
first sight lead to the idea that the set under notice was an ordinary or typical 
Spanish one, especially as the marks of the suit are quite of the Spanish 
character. On the ace of oros is a shield with the Spanish arms, and the motto, 
" Rex Carolus. Dei Gratia Rex Hisbania." Below is the address : Iehan 

On the three of bastos are the initials, I V, and on the valet of the same suit 
is Iehan Volay between the legs of the figure. 

On the four of copas are I. V in the centre, connected by an ornamental band. 
Between the marks of the suit on the two of espadas is Iehan Volay ; on the five 
of the same suit is inscribed " Faictes a Tiers," while on the valet of espadas the 
name of Iehan Volay is again repeated. 

The designs on these cards are almost exactly such as are given by Merlin, in 
plates 30, 31, A Bj as belonging to the "Cartes Espagnoles, Bibliotheque de 
Rouen," with the exception of the motto on the shield of the ace of oros. 

In the Rouen cards the motto runs thus: "Philippus Dei Gratia Hispanise 
Rex," and over the arms of Spain is a shield of pretence of the arms of France, 
i.e., three fleurs-de-lis. 

Certain cards and their envelopes bearing the name of Iehan Volay have given 
rise to some curious discussions. 

Mr. Barrington, a well-known antiquary of the beginning of this century, 
became acquainted — through Mr. Astle, the writer on Caligraphy and MSS. — 
witli an old wood-block, upon which was engraved the cover-design for a pack of 


cards. This block came afterwards into the possession of Mr. Singer, who gave 
impression from it in his work (p. 22 1). A facsimile was likewise given by Mr. 
Barrington in his paper in the " Archaeologia," vol. viii. p. 144, which was writtei 
to prove, inter alia, that cards were originally made in Spain. On this cover wt 
engraved the arms of Castile and Leon, together with the marks of the suit 
bastos, copas, espadas, and oros. There was also an inscription in large letters 
this purport : " Cartas finnas faictes par Jehan Volay." Below this and betwet 
the marks of copas and oros, there was added in letters of different charactt 
either by a stencil, or by the insertion of a new piece of wood in the origins 
block, the name of " Edward Warman " — probably that of the English vendor of 
the cards. Mr. Barrington read the above as " Je (or Jean) Ilauvola," and the 
final "y" in Volay as the Spanish conjunction for "and." The whole of the in- 
scription being translated into English was made to run thus : " Superfine cards 
made by John Hauvola and (Edward Warman)" — the last name being supposed to 
have been substituted for that of a former partner of John Hauvola. " Now," 
writes Mr. Singer (p. 221) : "Mr. Barrington read the name inscribed on this 
block erroneously, cartas finnas faictes par Ie Hauvola y Edward Warman, 
whereas it evidently appears Jehan Volay was meant, although the words, froi 
the carelessness of the engraver, are somewhat disjointed." 

Mr. Barrington remarks : " I conceive that this advertisement was used by a 
card-maker, resident in France, who notified the wares he had to sell in tl 
Spanish terms of cartas finnas, because those that had been made in Spain at tin 
time were in great vogue. The two words which follow are French, faictes par, 
which were probably in that language that the French reader might more readily 
understand the advertisement." 

Mr. Gough, commenting in the " Archaeologia," vol. viii. p. 168, on Mr. Bar- 
rington's statement, observes : " The insertion of Edward Warman s name in so 
very different a type is a proof that he was the vendor of such cards in a far later 
period. Upon inquiry I am informed by my friend, Mr. Herbert, that a person 
of the name of Warman kept a stationer's shop somewhere in Bishopsgate Street 
or Norton Folgate about fifty years ago, and it is not improbable that he sold 
these cards, and caused this insertion to be made in the block. Mr. Herbert 
could not recollect his Christian name. If I am not mistaken," continues Mr. 
Gough, " this extraordinary block once belonged to Mr. Ames, who has, however, 
taken no notice of it in his History of Printing." 

Singer was of opinion that this engraved wood-block might be possibly of 
English manufacture, and only intended to convey the idea that the cards enclosed 
in it were foreign in order to obtain a higher price if they were held in greater 

That the entire block was of English fabrication cannot be admitted, though 
it is clear from the following advertisement, pointed out by Mr. Haslewood to 
Singer, that Spanish cards were objects of curiosity at the beginning of the last 
century, and that at this period they were different from our own, and consequently 
could not be in common use. 

" Advertisement. 

" Spanish cards lately brought from Vigo. Being pleasant to the eye by their 
curious colours, and quite different from ours, may be had at 1*. a pack at Mrs. 
Baldwins in Warwick Lane." — Postman, Dec. 12 — 15, 1702. 

Chatto was of opinion (p. 133), that any vogue Spanish cards might have had 
in the more northerly countries of Europe during the times of Elizabeth and 
James I., was probably owing to the circumstance of so many Spaniards being 
then resident in the Low Countries, rather than to any superiority of the cards 
manufactured in Spain. 

According to Leber, Jean Volay was the most celebrated French card-maker 
of the sixteenth century, practising his art at the close of the reign of Francis I. 


(151 5 — 1 547). Volay, no doubt, manufactured for the Spanish market, not only 
as the engraved envelope-title here under consideration and the inscription 
faictes a tiers 1 on the five of espadas prove, hut as the various sheets of Spanish 
cards, evidently produced in French workshops, show likewise. Such cards are 
preserved in the collections at Rouen and Paris, and in the cabinets of Michelin, 
Merlin, and of others. 

According to Merlin, however, there is not extant a fragment of the French 
manufactured Spanish cards, which is earlier than the seventeenth century, and 
the specimens at Rouen bearing the name " Jehan Volay " are far from having 
the age attributed to them. " The ' Recueil of the Societe des Bibliophiles 
Francais ' describes the cards of the Imperial Library bearing the name of 
Jehan Volay and Jean Goyrand of Paris, as having been made about 1480. 
Without doubt this is an error, and if we were disposed to discuss the question 
of date as respects the Rouen block signed Jehan Volay, it would be easy to show, 
both by certain details of costume, and by the form of the letters, that this block 
is not older at the furthest than the end of the reign of Louis XIV. The ace of 
Deniers is a large coin, having on it the arms of Spain, the motto of which, 
engraved in Roman capitals, runs thus : ' Phtlippus Dei Gratia IIispanije 
Rex.' Now the name of Philip II., supposed to be intended by this motto, would 
no doubt carry back the coin to the sixteenth century, were it not that over all 
is superposed the shield of France [as a shield of pretence] which was thus placed 
only on the arms of the kings who were of the royal family of France. It is 
therefore rather to Philip V. that this coin belongs. The shoes and the entire 
dress of the valet of Deniers of this sheet (pi. 30, 31, A. B.) are of the reign of 
Louis XIV." (Merlin, Bibl. 6, p. 99, note.) 

" These Rouen designs represent, pretty truly we believe, the type in use 
in Spain at the time when J. Volay flourished. The cards particularly worthy 
of notice are the king, cavalier, valet, ace, two, and five of Deniers." 

There does not appear any reason for doubting the correctness of Merlin s 
interpretation of the blazon on the ace of oros in the Rouen (Spanish) cards. It 
relates to Philip V., Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., about the time 
when arose the " War of the Succession," terminated by the treaty of Utrecht in 


In the pack of Volay cards in the British Museum the shield of France is not 
present, the arms of Spain standing by themselves. Hence it may be assumed 
that these cards were produced before the Rouen set, and belong probably to the 
time of Charles II., the son of Philip IV., the last of the Austrian line. 

[3* x 2-J-g- in.] [Backs plain.] 

S. 16. 


PACK of fifty-two Spanish numerals of the suits oros, bastos, copas, 
and espadas. 

On the four of oros is a shield, surmounted by a crown, the former 
having on it the inscription : " Naypes Finisinos Fabircados En 
Madrid. H 1801." 

On the cavallo of copas, at the lower left-hand corner, are the capitals A. IVA, 

1 The French town now known as Thiers in the depart. Puy-de-Dome, near 



evidently meant for the A. HIVA, which address occurs on a similar card 
another pack, S. 17» 

On the ace of oros — top and bottom — are inscriptions, of which only the w< 
" Real — Madrid — Pord — Felix — So — , can be made out. 

The designs, execution, and colouring of these cards are of inferior chars 
Some of the figures on the coate-cards are absurd, the horses of the cabal ten 
being smaller than their riders. The pieces are thin in texture, and are tarotiet 
on the backs with star-like dots of blue colour running diagonally. 


X 2-^. in.] 

[Backs decorated/ 

S. 17. 


PACK of Spanish numerals of the typical kind, viz., forty-eight in 
number, the four tens being suppressed, and the dames, or queens, 
displaced by caballos. 

The suits are the usual ones of Spanish cards, viz., oros, copas, 
bastos, and espadas. 

Each card is numbered in reverse at two opposite corners diagonally. On 
the ace of oros is the lion of Leon, and the inscription above : R L . E\ DE M D . ; 
below, Ano D. 1817. 

On the four of copas are the words : " Naypes Refinos," and on the caballo 
of the same suit are : " A. Hiva," at the lower right-hand corner. The four of 
oros has the initials "RH" in the centre of the card, enclosed within an orna- 
mental frame, while on the five of this suit are the crowned lion and castle on the 
central and large symbol of the suit. 

The designs, execution, and colouring are of inferior character. The backs 
are marked diagonally with small broad-arrows in black. 

[3J- x 2£ in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 18. 


PACK of numerals of the normal Spanish type, viz., with the ter 
suppressed, the queens displaced by caballos,, and the suits, oros, cope 
bastos, and espadas. 

The large coin-like symbol on the ace of oros has on it the initials, 
" G. A." interlaced and surrounded by flowers. A crown surmounts the whole. 
Between the marks on the two of oros is printed, " i ER Superfino," while the four 
of this suit bears the address : " Por Francisco Gonzalez Cadiz," above which is 
a running stag. 

The large central mark on the five of oros bears the head of Queen Isabel 
(?) directed towards the right. 

On the two of copas is inscribed : " Aso De 1848 " ; on the four of the sar 
suit is the government duty stamp. In the middle of this latter card are ai 
anchor and caduceus placed crosswise. At the lower left-hand corner of the cabal/ 
of copas are the capitals "a hiva." 



An envelope, with an engraved title and wood-cut printed on blue paper, 
iccorapanies the pack. The design is a stag running towards the right. In the 
background are a well and trees. The marks of the suits copas and bastos are on 
one side, and those of oros and espadas on the other. Above the engraving may 
be read: "Napes de Una Oja," below it: " De l A . l ER . Superfino No 5 Fabrica 
de Barajas, De F. F. Gonzalez. Calle de la Veronica No. 149. En Cadiz." 

The backs of these cards are marked with a network of deep pink lines, crossing 
each other diagonally. The pieces are thin, being of one thickness of paper only 
— una oja. 

\.2>\ X if "»•] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 19. 


PACK of numerals — forty-eight in number, in accordance with the 
Spanish type — evidently from the same blocks as is the set previously 
described, S. 18. The only variations consist in the designs and 
addresses relating to trade matters. For example, between the 
marks of the two of oros is inscribed, "Naipe de Una Oja," and on the two of 
copas, " i a Ede l a ." The four of oros bears the address, "J. J. Acuaviva 
Cadiz," below a lion directed towards the right. The ace and five of oros, the 
four of copas, and the caballo of the last suit are similar to the like cards of S. 18. 
An envelope of greenish-blue paper with an engraved title, accompanies the 
pack. The design of the woodcut is a lion directed towards the right hand, but 
looking to the left ; beneath is the inscription : " Naipes de una oja de vitelade 
hilo Fabricados por J. Acuaviva En Cadiz. Calle de Juan de Andas N°. 158 

l\ DE 1 A ." 

These cards are marked on the backs with dotted stars, printed in blue. 
They are of thin texture, like the preceding. 

[31- x 

[Backs decorated.] 

S. 20. 


DUPLICATE set of S. 18, from the same publisher, Francisco 
Gonzalez, Cadiz, 1848. 

An envelope and title, &c, like those of S. 18, accompany the pack. 
The backs are marked with dotted stars in blue. The pieces 
are of like texture to those of S. 18. 

[31 X if in.] [Backs decorated.] 


S. 21. 


(El Hombre.) 

SERIES of forty cards from a pack of forty-eight of the usual kind o 
Spanish numerals. From the eight and nine as well as the ten of 
each suit being absent, it is clear that these cards were intended for 
that particular modification of the old Spanish game, El Hombre (or 
Ombre) referred to in the " Compleat Gamester," where it is stated : " there 
are several sorts of this game, but that which is the chief is called renegade, 
which three only can play, to whom are dealt nine cards apiece ; so that by d 
carding the eights, nines, and tens, there will remain thirteen cards in the stock. 

" Many of our readers," writes Singer (p. 265), " will recollect, we doubt 
not, to have seen three-cornered tables among old furniture ; these tables were 
made purposely for Ombre, and in the print which we have mentioned above 
(frontispiece to "Compleat Gamester," 1 739)? the table is of that form. To play 
this game well, attention and quietness are said to be absolutely necessary, for if 
a player be ever so expert he will be apt to fall into mistakes if he thinks of any- 
thing else, or is disturbed by the conversation of by-standers. There are many 
Avays of playing the game ; it is sometimes played with force spadille, or espadille 
force, sometimes by two persons only, sometimes by three, which is the most general 
way, but it may be played by four or five persons." 

The Spanish game, El Hombre, appears to have been well known in England 
in 1660. A full description of it, under the form of " The English Court Game," 
may be found in " Macmillan's Magazine" for January, 18 74. It is generally 
considered to be the game described in Pope's " Rape of the Lock," as Ombre, 
as the poet calls it : 


; or 



z ' 

" Belinda now, whom thirst of Fame invites, 
Burns to encounter two adventurous knights, 
At Ombre singly to decide their doom, 
And swells her breast with conquests yet to come. 

Mr. Pardon considers Pope has described Quadrille. The latter game how- 
ever, is only another species of Ombre — supposed to have been an invention of 
the French nation, and appears to have been a great favourite with the ladies, as 
requiring much less attention than Ombre. There was also a modification of it 
which might be played by three persons, but it is generally considered far inferior 
to the game by four, and was only played when a fourth player could not be had. 
(Singer, Bibl. 8, p. 266.) 

There is not any address nor inscription on the present cards. The ace of 
oros has on it a landscape design, in which the sun is setting behind a town 
backed by hills. A palm-tree is in the middle distance, and water (the sea ?) in 
the foreground. Above the whole is a large sign of the suit, having a radiant sun 
in the middle, the nucleus of which is a human face. The two of copas, four of 
oros, and four of copas, have flowers and other ornaments between the marks of 
the suits. Each card is numbered at two opposite corners diagonally. 



These cards are lithographic impressions. The figure cards are wretchedly 
designed, executed, and coloured. The backs are tarotees with pink diagonal 
dotted lines crossing each other, so as to form large spaces, in which are placed 
four pink dots. 

[ 3 f X 2 j- in.] 

[Backs decorated.] 

S. 22. 

PACK of forty-eight numerals of the suits oros, bastos, copas, and 
espadas. The tens of each suit are as usual suppressed, but there is 
the exceptional occurrence of a dama or queen, instead of the sota 
generally present in Spanish cards. 
These cards have been executed either by lithography or zincography, pro- 
bably the former. The designs of the coate-cards are of a common and theatric 

The ace of each suit is peculiar. On it is a winged serpent occupying the 
entire length of the card, and grasping, in three of the suits, the symbol of the 
suit in its mouth. In the suit of swords is a shield over the spot where the 
swords cross each other. Medallions, shields, and other ornaments occur on some 
of the two and three numerals. 

On the four of oros is the inscription, " Real Fabrica," on a scroll. The four 
of copas bears a similar scroll, but without an inscription. 

In the centre of the six of copas are the initials " F. B." interlaced, and repeated 
in reverse ; above them is a crown. 

The two of clubs is made up by a figure (?) card from another set. 

The backs are marked with small deep blue-coloured dots running diagonally. 

[2L x if in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 23. 


REGULAR pack of Spanish numerals (48) mounted in a book of 
twelve folios, each page containing four cards. It may be recalled to 
mind that in the typical Spanish set, the tens of each suit are sup- 
pressed the reina or dama is displaced by a caballo, and the suits are 
oros, copas, bastos, and espadas. Together with these characteristics may be 
noticed the circumstance that the marks of the suits bastos and espadas are always 
distinct and separate from each other, not conjoined nor interlaced, as the swords 
and clubs are in the like suits of Italian numerals. Further, the figures on the 
coate-cards are whole-length and erect, the kings being in large and full drapery. 
Generally, too, in modern packs the cards are numbered at opposite corners 
diagonally, and in reverse way. 

In these cards the suits of oros and copas are printed in different gradations 
of red, those of espadas and bastos in black. The method of technical execution 
is peculiar ; the first ventre seems to have been from a roughly etched plate, the 
second from a wood block. 



The ace of oros bears the arms of Leon and Castile surmounted by a crown. 
Around the circular shield of the former is the inscription : " Con privile*. 
esclusivo de S. M." 

On the four of copas is the address : " Por Lopez y Cornp* Barcel na ." 

These cards are numbered in the usual Spanish way, and the kings 
covered with long and ample mantles. On the uuder coat of the king of cope 
is a lion rampant, while the king of espadas rests his left hand on a shield whii 
bears a double-headed eagle. 

The backs of these cards are marked with a series of zigzag bands, forme 
of small parallel lines so arranged as to produce a series of diamond-shap( 
spots, within which are smaller diamonds divided transversely. The whole 
printed in black. 

[Backs decorated.] 

[3| X 

i m-] 

S. 24. 


PACK of numerals of the typical kind, forty-eight in number. The 
designs of the figure cards differ from those previously described, and 
there are other variations. 

The four of copas bears an allegorical winged female figure blow- 
ing a trumpet, from which flutters a banderole having on it, " De una Hoja." 
Her left hand rests on a shield bearing the arms of Leon and Castile surmounted 
by a crown. Below the figure is the address : " Por Lopez y Comp a . Barcel na ." 
On the ace of oros are two chimeric or sphynx-like figures bearing a large 
coin in obverse, surmounted by a crown and standards. Between the marks on 
the four of oros is an emblematic representation of maritime commerce. 

The cards are numbered in the usual way. The backs are marked all ovt 
with a series of arborescent lines printed in blue. 

[3f X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 25. 


PACK of numerals (forty- eight) of the usual kind, differing slightly 
the designs from S. 23 and S. 24. 

The four of copas bears the allegorical figure and address of Lope 
of Barcelona. 

On the ace of oros the obverse of the coin-like symbol bears the head of 
Queen Isabella II., who ascended the Spanish throne in 1833, against whom 
Barcelona revolted in 1841, but was compelled to re-acknowledge her by 
Esparteroin 1842. 

The backs of these cards are marked in a similar way to those of S. 23. 
[3| X l£ in.] [Backs decorated.] 



S. 26. 


PACK of numerals of the ordinary Spanish character. 

It is a duplicate of the set described under S. 25, with the excep- 
tion that the backs of the cards are marked in a different manner. 
In the present series the backs have a network of red lines crossing 
each other diagonally. 


x 1 


[Backs decorated.] 

S. 27, 


PACK of forty-eight numerals of the ordinary Spanish type. 

The designs generally are slightly different from those of the sets 
before noticed. 

The four of copas bears the allegorical figure and address of Lopez 
of Barcelona. At the centre of the four of oros is a pine-apple. The figures on 
the coate-cards of the suit of espadas wear armour. 

The large symbol on the ace of oros is borne by two lions couchant. 
The backs of these cards are marked by a network of dull red lines crossing 
each other diagonally. 

[3f. X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 28. 


PACK of the ordinary Spanish sequence of forty-eight cards. 

The designs differ slightly from those of the series previously 

On the four of copas are the allegorical figure and address of 
Lopez of Barcelona. The ace of oros bears a medallion head like the obverse of 
a large coin, surmounted by a crown supported by standards. Below are a 
caduceus, shell, flowers, and other ornaments. 

The cards are numbered at opposite corners diagonally in the ordinary manner. 
The backs are marked like those of the card of S. 23. 

[3f X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 



S. 29. 


SET (forty-eight) of numerals of the usual Spanish variety. The 
designs are nearly identical with those of S. 28, but the colouring of 
the figures on the coate-cards is occasionally different. 

The ace of oros is analogous to that of S. 28 in design, but is 
coloured a little differently. The four of copas bears the allegorical figure and 
address of Lopez of Barcelona. 

The backs of these cards are marked with a network of blue lines crossing 
each other diagonally. 

[3|- in. X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 30. 


SET (forty -eight) of numerals of the ordinary Spanish character, 
numbered in the usual manner. 

The designs differ slightly in some respects from those of the 
previously described packs. 
The ace of oros bears the arms of Castile and Leon on a circular shield, sur- 
mounted by a crown and supported by standards. Below, on the bar of a large 
case, are the capitals " A. L. Y. C a ." 

The inscription on the circular shield is " Con Privilegio Esclusivo De S. M." 
In the centre of the four of oros is a basket of flowers. The four of copas 
bears the allegorical figure and address of Lopez of Barcelona. 

The backs of these cards are marked with an arborescent network of blue 

[3| X 2 in.] 

[Backs decorated.] 

S. 31. 


PACK of Spanish numerals of the ordinary kind, manufactured at 

The ace of oros bears two large interlaced capital letters ; " A. A." 
on the mark of the suit. Above, on a scroll, is the inscription : 
" Naipes-Finos." 

On the four of oros is a chimeric animal — a compromise between a unicorn 
and a sea monster. 

The four of copas bears the inscription . " Fabrica De Alfonzo Arnoult 
en Paris." 



The engraved title of the envelope accompanies this set ; on it may. be read : 
" Napes Rhfinos ; " " No. 2 " being on the mark of oros. Below are the marks 
of the suits bastos and espadas, placed crosswise, having the foot of a cup (?) 
placed over the point of decussation ; the backs of the cards are marked with a 
neat diapered pattern of blue lines forming large diamond- shaped spaces, in the 
centre of which is a blue dot. 

[3} X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S. 32. 


PACK of forty-eight numerals of the ordinary Spanish kind, manu- 
factured at Paris. 

On the ace of oros is a head in the centre of a radiant sun, en- 
circled by a wreath of laurel. 
On the four of oros at the centre is a basket of flowers. The larger mark on 
the five of oros bears the inscription : " Cartes illustrees. B. P. Grimaud et C ie . 
Paris " ; within are the capitals, " B P G," interlaced. 

Most of these card-pieces are neatly designed, engraved, and coloured. 
Where gold is intended to be represented the designs are illuminated. The ace, 
two, three, and four of espadas are particularly noteworthy. 

This pack was manufactured in Paris, evidently for the Spanish market, the 
cards being in every respect, except commonness or coarseness of execution, truly 
Spanish in character. 

[3f X 2 in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

S. 33- 


SET of Spanish numerals, of different designs to those of the cards 

before noticed. 

The suits are the usual ones, oros, copas, espadas, and bastos, 

but the cards are not numbered as in the ordinary manner. 
The ace of oros bears a large blue eagle, in the middle of which are repre- 
sented some houses. On the two of espadas is inscribed : " Fabricando in 
Madrid." This set of cards offers points of much interest in some respects. It 
was manufactured in Madrid, most likely for the use of the provinces Limousin 
and Bretagne, for the purpose of playing the game known as Valluette or la luette. 
This game is probably alluded to by Rabelais as among the amusements of Pan- 
tagruel, under the term luettes. The pack before us appears to answer so closely 
in the designs, &c. to the set described by Merlin (p. 102), and to his remarks 
on the curious early cards found by M. Maurice Ardant (archiviste of Haute 
Vienne), in the cardboard covers of some old registers of the Hospital of Limoges, 
that the following extract may be made with advantage : " The cards are in every 
respect Spanish, unless with the exception that the heavy caballeros in their 
journey through France have become elegant Amazons, whose grace and steadi- 
ness in the saddle may defy the most agile ecuyeres of the circus or hippodrome. 


" What was the nature of this game before the Revolution ? We cannot 
say ; all we know is — it existed. It was known to Court de Gebelin, and exercised 
the predilections of this savant for Egyptian symbolism. Then it had the strange 
titles of Monsieur, Madame, la borgne, la vache, grand neuf, and petit neuf, but 
which not anything in the designs appeared to justify. It was not then played 
with the cards of to-day. 

"Cast but a general glance over plate 37, and you will perceive that the 
draughtsman was not only inspired with the ideas of the epoch of the Revolutioi 
but endeavoured to make his designs conform to the names previously given 
the cards. Thus e.g. in the old packs, Monsieur was purely and simply the three 
of deniers. The name is here justified by placing the bust of a national guard of 
1789 in one of the marks of the three of deniers. Madame was the three of 
coupes ; here in one of the cups is introduced a female being crowned by a bird 
having a long neck and beak, and to whom likewise another bird appears to 
offer a bouquet of flowers. 1 

" The fleurs-de-lis which were distributed everywhere over the batons have 
been here displaced by arrows, and the ' cap of liberty ' adorns the four of coupes, 
and decorates the head of the savage who bears the ace of epees. Finally the 
arms of Spain, which in the earlier packs were borne by the ace of deniers, have 
resigned their places to a town in a circle placed on an eagle's breast. 

" But what means this savage, belted and crowned with feathers, who supporl 
the enormous trunk of a tree, representing the ace of batons ? " If we consull 
the Limoges cards (pi. 32-36), we shall see on the ace of batons two diminutivi 
men, supporting likewise a large branch of a tree. What is the meaning of that 
shield swinging between the branches of two trees ? It is a reminiscence of the 
two of batons of Limoges, where a little naked man is seen between two knotty 
clubs. This four of deniers, which in the alluette of the Revolution is orna- 
mented with a double triangle, so arranged as to represent a star with six points, 
is it not to be met with in our Limousin cards also ? As to the robino, or the 
indecorous, a piece not to be found among the numeral cards of the latter, it is 
clearly a souvenir of the five of deniers of the old Spanish game, in which were 
represented the heads of the Roman king and queen regarding each other." 
(p. 103.) 

In the present pack, within the double triangle at the centre of the four ol 
oros are two cursive capital A's, slightly interlaced. One triangle is coloured 
yellow, the other green. The symbols of the two of copas are peculiar. Each 
cup has on it a red flat cap, from beneath which at each side projects a bird with 
long neck and beak. Below the two cups is a recumbent ox, directed towards 
the right, and looking at a thistle-like plant at his fore feet. 

The ace of espadas is likewise noteworthy, as is also the ace of copas. Although 
the designs generally are of very inferior character artistically speaking, these 
cards are well worthy of study in connection with the text and plates of Merlin 
before mentioned. 

The backs of these cards are marked in rather a peculiar manner. They are 
marbled green, the largest spaces being filled with green dots, the middle-sized 
are white, and the smallest are of a uniform deep green colour. 

[3J- X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

1 The alluette of 1776 came from the workshop of P. Sigogne. Is it not 
likewise a cigogne that is meant to be represented by a bird of long neck to be 
found also on the breastplate of the valet de deniers of. 1776 ? 




S. 34. 


SET of forty- eight numerals of the ordinary Spanish suits and 
numbered in the usual way. 

In opposition to the common Spanish custom, however, a dama, or 
lady, is admitted into the present pack, in place of the sota or knave. 
The tens are suppressed as usual. The coate-cards or honours represent historic 
personages. In the suit oros the rey is " D. Taime el conquistador," the lady 
is a " Dama de la Corte de Fernando III.," the caballo, " D. Juan de Austria." 
In copas the rey is " D. Pelayo," the lady a " Dama de la Corte de Felipe IV.," 
the caballo, " D. Alvaro de Luna." In espadas the rey is " Carlos V. Empera- 
dor," the lady a " Dama de la Corte de Carlos II.," while the caballo is " Gonzalo 
de Cordova." In bastos the rey is " D. Pedro el Cruel," the lady a " Dama de 
la Corte de Alonso XL," the caballo is "El Cid Campeador." 

The ace of oros bears a large circular shield, having a six-rayed star in the 
centre of the boss, and being surmounted by a plumed helmet supported by 
various arms and armour. 

The four of oros has a shield and crest in its centre, while the four of copas 
bears the address of " Lopez y Comp a . of Barcelona." 

The designs of this pack are good, and are neatly engraved in different 
colours. The suit oros is yellowish-brown, copas rose-madder, espadas blue, and 
bastos brown-madder. The execution of the suit oros is in particular com- 
mendable, the marks having on them well-executed Gothic ornaments. Some 
of the figures on the coate-cards — as those of espadas, for example — are free, 
artistic, and fairly correct in costume. 

Each figure of the " honours" bears the symbol of the particular suit in the 
right hand. Below the whole-length and flowingly draped figure is the title of the 
personage it represents. 

The backs of the cards are diapered with diagonal lines, comprised of small 
parallel lines stamped in a dullish-red colour. In the diamond-shaped spaces 
thus formed are four-rayed stars of like colour. 

[3| X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

S- 35- 



SET of numerals of the ordinary suits and manner of numbering. 

The honours of the four suits represent figures illustrative of 
races typical of the four quarters of the globe. 

The suit oros typifies Asia in a representation of the Chinese. 
Copas illustrates Africa in three conventional Oriental figures. Espadas repre- 



n of 




sents Europe by figures in costume somewhat like that of the early part of the 
seventeenth century ; while the suit bastos presents America under the form of 
what we can only call three Red Indians. 

On the mark of the ace of oros may be read " Asia ; " on that of co 
" Africa;" of espadas, "Europa;" and on the spiked club of bastos, "America. 
The marks throughout the suit oros bear on them what are meant to represent 
Chinese characters. On the four of copas is the allegorical figure and address of 
Lopez y Comp a . of Barcelona. 

The backs are marked by waved interlaced lines stamped in black. 

[3f x l i m *J [Backs decorated.] 

s. 36. 


1 N ordinary set of Spanish numerals. 

The peculiarity of these cards consists in the circumstance that 
the figures on the coafe-cards are caricatured or grotesquely repre- 
sented, while the marks of the suits bear on them laughable ornaments 
or have ridiculous appendages. The ace of oros bears on its grotesque shield 
the inscription : " Con real Privilegio Esclusivo De S. M.", and on the four of 
copas is the allegorical figure and address of Lopez of Barcelona. 

Between the marks of the four of oros are two comical figures sitting at a 
table and playing at cards. The caballo and sota of the suit bastos are par- 
ticularly absurd. 

The backs of the cards are marked by a network of blue lines crossing each 
other diagonally. 

[3f x x t m -] [Backs decorated.] 


F. 37- 


PACK of combined tarots, i.e., twenty-two atouts and fifty-six 
numerals, but of which two pieces of the latter are here wanting. 
The absent numeral cards are the ace of deniers and the two of 
batons. The true tarots designs are a similar modification of the 
old French pattern of Besancon, Marseilles, and Geneva, as may 
be seen in the Flemish series (Fl. 103), bearing the address of 
" F. J* Vandenbore Cartier a Bruxelles." 

As in the Flemish series, No. 2 of the emblematic suit represents L 1 Espagnol, 
Capitano Eracasse, instead of the typical La Papesse. No. v. has on it 
Bacus in lieu of Le Pape, and Le Pendu (No. xii.) must be reversed in order that 
the figure may hang in the usual way, head downwards. No. xvi. is here La 
Foudre, a tree struck by lightning, instead of a tower or house, La Maison Dieu, 
and Le Fol is numbered xxii. 

The suits of the numeral series have the old marks, batons, coupes, deniers, 
and epees, and the marks are like those of the Flemish pack (Fl. 103) before 
mentioned, with the exception that on the shield in the middle of the four of 
deniers are the letters " I * G " in place of the lion and castle. 

The two of coupes has a tablet at its lower portion bearing the following 
inscription : — 

" Pour conoistre que la 
Plus basse de Deniez et 
De coupes enporte les 
Plus hautes quand a 
Fait du Jeu." 

The borders of all the cards are slightly different to those of the Belgian pack. 
The general execution of the pieces is inferior to that of the latter, which is suf- 
ficiently bad, while the titles of the subjects are most carelessly spelt. Thus on 
No. i. is " Lerateleux" instead of Le Bateleur ; on No. iv. is " Lampereur;" on 
v. " Bacus," and on No. xiii. is " Atrempance" in lieu of La Temperance. 

The backs of these cards are smooth, and marked diagonally with small stars 
of four points printed in black, having in their centres a white circular spot. 

[4^ x 2J- in.] [Backs decorated.] 

108 FRENCH. 

F. 38. 


SHEET of ten unseparated card pieces from a tarots series, 
pieces are in two rows of five cards in each row. The emblematic 
figures present are Temperance, xiiii. ; La Papesse, ii. ; E Empereur, 
iiii. ; LImperatrice, iii. ; andZe Fol, i. The other and numeral pieces 
are the ace of cups, the two of swords, the ace of money, and valet of clubs. 

The designs are almost identical with those given by Merlin (plates 20-23). 
They are from wood blocks, coarsely engraved, and are uncoloured. 

The backs are neatly diapered with large diamond-shaped figures, having in 
their centres stars. The whole is printed in blue. 

[4J X 2i in.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 39- 


PACK of French combined tarots, i. e., twenty-two atouts and fifty- 
six numerals. 

The designs, which are coarsely engraved and coloured, are 
exactly like such as are represented on plates 20- 2 2 of Merlin's 
treatise, and plates 1-3 of tarocchi cards at page 284 of the work of Singer. 

La Papesse (No. ii.) is here present. Le Pendu (xii.) hangs head downwards, 
and La Maison Dieu (xvi.) and Le Monde are of the typical or old Venetian cha- 

The marks of the numeral suits are of the Italian character, viz., cups, 
money, swords, and clubs. 

The orthography of the titles is often bad ; thus we have " Limperatrise" 
" Chcharior" " Tenperance," " Le Stoille" &c, in place of the proper method. 
The suit marks on the two of deniers are connected by a scroll bearing the 
address of" Bernardin Suzanne, Rue Vacon. 1. Marseille." 

The backs of these cards are clouded or marbled in rose-madder. 

[4f- X 2f- in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 40. 


SERIES of seventy-eight cards — twenty-two atouts and fifty-six 


The designs on the emblematic series are entirely different from 

those usually met with. They consist in general of animals in various 
and absurd actions and attitudes, badly and often most ridiculously conceived and 
coloured. On No. 8 is a rearing unicorn, the head, trunk, and two legs of 

TABOTS. 109 

which arc blue, two legs pink, and the mane, tail, and horn yellow. On No. 1 2 
a man plays the flageolet to a dancing bear, while on No. 14 a crocodile with 
scales of red, bine, and yellow colours, is swallowing a man in red breeches and 
yellow jacket. The frog on No. 16 is as big as its neighbour, the turtle; but 
the most extraordinary of all the figures is that of the lion (?) on No. x., which 
has a yellow body and three yellow legs, one pink leg and tail, a green mane, 
and green shaggy hair on the right thigh. 

No. i., answering to the Bataleur of the typical variety, represents a sort of 
mountebank, or quack doctor, holding up in his left hand a bottle of physic, and 
grasping with his right the handle of a harlequin's wand. The last atout is un- 
numbered, and shows a man in parti-coloured trousers dancing and playing the 
flute. He has on a cocked hat with a feather, and carries a sword at his side. 
This figure answers to the Mat, or fool (No. xxii. when numbered) of the ordi- 
nary series. Each card of the atout series is numbered top and bottom in re- 
verse. The numbers are of extraordinary size, being more than half an inch in 
height, contained in a margin J- of an inch wide. The number on 2 1 occupies a 
space ly inch wide by J- in. in height. 

Not any titles are attached to the atout pieces. 

The marks of the suits of the numeral series are piques, carreaux, cceurs, and 
trefies. The court-cards are valet, cavalier, dame, and roi. The figures on 
the latter are whole-length, and the cavalier is always mounted on a most absurdly 
coloured horse. In general, however, the designs are better and less grotesque 
in conception and execution than are those of the true tarots. 

Over the right leg of the king of hearts is a circular clear space left, as if for 
a duty stamp, but which has been placed instead on the seven of the same suit. 

The backs of these cards are marbled in deep green. 

The engraved title of the envelope accompanies this set. It is ornamental 
and printed in black on a buff-coloured ground. At the top is inscribed, " Grand 
Etteila" in large letters. Below may be read: " Le grand jeu des 78 Tarots 
Egyptiens ou Livre de Thot Fabrique et verifie par Zlismon." (Concerning 
Etteila, see under " French Cards of Divination.") 

[4|- X 2 1 in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 41. 


SERIES of seventy-eight cards — twenty-two atutti and fifty-six 

All the tarots proper are printed double and in reverse, but the 
designs on each half of the card are different. On one half Chinese 
figures variously engaged are represented, on the other division are mermaids, 
tritons, or other sea monsters. On No. i. is a female dancing and playing a tam- 
bourine, and a harlequin dancing and playing a harp. The fool, here unnum- 
bered, is represented by the half-length figure of a harlequin hi double and reverse. 
He holds in his right hand a disc, from the centre of which rises a point on which 
is poised by the left leg the whole-length figure of a diminutive harlequin. 

The figure on No. 1 3 reminds one of the old cut representing Mother Shipton 
in her favourite conveyance, though here the animal is a camel instead of a stag. 
The marks of the suits of the numeral series are piques, trefies, cozurs, and 

The designs on the coate-cards, or. honours, are busts printed double and in 


reverse; nevertheless, the cavalier is mounted, the fore part of his horse alone 
being shown. 

These cards have been printed from engraved metal plates of a soft character. 
The colouring is indifferent. 

The backs are tarotees with pink spots. 

[4 X 2 J- in.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 42. 


OUR sheets of cards from a series of fifty-two numerals of the suits 
trefles, piques, cceurs, and carreaux. 

Two of the sheets contain four valets each ; the valets of piques 
and trejles being repeated on one sheet, those of camrs and carreaux 
on the other. 

Two sheets contain " pip " cards of the suits cceurs and carreaux, the nine, 
four, five, and seven of carreaux being on one sheet, and the ten, four, five, and 
eight of cceurs on the other. 

These specimens of early French playing-cards are among the more important 
and interesting examples preserved in the National Collection. Their general 
history and relations may be satisfactorily understood by perusal of the following 
extract from the work of Mr. Chatto (Bibl. 4), premising that they should 
be studied in connection likewise with the early French Piquet (?) cards found by 
M. Henin (in the cover of an old book), and now in the collection at Paris. 
These latter cards, which are known as the Coursube cards, may be found 
facsimiled in the " Jeu de Tarots et de Cartes numerales " (Bibl. 2, pi. 19), where 
they are described as " ces cartes rarissimes," and of which it is said that they 
" faisaient partie d'un jeu de cartes numerales gravees sur bois sous notre roi 
Charles VII. vers 1425." The correctness of this date is questioned by Mr. 
Chatto, but whatever may have been the year of production of the Coursube 
cards, he doubts whether the latter be really older than the cards of the " Ser- 
mones M. Vincentii," now to be described. Mr. Chatto observes : " Those four 
knaves, which are now in the Print Room of the British Museum, were discovered 
by the writer in the cover of an old book which he bought of Mr. Robert Crozier, 
bookseller, 27, Bow Street, about the latter end of December, 1841. The book, 
which is a small quarto, had formerly belonged to the Cathedral Library of 
Peterborough, 1 and its subject is the ' Sermons of St. Vincent de Ferrer,' a 
Spanish friar of great repute in his day, who died in 1 41 9. It wanted both 
the title-page and the last leaf, and consequently had no date, but looking at 
the character of the type — old Gothic — and the rude execution of the initial 
letters, I should conclude that it was printed in France within the last ten years 
of the fifteenth century. The other leaves forming with the cards the " boards " 
of the cover, were portions of the gloss or commentary of Nicholas de Lyra on 
the Old Testament, which leaves, apparently, are of a date somewhat older than 

1 This book was sold, together with others, from the Cathedral Library of 
Peterborough, by Mr. Hodgson, 192, Fleet Street, December 13-18, 1841. 
In his catalogue, No. 1492, it is described " Sermones M. Vincentii" (wants 


the volume. Seeing that old cards have so often been found in the covers of old 
books, it might be conjectured that certain pious persons had made it a point of 
conscience to thus employ them for useful purposes. This supposition is, how- 
ever, rendered untenable by the fact of those cards being intermixed with the 
pious lucubrations of Nicholas de Lyra. Besides the two squares of paper con- 
taining the four knaves, there were also two other squares consisting of 'pips' of 
diamonds and hearts, which were so arranged that each square of paper might be 
cut into four cards : the low cards on one square were the nine, four, five, and 
seven of diamonds ; and those on the other, the ten, four, five, and eight of hearts. 
The ' pips ' on those low cards were evidently impressed by means of a stencil. 
On one square of paper were the valets of clubs and spades — Lancelot and Hogier 
— and on another the valets of diamonds and hearts, that of diamonds being 
named Rolant, and that of hearts containing the inscription : ' Valery : f.' 
Though each piece of paper contained four cards, it yet displayed only two 
different characters — the valet of each suit occurring on it being repeated in the 
alternate compartments. The outlines of the figures and the names have 
evidently been engraved on wood, and are printed in a brownish colour, some- 
thing like Indian ink mixed with bistre, and the colours have been laid on by 
means of stencils. The names of these valets — Rolant, Valery f., Lancelot, and 
Hogier — compared with those occurring on other French cards of an early date, 
seem to prove that originally the French coat-cards received their names merely 
at the caprice of the card-maker. Any argument, therefore, respecting the origin 
of cards, or the invention of Piquet as founded on the names of the coat-cards, 
must be utterly without foundation. 

" With respect to the names of those valets, it seems to be generally agreed that 
Roland, spelled Rolant on the cards, was the nephew of Charlemagne, so famed 
in romance, and that Hogier, or Ogier, was the renowned Hogier of Denmark. 
According to a modern author this hero was a grandson of Pepin of Heristal, 
the great-grandfather of Charlemagne, and the appellation ' of Denmark ' was 
conferred on him, not from his being of that kingdom, but from his being a 
native of Dane-Marche — that is, of the district now called Ardennes." 

— "With respect to Lancelot, the reader is left to determine whether the name 
were intended for one of the Paladins of the court of Charlemagne, or Lancelot 
du Lac, one of the knights of King Arthur's Round Table. The appearance of 
this name on the valet of clubs proves that Daniel was right in his conjecture, as 
has been previously observed, though Mons. Leber seems to argue that he either 
was or ought to have been wrong. 

" The name Valery, which occurs on the knave of hearts, has not been found on 
any one of the other old cards hitherto discovered, and from the circumstance of 
its having the letter/ after it, which might be intended to signify fecit, it might 
be supposed that it was the card-maker's name. It is, however, to be observed 
that the word fecit is of very rare occurrence, as signifying the work of the artist 
whose name precedes it, on engravings, for whatever purpose executed, of the 
fifteenth century. It may even be asserted, with small hazard of contradiction, 
that/, as an abbreviation of fecit in its artistic application, is not to be found on 
a single engraving, whether on wood or copper, executed previous to the year 
1 500. 

" For whatever person the name of Valery may have been intended, it seems 
certain that it is not to be found as that of a distinguished character in any of 
the old French romances. M. Paulin Paris having been consulted on this subject, 
thus gives his opinion in a letter addressed to his friend, Thomas Wright, Esq., 
so well known for his numerous publications on Middle-Age literature : ' The 
name of the valet of hearts seems to me extremely curious, for it ought necessarily 
to bring to mind the name of Erart de Valeri, the famous companion of Charles 
of Anjou, king of Sicily, to whom his contemporaries chiefly ascribed the gain of 
the battle of Tagliacozza, in which Manfred (the opponent of Charles) was killed. 

1 1 2 FRENCH. 

It might, therefore, be supposed that the pack (to which the four valets in 
question belonged), was either of Sicilian or Italian fabrication; for the names, 
Lancelot, Roland, Ogier, and Valeri, were equally familiar to the Sicilians of the 
fourteenth century. I have said a few words about this Erard de Valery in the 
article on Charles, of Anjou in my " Romancero Francois."' 

" Though by no means agreeing with M. Paulin Paris, that these cards were 
either of Italian devising or manufacture, I am yet inclined to think that his 
conjecture about the name of Valery is correct, and that a corroboration of it is 
to be found in the inscription on the valet de piques in the Coursube cards, pre- 
viously noticed at page 211. This inscription is read ciarde by M. Duchesne, 
but to my eye the letters as they appear in the facsimile given in the specimens 
of cards published by the Society of Bibliophiles Francois, appear much more 
like the name erarde, and if, on a careful examination of the original, it should 
be ascertained that this was the word intended, I should then unhesitatingly 
conclude that the person represented by this card was Erard de Valery. The 
objection that one of these cards is the valet of hearts, and the other the valet 
of spades, is of no weight, for the old French card-makers were by no means 
consistent in the practice of always giving the same name to the same card. 
From the red rose which appears on the shield held by Valery, an Englishman 
might be justified in supposing that those cards, if not of English manufacture, 
were more especially, if not exclusively, fabricated for the English market at a 
period shortly after the accession of Henry VII. when the Red Rose of Lancaster 
had obtained the ascendancy. By assuming, indeed, a small portion of French 
license on this subject, it might even be asserted that those cards were of English 
manufacture, seeing that they were discovered in the covers of a book which had 
formerly belonged to an English monastery, and that the features, expression, 
and bodily proportion of the valets are rather characteristic of Englishmen than 
Frenchmen. In support of this speculation it may further be observed, that in 
former times monks were accustomed to act as their own bookbinders, and that 
there is reason to believe that playing-cards were manufactured in England as 
early as 1463." (Op. cit., pp. 214-220.) 

MM. Leber, Duchesne, and Lacroix, judging from the costume, &c. of the 
Coursube cards, agree in supposing them to have been executed about 1425, in 
the reign of Charles VII., but, writes Mr. Chatto : " Conclusions, however, drawn 
from the costume displayed on cards, are not of much weight in the determina- 
tion of a date, seeing that persons supposed to be well acquainted with the subject 
of costume have not been able to determine from that alone the date of any old 
drawing, even within fifty years. To whatever period the costume of the Cour- 
sube cards may belong, that of the four knaves (now under consideration) may be 
fairly presumed to be of as early a period, but yet, looking at the costume of the 
latter, and the style of their execution, I should not take them to be of an earlier 
date than 1480." (p. 214.) 

Mr. Taylor agrees with Chatto that speculations as regards date, founded 
on costume, are " very often fallacious, as any type once become conventional 
might continue in circulation for a considerable period, and this, too, in different 
countries." (p. 1 15.) 

To these considerations Mr. J. R. Planche replies that " Persons who could 
not determine on the date of a costume within fifty years would never have been 
supposed by me to be well acquainted with the subject, and that though I quite 
agree with Mr. Taylor as to the perpetuation of an ancient type, as in our present 
court-cards, — we still find king, queen, and knave represented in the costume of 
Henry VII. (" Builder," Nov., 1870, p. 92 1 .) 

It must be submitted, however, that Mr. Chatto does not refer to the date of the 
costume, but to the date of the production of the card on which the costume is 

[3f X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 



F- 43- 


WO sheets of figure cards from a numeral series of the suits trefles, 
piques, cceurs, and carreaux. Each sheet contains six pieces more 
or less perfect. On one sheet, and forming the upper row, are the 
roi de trefles ; dame de cceurs, Judic ; and roi de carreaux, Caesar ; 
below are the dame de trefles, Rachel ; roi de piques ; and dame de piques, Palas. 
The latter three card-pieces have been cut away at the busts. 

The second sheet has suffered greater mutilation than has the other one, the 
dame de piques, Palas being the only nearly perfect figure of the set. On one 
side of the dame is a roi named Charles, destitute of the mark of the suit ; on 
the other side is the mere slip of the weapon in the left hand of a king. Above 
these three pieces are but fragmentary portions of two dames and a roi. 

On the head of the partisan of the roi de carreaux, Caesar, is the letter R, on 
that of the roi de piques is an inverted " L," which may be perhaps the initials 
of Robert Lecornu, whose cards date from the beginning of the reign of Francis 
!•) 1 515 _1 547 (see Lacroix, "LeMoyen Age et la Renaissance," tome 2.) 

These cards have had the outlines, figures, and names engraved on wood, 
and printed in a brownish colour, like the preceding " Valery " cards. The gene- 
ral colouring is after the same style, but the forms and the costume are very 


X 2f in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

F. 44. 


|IX sheets of figure cards from a numeral series, the marks of the suits 
of which are not indicated. 

Each sheet contains three toavs, of five pieces each row. Only 
the central row in each sheet is perfect. The figures in the upper 
rows of five of the sheets are cut away from above the knees, and in the lower 
rows from below these joints. On one sheet the upper row shows three-fourths 
of each figure, and the lower row the busts only. The figures on two of the 
sheets have suffered so much damage as to be wholly wanting in some of the 

On a scroll on five of the valets is the name Iehan Fa veil. The central 
row of the best-preserved sheet has the following series of figures, commencing at 
the left hand, viz., valet, dame, roi, dame, roi. On the heads of some of the parti- 
sans in the hands of the" valets are the letters " L. F." 

The designs and execution of these card-pieces are of a superior character. 
The costume is rich and well drawn. The two dames in the central row of sheet 
1 are admirable ; the dame with the flower toward her nose is most expressive 
and graceful in action. Neither suit marks nor names are present, and the cards 
are uncoloured. 

X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 



ii 4 


F. 45- 


OUR sheets relating to a numeral series of the ordinary French suit 
— piques, trefles, cceurs, and carreaux. On two sheets are four roi 
of card-pieces of the suits piques and trefles alternately. There 
generally five perfect pieces and part of another card -piece in ei 
row. The values of the pieces present range from five to ten. 

A third sheet consists of the stamped tarotee paper, intended for the backs 
of the cards. It is marked with lozenge-shaped spots, running in slightly curved 
diagonal lines across the paper, printed in black ink. 

A fourth sheet consists of the mutilated wrapper, intended to enclose the cards 
when perfected for the market. On an upper fragment are parts of a woodcut 
and inscription, the former exhibits a Sudarium or Veronica, and the latter the 
words " Sauveur du Monde >J< ." The whole is printed in black ink. On a 
lower fragment is a mutilated impression from a woodcut, printed in red ink. 
Beneath a broad ornamental border is the inscription — 
" Cartes Fines Factes a Rouen 
Par Robert Benieres." 

Below are portions of a coat of arms and its supporters, of which three fleur-de- 
lis and the heads of two angels are all that can be seen. 

The strange addition of a religious emblem and inscription to the cover of a 
pack of playing-cards, as shown on this sheet, may be explained by the circum- 
stance that Rouen being a cathedral town, the seat of an archbishopric and col- 
lege, it bestowed its patronage and certain privileges on a particular printing 
and publishing-house, which thus provided the inhabitants with amusement or 
piety according to circumstances. 

[3i x 1 i m -] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 46. 


WO sheets of figure cards from a numeral series of the suits piques, 

trefles, cceurs, and carreaux. 

On one sheet the pieces are coloured, and have the marks of 

their suits at the top right-hand corner. On the other sheet the 
cards have not been coloured, nor have they the suit marks. The coloured sheet 
has been torn ; the upper two rows of figures are imperfect, the lower two rows 
are nearly entire. Each row exhibits six pieces, composed of the kings, queens, 
and valets. A queen in the upper row of the coloured sheet is named pentha- 
silee ; a king of trefles, Hector ; and a valet of trefles bears on a scroll " Capitaine 
Vallante," and NB [Nicholas Besniere] on a shield between his legs. A king in 
the second row is named Charles, a queen of spades Persabee (Bethsabee), a 
valet of spades has the address of " Nicolas Besniere " on a scroll, and a king of 
the same suit is entitled David. On the third row from the top a king of hearts 



is named Jullius Caesar ; a valet of hearts Siprien Roman ; a valet of clubs as 
before, a queen of clubs Pentaxilee (Pentasilee), and a king of clubs Hector. 
On the lowest row is a king of diamonds named Charles, a valet of diamonds 
who is " Capitaine Metely," a queen of diamonds called Lucrelle (Lucresse), a 
king of spades who is David, and a valet of spades with the address of " Nicolas 

The other and nncoloured sheet has the four rows in a like sequence of six 
figures, each nearly perfect. A queen is here present named Heleine, torn away 
in the other sheet, and the address of " Robert Besniere," instead of " Nicolas 
Besniere," is on the valets. 

These two sheets of card-pieces are interesting as being examples of the 
cards known as those of Charles, or David, Dubois, slightly modified, as executed 
at Rouen by the brothers Besniere. The influence of Spanish and Italian types 
may be seen here in the designs, which belong probably to the second quarter of 
the sixteenth century, or to about the time of the Battle of Pavia, fought in the 
early part of 1525, near that town, between the French and the Imperialists. 
The former were defeated, and their king, Francois Premier, after fighting with 
great valour, was obliged at last to surrender himself a prisoner. Francis wrote 
to his mother, Louisa of Savoy, Regent of the kingdom during his absence, 
" Tout est perdu, Madame, fors l'honneur." 

According to Lacroix, the valet of piques in the Dubois cards resembles Charles 
the Fifth. 

[3f X if in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 47. 


SHEET of figure cards from a numeral series. It is torn at the 
lower portion. There are two rows of figures of five pieces in each 
row — king, queen, valet, king, and queen in the upper row, and 
queen, king, valet, queen, and king in the lower row. The pieces 
are nncoloured, and the marks of the suits are absent. On the central figure of 
each row — a valet — is a scroll bearing the address of " Jehan Genevoy." On the 
breast of the upper valet is a lion, sable, rampant, and on that of the upper king 
a double-headed eagle. 

These cards are more carefully designed and engraved than usual, and appear 
to have served as a model for an Italianised version, to be immediately noticed. 
X 2f- in.] [Backs plain.] 


F. 48. 


WO sheets of figure cards from a numeral series of the suits coeurs, 
carreaux, piques, and trefles. Each sheet contains two rows of figures, 
five figures being in each row. On one sheet the figures are heavily 
and coarsely coloured, and the signs of the suits are present. The 
pieces of the other sheet are uncoloured; and are devoid of the marks of 
the suits. 

These two sheets are evidently from different blocks, but which were intended 

116 FRENCH. 


to represent the same designs, the latter being an Italianised version of the 
French cards previously described — F. 47. 

On the scrolls of the valets of both rows of the coloured sheet is the add 
of " Francesco Franco" very plainly marked, while on the valet of the uncoloured 
sheet the letters appear to be frbnsos frenc. The letter F may be seen on the 
heads of the partisans of the valets in the uncoloured sheet. On the verso of the 
latter is the following memorandum in MS. : "trovate nella fodera di un libro 
stampato a Torino nel 1 600." 

Though the execution is here of a heavier and coarser character than in the 
previous version, the proportions of some of the figures are juster, and the actic 
of the valets in particular better expressed. 

Lacroix remarks : — 

" Under Henry II. and his sons as many Italian as French cards were manu- 
factured at Paris. The card-makers were even Italians." (" Le Moyen Age et la 

[3$ * 2 f m -] [Backs plain.] 

F. 49. 


ilGHT figure cards from a numeral series of the suits cceurs, carreaux, 
trefies, and piques. 

The cards present are the king and queen of cceurs, the king and 
queen of carreaux, another king and queen, and two valets. The 
kings and queen of coeurs and carreaux have the suit marks, the other cards are 
without them. All the pieces are coloured. 

The king of cceurs is entitled Charles, the queen of coeurs, Judic, the king of 
carreaux, Cezar, the queen of carreaux, Rachel. 

Another king is David, a queen Argine, one valet is named Hogier, while 
the other has the address of " Jean Lebahy." 

On the head of the partisan borne by the latter valet are the initials, J. L. 
These cards are of neat execution. The pieces have not been backed nor 

[3f X 2^ in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 50. 


'HIRTY-FOUR cards from a numeral series of fifty-two of the suits 
cceurs, carreaux, trefies, and piques. 

The cards present in the suit of cceurs are the ace, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
9, IO, valet, and dame. In carreaux the ace, 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, dame, 
and roi. In trefies, the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 9. In piques, the ace, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 
IO, and valet. 

On the valet of camrs is the title, Lahire. 

[3} X if in.] [Backs plain.] 



F. 51. 



)IFTEEN cards from a series of fifty-two numerals of the suits camrs, 
carreaux, treses, and piques. 

The cards present are in the suit cceurs, the ace, 2, 4, 5, 9, and 
IO. In carreaux, the 5, 7> dame, and rot. In trefies, the 4 and 6, and 
in piques, the ace, 3, and 7. 

On the king of carreaux there is a monogram at the left-hand lower corner, 
and one on the head of the partisan on the right hand of the figure ; but they are 
not decipherable. 

[3f-Xlfin.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 52. 


WO coate-cards from a numeral series of fifty-two. 

The cards present are the dame of piques and the valet of cceurs. 
On the former at the left-hand lower corner are the letters r c on 
a small shield. 



[Backs plain.] 

F. 53- 


WO pip cards from a numeral series of fifty-two. The cards present 
are the nine and ten of cceurs. 

These cards, along with P. 50, F. 51, F. 52, were found about 17 50 
behind some wainscoating in a house at Cambridge undergoing 


[3 1 X If in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

F. 54- 


|NE card from a numeral series manufactured probably for the Spanish 

The card present is the five of swords. On the front of the card is 
the address, " Guillau Mandrou," and 1792 has been added in MS. 
On the back of the card is the following engraved inscription, contained within an 
ornamental framework, surmounted by the Royal Arms of France : " Eftin 
Maitre cordonnier de la Reine Demeure rile Comtesse D'Artois en face de la rue 
Mauconseil chez M r . Corneille M d . Epicier. a Paris." 
The piece is coloured. 
[ 3 j. x 2f^ in.] [Back decorated.] 



F. 55- 


SINGLE figure card — the queen of hearts — from a numeral sei 
the usual kind. 

The queen holds a sceptre in her left hand ; she is turned towards 
. the right. 
The piece is coloured. On the back is a study in oil of a head by some 

[3f X H in 

[Back decorated by hand.] 

F. 56. 


*N entire set of a numeral series of fifty-two cards of the usual suit 
The coate-cards represent full-length figures, the roi de piques being 
entitled David, the dame Pallas, and the valet Hogier. The roi de 
trefles is Alexandre, the dame Argine, and the valet Lancelot. The 
roi de carreaux is Cesar, the dame Rachel, and the valet Hector. The roi de 
camrs is named Charles, the dame Judith, and the valet Lahire. 

The valet of trefles holds in his right hand a shield bearing the inscription : 
" 1816 Administ : des Contrib : Indir:" Around the mark of the suit on the 
ace of trefles is a wreath of oak -leaves. 

The designs on the coate-cards are from engraved plates of a soft metal, and 
though stiff are neatly executed, as is likewise the colouring. 

[3 ' X 2 in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

F. 57- 


JN entire set of a numeral series of fifty-two cards of the usual suits. 
The pack is a replica of the one just described (F 56), but the 
designs have been printed off* on cream-toned paper of considerable 
lissage, and the figure cards coloured in a heavier style. 
The engraved title of a wrapper accompanies the pack. On it is inscribed : 
" Cartes tres-fines de la Fabrique De Jounin. Rue du Four-Saint Germain 
No. 7 1 . Pres de la Croix-Rouge a Paris." 

On one edge of the wrapper is the word " Piquet,'" showing that the same 
title was used for various sets, the present series not being a piquet pack. 

[3| X 2 in.] 

[Backs plain.] 


F. 57. 2. 


SHEET containing the twelve coate-cards (unseparated) of a numeral 
series of fifty-two of the suits trefles, piques, cceurs, and carreaux. 

The honours are king, queen, and valet. The kings bear the 
names of David, Charles, Caesar, and Alexandre ; the queens those of 
Abigail, Hildegarde, Calpurnie, and Statira, while the valets are entitled Azael, 
Ogier, Cur ion, and Parmenion. The valet of trefles rests his right hand on a 
shield, in the central circle of which is the address : " Gatteaux, 181 1." 

These card-pieces are interesting from the circumstance that they form part 
of the series of designs made by M. Gatteaux (pere) at the command of the 
Emperor Napoleon I. who " dcsirant substituer aux figures bizarres des rois, 
dames, et valets, un dessin dont l'extreme elegance et la purete rendent la contre- 
fac,on difficile et qui puisse en meme temps, par la fidelite des costumes et l'exacti- 
tude des attributs, repondre au but allegorique que parait s'etre propose l'inventeur 
de ce jeu," desired that David, Mongez, Gatteaux, and other eminent artists of 
the time should be requested through the Conseil d ' Etat to furnish specimens. 
{Antea, p. 46.) 

These inventions of M. Gatteaux may be said to be in a general way well 
conceived, carefully drawn, and neatly executed, but a close examination of them 
elicits faults which, considering the source of the designs, demand notice. The 
male forms are heavy and too short for the size of the heads, some of the figures 
being scarcely more than six and a half heads high. The full and broad dra- 
peries, in which the kings particularly are clothed, increase the stumpy appear- 
ance of the figures still more. Certain of the female forms also are short for the 
size of the heads, while at the same time they are drawn on a scale which 
makes them all as tall as the men. The drawing of the upper extremities of 
some of the male forms is defective, and the head-dresses of two of the valets 
(hearts and spades) are mean. As a rule the actions are good, the poses 
statuesque and well-balanced, and the draperies satisfactory and largely designed. 
The attributes are appropriate and clear in their intentions. The technic, or 
engraving, is of a superior character, though from the closeness of the lines in 
some of the shadows the former have become clogged in inking, and hence pro- 
duced a slightly blurred appearance in the impression. 

The pieces are uncoloured. Spaces are left at the upper corners of the card 
for the ordinary suit marks, which in the example before us have not been added. 
Nevertheless, the suits are indicated, though in a manner very liable to pass un- 
noticed. The small ornaments in the borders of the draperies are composed 
chiefly of the marks of the suits, and the ends, or tails, of the chief folds of the 
mantles and scarves have diminutive pendants, or ornaments, of the form of the 
marks of the suits. 

The card-pieces are here in two rows of six pieces each row. In the upper 
row are the king, queen, valet of spades, and valet, king, queen of hearts. In the 
lower row are the valet, queen, and king of diamonds, and valet, queen, and king 
of clubs. The valet of hearts carries a scroll in his right hand on which is in- 
scribed the word " Ordre." 

The designs of M. Gatteaux and others of the First Empire are alluded to 
by Merlin. (Bibl. 6, p. 1 14, 1 15.) 

[3| X 2 in.] [Backs plain.] 

i2o FRENCH. 

F. 58. 


SET of fifty -two numerals of the usual suits. 

The coate-cards or honours have full-length figures in national 
costumes, representing the following personages. In the suit trefies 
the Emperor Napoleon (III.), the Empress Eugenie, and a royal 
huntsman. In cceurs, the Prince Consort of England, Queen Victoria, and a 
jockey. In piques, the Tsar of Russia, the Tsarina, and a royal serf. In 
carreaux, the Emperor of Austria, the Empress, and an imperial groom. On the 
ace of trefies are the imperial arms of France, and the word " France" at the 
left-hand lower corner. On the ace of cceurs are the arms of England, and the 
word " Angleterre" at the left-hand lower corner. On the ace of piques are the 
arms of Russia, and on that of carreaux those of Austria, with the respective 
words at the left-hand corner. On a smaller shield, placed like a shield of pre- 
tence over the royal arms, is the mark of the suit of each ace. 

A wrapper accompanies the set ; it is of glazed pink paper, having on it the 
following inscription, printed in blue and gold : — " Cartes Imperiales et Roy ales 
France — Angleterre Russie — Autriche B. P. Grimaud & Cie 70 Rue de 
Bondy Paris B P Grimaud et C ie ." 

The designs — particularly the armorial bearings — are neatly engraved and 

The backs are coloured bright rose-colour, and have much lissage. 

[3^- X 2 in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 59. 


PERFECT set of a numeral series of fifty-two cards of the ordinary 

The coate-cards of this sequence are full-length figures represent- 
ing popular characters, in theatrical or quasi-historic costumes. The 
roi de piques is entitled D'Artagnan ; the dame, Madame Bonacieux ; the valet, 
Planchet. In trejies, the roi is Athos ; the dame, Lady Winter; the valet, 
Grimaud. In carreaux, the roi is Porthos ; the dame, Duchesse de Chevreuse ; 
the valet, Mousqueton. In cceurs, the roi is Aramis ; the dame, Anne d' Autriche ; 
and the valet, Bazin. These figures are well and picturesquely designed; they 
are printed off" in chromo-lithography from several stones in bright and positive 
colours, and in parts illuminated in gold. 

Around the mark of the suit on each ace is an ornamental wreath. The 
figure cards representing the kings have each a gold coronet at the left-hand 
upper corner, immediately above the mark of the suit. 

The backs of the cards have much lissage, and are coloured light blue. 
The title of the wrapper accompanies the set. It is printed in gold letters 
on a blue glazed paper, and bears the following inscription : " Costumes du Temps 
de Louis 1 3. Les Mousquetaires B. P. Grimaud & C ie 70, Rue de Bondy." 
[3f- x 2 i m [Backs coloured.] 


F. 60. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits, viz., piques, carreaux, 
trefies, and cceurs. 

The figure cards or honours have on them busts printed in double 
and reverse, and bear the names of David, Pallas, and Hogier in 
piques ; Charles, Judith, and Lahire in cceurs ; Alexandre, Argine, and Lancelot 
in irejies ; Caesar, Rachel, and Hector in carreaux. 

The valet of trefies holds a shield in his right hand, on which is inscribed : 
"Administ. Des Contrib : Indir. 1853." 

Around the mark of the suit on the ace of trefies is a wreath of oak -leaves. 
These cards are after the same designs as those of F. 56, with the exception 
of the alterations necessary for the coate-cards. 
The backs are coloured of a buff hue. 
[3|- X 2 in.] [Backs coloured.] 

R 61. 


SET of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. The coate-cards 
have busts printed in double and reverse. 

The designs in each suit are different. The costumes of the roi 
and valet are of earlier character than those of the dames, which are 
quite modern. 

On the valet of piques is the address, "F. d'Alph Arnoult a Paris," printed 
at the left-hand lower and right-hand upper corners. 

The title of the wrapper accompanies the set. It is an ornamental neatly 
engraved piece, bearing the inscription, "Cartes Fines Allemandes en taille- 
douce a deux-tetes — No. 5." 

It is presumed that these cards are styled allemandes because they do not 
constitute a piquet pack, pure et simple, and that the figures are double and in 

The backs are marbled pink and white. 

[3g- X 2 J- in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 62. 


SET of small-sized cards of the usual suits. 

The figure cards have on them busts, printed double and in reverse. 
The dame of trefies holds a fan. 

The title of the wrapper accompanies the pack. It is printed in 
black on a pink ground, and bears the following inscription : " Deux-Tetes, Jeu 
de Patience, Fabrique de Testu Rue Croix-des-Petits champs 37. Paris." The 
backs are coloured pink. 

[2 x if in.] [Backs coloared.] 

122 FRENCH. 

F. 63. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

These cards are extremely diminutive, delicate, and pliable, and 
could be carried readily in a purse, waistcoat-pocket, or concealed 
the palm of the hand beneath a glove. 
The figure cards have on them busts, printed double and in reverse. 
The marks of the suits on the aces are placed within an ornamental frame. 
The lissage of the backs is considerable, and the latter are tarotees in gold, 
having rosettes within circles, between which are pierced squares. This orna- 
mentation is, however, not proportionate to the size of the cards. It is too 

The pack is enclosed in a delicate lilac-coloured and glazed paper case. 
[l|. X |- of an inch.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 64. 


PACK of fifty -two numerals of the ordinary suits. The coate-cards 
have on them busts, printed double and in reverse. The figures are 
devoid of titles. The dame of each suit holds in her right hand a 
different flower; in piques the latter is a tulip ; in carreaux, a pink or 

clove (here coloured yellow) ; in trefies a poppy (coloured yellow), and in cceurs 

a rose. 

The backs are tarotees with pink stars and dotted serpentine lines, but vary 

in pattern. Judging from the differences of the latter it may be assumed that 

this pack has been made up from three different sets, as shown, e.g. by the ace of 

piques, king of piques, and the eight of piques. 

[3f- x 2 ts * n '] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 65. 


SET of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. The coate-cards 
have on them busts, printed double and in reverse. The figures are 
strongly coloured and illuminated in gold, and are rather neatly en- 
graved. The marks of the suits on the aces are encircled by an orna- 
mental wreath. On the valet of trefies is the address, "B. P. Grimaud et C ie , 
Paris, France." 

The backs of these cards are coloured pink, and are highly glazed. 

[3f X 2 f in [Backs coloured.] 


F. 66. 


PACK of fifty -two numerals of the usual suits, piques, cceurs, carreaux, 
and trefles. 

The coate- cards have busts printed double and in reverse. 
On the aces are landscapes, also double and in reverse, representing 
coloured views in Portugal; the mark of the suit is placed in a white circular space 
in the centre of the card. On the ace of piques is represented, " Rua diretta da 
Junqueira enLisboa," and "Estatua equestre del Rei &' lose l°en Lisboa." On 
the ace of cceurs is a " Vista de Porto," and a " Vista de Coimbra." On the ace 
of trefles is " O Passeio Publico em Lisboa," and " Peira da Cordoaria no Porto." 
On the ace of carreaux is the "Palacio de Mafra," and a "Vista de Lisboa." 

The pack is accompanied by the engraved title of the wrapper, printed in 
gold on a pink ground, highly glazed. It bears the inscription, " Cartes Royalcs 
Extra Fines." 

The backs of the cards are marked with delicate transverse lines, and are 
neatly watered in pink. The corners of each piece are rounded off and gilt. 
[3|- x 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 66. 2. 


SET of piquet cards, i. e. thirty-two numerals, the two, three, four, 
five, and six of each suit of the ordinary set of fifty-two being sup- 
pressed (antea, p. 45). The coate-cards have on them full-length 
figures, bearing the names of David, Pallas, Hogier in piques ; 
Alexandre, Argine, Lancelot in trefles ; and Csesar, Rachel, and Hector in 

The designs are the same as those of the full set F. 56; the valet of trefles 
bears a like shield, having on it, " 18 16. Aministr. des Contrib : Indir." 

The mark of the suit on the ace of trefles is surrounded by a wreath of oak- 
leaves, and that on the king of each suit is surmounted by a crown. 

These cards are neatly engraved and coloured, and the backs are marked by 
vermiform dotted lines of a pink colour. 

[3J- x 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 67. 


SET of piquet cards of the ordinary suits. The coate-cards present 
full-length figures in character costumes, and are named as follows : 
In the suit piques the roi is Comte de Brissac, the dame, Diane de 
Poitiers, the valet is without title. The latter holds a greyhound by 
a string, and at the left-hand lower corner is engraved the word France. In 

124 FRENCH. 

trefies the roi is Bussy d'Amboise, the dame, Dame de Monsoreau ; the valet, a 
groom holding a horse, is without title. In carreaux the roi is Cinq-Mars, tin 
dame, Marion Delorme ; the valet, bearing glasses on a salver, is untitled 
cceurs the roi is the Chevalier d'Eon, the dame, the Comtesse de Rochefort ; 
valet; who is footman, is without title, but on the base of a pilaster in the bi 
ground is the address, " Gibert a Paris." 

The marks of the suits on the aces are enclosed within an ornamental fr 
The engraved ornamental title of the wrapper accompanies the cards, 
bears the following inscription, printed in black and gold, on a highly glazed and 
pink-coloured paper : " Entieres illustrees." " Brevet d'invention," " cartes dites 
opaques, B. P. Grimaud et C ie . Portrait Francais Illustre, 70, Rue de Bondy 
Paris. B. P. Grimaud et C ie ." " La transparence des cartes ordinaires est un 
inconvenient fort grave. Les cartes opaques ont une incontestable superiorite. 
Elles ne peuvent etre reconnues au travers sous quelque jour qu'elles soient 
placees. Roche inc." 

These cards are from neatly etched plates, and are carefully coloured. The 
backs are coloured pink, and the lissage is considerable. 

[3f X 2 in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 68. 


SET of piquet cards ; being a replica of the previously described set, 
F. 67. Not any title accompanies the pack. 

[3f X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

R 69. 


SET of piquet cards of the usual suits. The coate-cards have whole- 
length figures on them in the costume of the time. Gentlemen in 
paletots, frock, dress, and hunting coats represent the kings ; ladies in 
walking, indoor, and dress costumes portray the queens, and persons 
in the habits of coachmen, footmen, and gamekeepers, signify the valets. 

The marks of the suits on the kings have a crown above them, and those on 
the aces are surrounded by an ornamental framework. 

On the valet of trefies is the address of " O Gibert Fab 1 . Paris," at the left- 
hand lower corner. On the valet of piques, a footman, is the word Depose at the 
same place. 

The engraved ornamental title of the wrapper accompanies the set. Alle- 
gorical female figures are represented emptying from a cornucopceia all kinds of 
fashions in the way of bonnets, muffs, shoes, &c. Above is printed " Modes, 
Cartes Parisiennes," below, "Paris Rue des Singes No. 3." The whole is 
printed in black on a glazed blue paper. 

The backs are coloured blue, and are smooth. 

[3tV x 2 m -~\ [Backs coloured.] 


R 70. 


SET of piquet cards of the ordinary character. The coate-cards have 

busts on them printed double and in reverse. They bear the names 

of David, Pallas, and Hogier in the suit of piques; Alexandre, 

Argine, and Lancelot in trefles ; Caesar, Rachel, and Hector in 

carreaux ; and Charles, Judith, and Lahire in cceurs. 

The mark of the suit on the ace of trefles is surrounded by a wreath of oak- 

The backs are pink in colour and are glazed. 

[3J- X 2 in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 71 


SET of piquet cards of the usual suits. The coate-cards present 
busts printed double and in reverse, and are strongly coloured. 
[3f X 2 in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 72. 


PIQUET set of the usual kind. The coate-cards have busts printed 

double and in reverse, of different designs to those in the last set. 

The costumes are less conventional, and more historic in character, 

strongly coloured, and illuminated in gold. 

The suit marks on the aces are contained within an arabesque ornament. 

The valet of trefles bears a shield, on the border of which is the address, " O 

Gibert Paris." 

The title of the wrapper accompanies the cards. It is printed in black on a 
pink ground, highly glazed, and bears the following design and inscription, viz. — 
two allegorical female figures, one emptying a cornucopoeia filled with bonnets, 
muffs, and other articles of fashionable female attire. Above them is : "Costumes 
Historiques Frangais," " Cartes Parisiennes," " Paris Rue des Singes No. 3." 
The backs of the cards are glazed and coloured pink. 
[3tV X 2 * n -J [Backs coloured.] 



F. 73- 


SET of piquet cards of the usual suits. On the coate-cards are full- 
length figures of English historic personages. The king of spades 
represents Buckingham, the queen the Comtesse de Marlborough, 
the valet, who bears glasses on a salver, is unnamed. The king of 
clubs is Sir Rhys Thomas, the queen the Comtesse de Salisbury, the valet, who 
carries a helmet in his hand, is unnamed, but the word France is engraved at 
the left-hand lower corner. The king of diamonds is Leicester, the queen the 
Comtesse d' Oxford, the valet is unnamed. The king of hearts is Mac-Farlan, 
the queen the Comtesse d'Argyle, while the valet, who bears a falcon on his lef 
hand, is unnamed, but the card has the address, " Gibert Fab 1 a Paris," at the 
background. The costumes are intended to be historic. The marks of the 
suits on the kings have a crown above them, and those on the aces are containet 
within arabesque ornaments. 

These cards have been carefully designed and etched, and fairly coloured. 
The backs are coloured blue. 

The engraved and ornamental title to the wrapper accompanies the set. It 
represents the allegorical female figures with the cornucopia of articles before 
described, and bears the inscription : " Cartes Parisiennes, Paris Rue des 
Singes. No. 3." 

It is printed in black on a blue and glazed paper. 

[3-|- X 2 in.] [Backs coloured.] 


F. 74. A. 

Engravings of the Italian School. Worhs of Stefano Delia Bella 3 

yd Volume. 

F. 74. B. 

(Jeu des Reynes Benommees.) 

F. 74. c. 

(Les Jeux de Cartes des Boys de France } 1664.) 




The Cards 01 ' esmarests and of Stefano Della Bella. 

URING the time of Louis XIV. a French academician, Jean Des- 
marests 1 (born Paris, 1596), undertook, at the suggestion of Cardinal 
Mazarin, to prepare some series of games with cards, which might serve 
the purpose of instructing the young king. With this view Desmarests 
(who died in 1676 at the mansion of the Cardinal, of which he had been made in- 
tendant), associated with himself Stefano Della Bella, the well-known Florentine 
artist and engraver. They produced four series of instructive cards, Desmarests 
undertaking the general designs and arrangements, and Della Bella the particular 
illustrations and the engraving of them. The various series were afterwards 
sold by Henri Le Gras, of the Royal Library, letters patent of the date 1644 
having been issued to Desmarests, granting him certain privileges and monopo- 
lies connected with the cards, and forbidding their sale by any one than his 
authorized publisher, under a penalty of 3,000 livres and confiscation of the 

The first of these instructive or educational cards published, was a set 
entitled " Le Jeu des Fables ou de la Metamorphose," 1 hi which were represented 
" the gods, demi-gods, goddesses, and heroes of antiquity," accompanied by a 
precis Mstorique " at the lower part of each card, illustrative of the mythology of 
the ancients. Then followed " Le Jeu des Rois de France" or " Le Jeu de 
VHistoire de France" exhibiting the various kings from Pharamond to Louis 
XIV., and indicating in abridged histories then* particular characters, &c. 
Thirdly appeared " Ze Jeu des Reynes renommees" in which " is passed under 
review the queens, heroines, and other illustrious women, from the remotest 
antiquity until the present time. Some in chariots, some on horseback, others 
on foot, along with expositions of their characters ; and an abridged account of 
the more striking incidents in their history." (Jombert, p. 28.) 

Finally appeared " Le Jeu de la Geographie" " the whole forming a series of 
nearly 200 plates, extremely interesting, and of the best period of the work of S. 
Della Bella." (Jombert.) 

A little explanatory book of sixty pages (F 74, C), was afterwards produced 
by Desmarests, having the following title: " Les Jeux de Cartes Des Roys 
de France, des Reines renommees, de la Geographie et des Fables. Cy-devant 
dediez a la Reine Regente pour 1' instruction du Roy et depuis mis ensemble en 
un volume portatif pour apprendre tres facilement l'Histoire, la Geographie 
et les Fables. Par IDM. A Paris, chez Florentin Lambert rue Saint Jacques, 
vis-a-vis Saint Yves a Tlmage Saint Paul — m.dc.lxiv. avec Privilege du Roi." 

This brochure contains in the first place an address, " A la Reyne Regente," 
who is informed that " Ce sont des Jeux en apparence que je presente a, votre 
Majeste mais en effet c'est un livre, et une estude pour les Jeunes Princes, aussi 
serieuse pour le moins que divertissante. Voicy un nouvel Art qu'a produit une 
extreme passion de servir mon Roy apres avoir considere ses belles et genereuses 
inclinations, les beaux fruits que produira cette Royalle plante estant bien cultivee 
et les biens et la gloire dont vos Majestez et toute la France serout comblees, si 
l'on adjouste une soigneuse education a la grandeur et a la merveille de sa 
naissance," &c. &c. 

Next follows a " Lettre d'une Dame de Rennes a M. Desmarests sur le Jeu 
des Reines renommees," in which M. Desmarests' selection and rejection of par- 

1 Spelt also Des-Marets. 

128 FRENCH. 

ticular " Dames renomniees," and his historical account of the selected ones, are 
somewhat severely criticised. This letter is signed M. D. B., and is dated 
" De Rennes ce 27 Decembre 1644." After this comes M. Desmarests' reply, 
dated " De Paris, ce IO Janvier 1645." In it the writer makes a strong, but 
courteous reclamation against the strictures of one whom he believes to be 
" une Dame de qualite et de tres bon esprit." 

The following is an analysis of the educational and instructive series of 
cards by Desmarests and Delia Bella (F. 74. a., F. 74. b., F. 74 c), as pre- 
served in the British Museum. 

F. 74. A. i. "Jeu des Fables. 11 

A sequence of fifty- two separated card-pieces, and a title engraved au 
travers, bearing the inscription, "Jeu des Fables." The series is intended to 
afford instruction in ancient mythology and fable. Each piece has a figure subject 
of mythologic character, occupying half the card. Immediately below the design 
is its title, followed by a short, descriptive summary. Under this, towards the 
right-hand corner, is the mark of the particular suit to which the piece belongs, 
and towards the left is the number indicating its value. The intended coate-cards 
or honours have R, D, and \4. on them in place of the numbers. 

The marks of the suits are coeurs, trefles, piques, and carreaux. 

The coate-cards of the suit coeurs represent Jupiter, Juno, and Mars ; those 
of carreaux, Saturn, Venus, and Apollon ; of piques, Pluton, Diane, and Bacchus ; 
of trefles, Neptune, Pallas, and Mercury. The ace of piques exhibits Amphion 
seated on a rock overlooking a stream ; in the background are castellated walls. 
Below is inscribed " Amphion. Roy de Thebes, bastit les murs de Thebes au 
son de sa Lyre, les pierres suivant les cadences et se rangeant d'elles memes." 

A copy of the ace of trefles is given by Boiteau d'Ambly, p. 133, and by 
Taylor, p. 328, pi. 35. It represents " Arion" seated on a dolphin playing the 
violin. Below is the following: — "Excellent musicien fut jette dans la mer par 
des marchands pour avoir son bien, et ayant joue de sa lyre avant que d'estre 
jette, un dauphin le recoit et le mit au bord." 

The subjects of " Cephale et Procris," " Jupiter et Danae," " Thesee et 
Ariadne," "Hippomene et Atalante," &c, vary the illustrations with "Nep- 
tune," " Ceres," " Niobe," " Pigmalion," and others. 

Of this particular set, impressions of three different states exist in. the collec- 
tion of the works of S. Delia Bella in the British Museum. (Vol. 3.) 

1. First State.— Brilliant impressions before any inscriptions, marks, and 
numbers of suits. The card-pieces are unseparated, being contained in four 
large sheets of twelve cards in three rows of four cards each row, and in two 
smaller sheets, one sheet having three, the other two pieces engraved on it. A 
vacant place is on the latter sheet, which contains the title, engraved au 

2. Second State. — Card-pieces separated. Inscriptions and numbers added, 
together with the marks of the suits. The latter in camrs and carreaux are in 
outline only. The coate-cards are devoid as yet of the letters R, D, A. The 
title-piece is wanting. 

3. Third State. — The marks of the suit carreaux, before in outline, are now 
filled up by perpendicular lines, as are likewise the marks of the suit camrs. The 
letters R, D, A, are added to the coate-cards. 

The title-piece is present, and bears the inscription, " Jeu des Fables." The 
pieces are separate. Some of the designs of these card-pieces are very graceful 
and poetic, and the execution of them admirable, but they should be seen as 
impressions of the first state to be justly appreciated. 

[3i X 2 i in -] [Backs plain.] 


F. 74. a. 2. F. 74. c. 1 " Cartes des Boys de France. 1 ' 

A series of forty card-pieces, including a title, the secondary purpose of which 
is to afford historical instruction. Each piece has on it a figure or figures, 
equestrian or otherwise, representing kings or regents of France, from Phara- 
mond to Louis XIV., the latter being portrayed as a youth in a stately chariot 
guided by his mother. Below each design is engraved an historic account of the 
person represented. Above it is a number (generally at the left-hand upper 
corner), indicating the person's position in the sequence of the French kings. 
At the right-hand upper corner is recorded the number of years of the particular 

In illustration, the card-piece on which is represented "Francois l e " may be 
taken. Occupying somewhat less than half the card is the figure of a king on 
horseback, directed towards the left hand. He is in armour, wears a plumed 
helmet, and extends his right hand, in which is the baton of authority. At the 
left-hand upper corner is the number 58 in rather large figures, implying that 
Francis was the fifty -eighth king; at the left-hand upper corner is engraved 
" regna 32." 

Below the design is the following account, engraved on a piece of hanging- 
drapery : — " Francois I. Vaillant, liberal, humain, ay man t les lettres, il gagna 
contre les Suisses une grande bataille disputee 2 jours. II resista a toute l'Europe 
liguee contre la France, il combatit de toutes partes la puissance de Charles 
quint, mais sa prise devant Pavie luy fit perdre tons ses avantages." 

Though there are but thirty-nine cards (one of the forty being a title), the 
number of designs proceeds to sixty-five, some of the pieces having four or five 
figures on them. 

On one card are the numbers 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, belonging to " cruel kings," who 
are Childebert, cruel et avare, 6 ; Clotaire, tue de sa main ses neveux, 7 ; 
Cherebert, 8; Chilperic, 77 estrangla sa femme, 9; Childeric 2 e , 11 fit foueter 
un gentilhomme qui le tua, 14. 

A copy of one of the pieces, viz. that representing five " fayneants* may be 
seen in Boiteau d'Ambly's work, p. 134, and in Taylor's version, p. 344, pi. 
xxxvi. The kings selected appear to be arranged in the following manner : — 
" Good kings," " simple-minded kings," " cruel kings," " faithless kings," " un- 
fortunate kings," " kings neither good or bad." The latter include Charles the 
Bald, Francis II. , and Louis the Stammerer. 

Of the last king, Louis XIV., it is stated : — " Prince longtemps attendu, et 
qui estant donne de Dieux aux voeux d'une bonne et sage reyne et de tout le 
peuple faict esperer qu'il possedera toutes les vertus royales et que son regne sera 
tres heureux, puis qu'il a commence par la bataille de Bocroy et la prise de 

The ornamental title engraved au travers, bears the following inscription : 
" Cartes des Rois de France. A Paris Chez Henri Le Gras Libraire au troisieme 
pilier de la grande Salle du Palais." — Avec Privil." 

The set of card-pieces under notice has not any indications of suits nor of 
values. Each piece is separate, and all are neatly designed and engraved. 
[3i X 2 t-6 m -] [Backs plain.] 

F. 74. a. 3. " Jeu des Reynes Renommees." 

A set of fifty-two card-pieces with a title, the secondary purpose of which 
is to aiFord instruction in history. 

1 F. 74. c. The dedicatory and descriptive volume before mentioned at p. 1 27, 
refers to all the series in the 3rd vol. of the works of S. Delia Bella. 




These pieces have on them neatly engraved whole-length figures of renowned 
women, from Dido to Queen Elizabeth; they are variously engaged, go- 
of them being on horseback and some in chariots. They are classed 
follows : — 

Saints and holy women 
Good women 
Wise women 
Clever women 
Celebrated women 
Brave women 
Happy women 
Cruel women 
Licentious women 
Capricious women 
Unfortunate women 

as St. Helena, e.g. 
„ Penelope. 
„ Isabel of Castile. 
„ Catherine de Medici. 
„ Dido. 
„ Penthesilea. 
„ Roxana. 
„ Clytemnestra. 
„ Messalina. 
„ Sabina. 
„ Octavia. 

The personages chosen under these heads are so arranged in separate classes, as 
to indicate the ordinary suits and values of playing-cards. In another set pre- 
sently to be referred to, the four suits are likewise differentiated by the way in 
which the drapery is coloured. Any attempt, however, to employ these and 
their congeners as ordinary playing-cards would lead to confusion only. 

Each piece of the present series, with the exception of twelve intended to 
represent the honours, has a number indicating its value at the upper left-hand 
corner. At the right-hand upper corner is engraved the generic character of 
the personage represented. Below the design are the title and a description of 
the " reyne renommee." Thus, e.g. on a card intended to form the ten of a suit 
is the number lO, and the word " pieuse" at the upper corners respectively. 
Half the card is then occupied by a female figure in a religious habit, and 
carrying a crucifix. At the lower half is engraved " Elizabeth d'Arragon. 
Femme de Denys Roy de Portugal, elle vescut sainctement et un jour 
portant dans un coin de sa robe de 1' argent pour les pauvres le Roy luy demanda 
ce quelle portait, elle lui dit, ce sont des roses, le Roy le voulut voir, et l'argent 
se trouva change en roses." 

A copy of a "reyne galante" is given by Boiteau d'Ambly, p. 136. Some of 
these female figures are of very elegant design and of careful execution. 

The ornamental title is engraved au tr avers, and has on it " Jeu des 
Reynes Renommees." At the lower portion is the address of Henri Le Gras, 
" avec Privilege." The address has been cut through, but sufficient remains to 
permit of the identification. 


x 2-, 


[Backs plain.] 

F. 74. b. " Jeu des Reynes Renommees. 11 

Another copy of the set just described, in which the pieces have been 
coloured so as to indicate the four suits. Boiteau d'Ambly, commenting on 
this set, observes : — 

" Lescartes sont, par couleurs, dorees, ou argentees, ou vertes, on de teinte 
dite columbine, c'est-a-dire d'un rose tendre tirant un peu sur le chamois." — {Op. 
cit. p. 1 36.) 

These pieces have been separated, and stiffly mounted like playing-cards. The 
colouring detracts from the goodness of the designs and engraving, and is but of 
slight help in the way intended. 

The title is absent. 

[3f x 2 i in [Backs plain.] 


F. 74. a. 4. " Jeu de Cartes de la Geographies 

A series of fifty-two card-pieces, without the title, intended to give instruction 
m geography. 

Each card-piece has on its upper half a design or figure in a national cos- 
tume, emblematic of a geographic division of the globe. Below are the title, and 
an account of the place represented. Thus, on a card intended to represent an 
ace is the number 1 at the left-hand upper corner. The upper half of the piece is 
occupied by a full-length figure with a trailing habit of Mauresque character ; he 
bears a lance with pennon in his right hand, and wears a plumed turban or cap. 
Below is the following inscription : "Barbarie. Belle et temperee, s'estendle long 
de la mer mediterranee jusques au destroit de Gilbratar [sic] les villes Tunis, 
Biserte, Alger et Tripoly, sont tenues par des pyrates sous la protection du Turc." 

The four quarters of the globe represent the four suits, each having twelve 
divisions, i.e. 13 X 4 = 52. In one suit the king is represented by Europe, the 
queen by France, and the valet by Spain, or their emblematic figures. The 
numerals of the suit include Sicily, Dalmatia, Greece, Servia, Hungary, Poland, 
Scandinavia, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy. 

The supposition that these cards could be used for the purposes of ordinary 
play is quite illusory. The designs and executions of this series are very com- 
mendable. Some of the former, such, e.g. as those illustrating the four quarters 
of the globe, are rich and pictorial. 

[3t X 2i in.] [Backs plain.] 

Of this series, two copies exist in the Museum collection. Both are among 
the works of Stefano Delia Bella, vol. iii. ut antece. 

1 . An imperfect set of early impressions of twenty-five of the card-pieces, 
before the addition of the numbers at the left-hand upper corner. Each piece 
having been cut away immediately below the design, the places of the inscriptions 
are wanting. 

[2X2 in. average.] [Backs plain.] 

2. A full and fine set — minus the title, however — having both numbers and 
inscriptions, as before described. 

Charles Antoine Jombert, in his " Essai d'un Catalogue de Toeuvre D'Etienne 
De la. Belle," &c, Paris, 1772, 8vo., has the following note in reference to these 
various series of cards: — 

" In order to be sure of the first states, it is requisite to possess all these small 
prints, " avant la lettre" as they may be seen among the works of Delia Bella 
which are in the cabinet of the king, and which it is almost impossible to gather 
together. Under any circumstances, these four series should be obtained with 
the address of Henri Legras at the Palace, and not with that of Florent 
Lecomte, " Rue St. Jacques au ChifFre Royale," as this author advises in the 
second volume of his catalogue (second part, p. 1 17), of the works of Delia Bella, 
since Le Comte did not come into possession of the plates until long after the 
time of Henri Legras. These four series are very amusing, and are of the best 
period of the artist. They were designed by Desmarets (author of the poem 
'Go vis'), according to the order of Cardinal Mazarin, to facilitate the studies of 
Louis XIV. when a child." {Op. cit. p. 1 13.) 

i 3 2 FRENOH. 

R 75- 




PIQUET set of card-pieces (thirty-two), the secondary purpose of 
which is to teach geography. 

The suits are distinguished by small squares of colour at the upper 
corners of each piece. Each square is likewise marked with either 
the number of the suit or the initial letter of the "honour." The greater portion 
of each piece is occupied by a neatly engraved geographic map, or a chart having 
references to a description below. 

The aces of the different suits represent respectively a plan of the celestial 
universe, an armillary sphere, and the two terrestrial hemispheres. 

These cards are neatly engraved and coloured, and care has evidently been 
taken to render them geographically correct. The degrees of latitude and longi- 
tude are marked on the maps. 

The backs of these cards are marbled with a variety of brilliant colours. 
[4| X 2§- in.] [Backs coloured.] 

R 76. 



(Military Science.) 

LARGE engraved sheet, containing fifty-two unseparated card-pieces, 
intended to serve the purpose of instruction in military engineering 
science, as well as that of ordinary play. 

The marks of the suits are piques, trefles, carreaux, and cceurs; the 
figure-cards are roi, dame, and valet. 

There are five rows of cards. Of the upper two rows, each contain eleven 
pieces ; the middle row has seven, a dedicatory address, and a general bird's-eye 
view of a " Place Complete des Fortifications." The fourth row has eleven pieces, 
and the fifth, or lowest, contains twelve. 

In a broad margin above the divisions are several inscriptions. The central 
and titular one is as follows : — " Le Jeu des Fortifications dans lequel les 
differents ouvrages qui servent a la defense des places et des camps sont exacte- 
ment dessines selon la plus nouvelle maniere avec toutes leur definitions et une 
explication courte et facile des termes qui sont en usage dans cet art." 

On each side of the above are the " Regies du Jeu," in which it is stated that 
" ce Jeu souffre toutes les differentes especes de jeu qui se jouent avec les cartes 
ordinaires. On le pent jouer aussi avec deux Des observant les regies marquees 
cy dessous." 

At the left-hand corner of the upper margin is a paragraph pointing out the 
connection of geometry with military engineering science; while at the right-hand 
corner of the same, the nature of fortification is pointed out. The dedication in 
the third row runs thus: — " A L'lllustre Jeunesse elevee dans le college de Louis 
Le Grand." Twenty lines of address then follow, with the signature of " Votre 
ties humble et tres obeissant serviteur, I. Mariette." 


The lower portions of these unseparated card-pieces are occupied by engraved 
and coloured representations of particular details in fortification or engineering 
work, and of defence. 

At the upper part is the title, and a more or less extended description of the 
design below. At the upper right-hand corner is a diminutive representation of 
an ordinary numeral playing-card, having a number at the top, proceeding from 
No. 1 on the ace of diamonds (the first card on the lowest row) to 52 on the 
king of hearts, the fifth card-piece of the middle row. The figure or coate- 
cards have on them diminutive full-length figures, standing, and wearing red 

Some of the card -pieces of the lowest series have on them diagrams and 
descriptions in geometry. 

All the designs and descriptions are from neatly engraved copper-plates, and 
some, like the " Fausse Braye," or the four of piques, in the top row, the " Pont 
Levis," or the nine of cceurs, in the second row ; the " Ports de Mer," or the two 
of trefies, in the centre row ; and the "Chateau," or ten of cceurs, in the same 
series, form agreeable views or landscapes. 

A margin is preserved at the left-hand side of the sheet for a " Table Alpha- 
betique des Termes contenus en cette carte." 

At the bottom, between the broad border-line and the plate edge-mark, is the 
following address, at the left-hand corner : — " Invente et dessine par Gilles de la 
Boissiere, ingenieur ordinaire du Roy." 

At the right-hand corner is " A Paris, chez I. Mariette, rue St. Jacques aux 
Colonnes d 1 Hercules, avec Privilege du Roy." 

The general sheet of card-pieces measures 19^ X 27| in. 

[3f X 2-|- in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 77. 



(Military Science.) 

LARGE engraved sheet, 19 J- in. high by 27 in. wide, of fifty-two un- 
separated card-pieces, intended to serve for instruction in the prin- 
ciples of military science as well as for ordinary play. The suits and 
honours are of the usual kind. 

There are five rows of cards. The upper two rows contain eleven pieces each 
row ; the centre series has seven, and a dedicatory address, together with a repre- 
sentation of a monarch investing a hero Avith some dignity. The fourth row con- 
tains eleven pieces, and the lowest series twelve. 

In a broad margin above the upper row of cards are several inscriptions, the 
central one being titular, and as follows : — " Le Jeu de la Guerre " — " ou tout ce 
qui s'observe dans les Marches et Campements dans les Batailles, Combats, Sieges 
et autres actions Militaires est exactement represente avec les Definitions et les 
explications de chaque chose en particulier." 

At each side of the above are the " Regies du Jeu," which commence with the 
information that " ce Jeu soufFre toutes les differentes especes de Jeux qui se 
jouent avec les cartes ordinaires, dont le nombre est represente par 52 Figures 
marquees de Pique, de Treffle, de Cceur et de Carreau. Le Chiffre Romain qui 
se voit dans chaque Carte en marque la Valeur, 1' R signifie le Roy, le D la Dame, 
r V le Valet. 

" Ce jeu se joue aussy avec deux Dez ordinaires," &c. &c. 

The dedication in the third row of card-pieces is to " Monseigneur le Due de 

134 FRENCH. 

Bourgogne." It contains fourteen lines, and is signed by "Votre tres II et obeis: 
Serv : I. Mariette." 

To the left is the representation of the French monarch seated on a throne, 
the steps of which an officer is ascending to receive a marshal's baton. 

Below is the couplet — 

" L'hero'ique valeur que ce grand Roy couronne 
N'estime dans ces prix que la main qui les donne." 

The upper half of each card-piece exhibits a neatly designed and engrave 
representation of some military operation; the lower half has the title and de- 
scriptive details. 

Some of the designs are very picturesque, forming little bits, much after the 
styles of Callot and Stefano Delia Bella. Each piece has the mark, in outline, of 
its suit at the upper left-hand corner, containing within it the value of the 
particular card. At the opposite and upper corner is the general number, rising 
from 1 on the ace of hearts (the first card on the lowest row) to 52 on the king 
clubs, in the middle of the centre series. 

At the lower margin of the sheet, at the left-hand corner, is the address 
" Invente et dessine par Gilles de Boissiere Ing^nieur ordinaire du Roy et Grave 
par Pierre le Pautre." 

At the right-hand corner is " A Paris ohes I, Mariette rue St. Jacques auj 
Colonnes d'Hercules avec Privilege du Roy," 

[3f x 2 t in -] [Backs plain.] 

R 78. 




PIQ UET set of cards (thirty -two), of the usual suits. Its secondary 
purpose is that of giving instruction in mythology. 

On the coate-cards are full-length figures, representing, in piques, 
Pluton, Proserpine, and Minos ; in trefles, Neptune, Amphitrite, and 
a Triton ; in carreaux, Mars, Bellone, and Achille ; in ccews, Jupiter, Junon, 
and Mercure. Each roi has a crown at the upper right-hand corner. The 
aces have a double set of designs, between the upper and lower of which is 
placed the mark of the suit. On the ace of piques are represented the Rape of 
Proserpine, and the Bark of Charon ; on that of trefies, the Nereids and Nymphs; 
on the ace of carreaux are the Trojan War, and the ship Argo, which had an oak 
for a mast, predicting future events ; while in cceurs are Leda and the Swan, and 
the workshop of Vulcan. 

Each pip-card has on it either two circular medallions, or one larger oval 
medallion, containing a mythologic figure, such as Eurydice, Cerberus, Latona, 
and Hercules. The names of the subjects and persons represented are placed 
below them. Between and around the pips runs a delicate ornamental line in 
blue, having attached to it ornaments illuminated in gold. The medallions have 
likewise illuminated borders, and the crowns, arms, attributes, &c. of the figures 
and scenes are also illuminated in gold. All the cards are neatly engraved and 
coloured, and are printed off on paper having a slight blue tone of colour. The 
proportions of some of the figures are very bad indeed. The backs are coloured 
buff and are glazed. On one or two of the pieces is " Lith V or Arouy Rue St. 
Honore 67," accompanied oii the seven of trefies by " V, Lange del et Lith." 


The engraved ornamental title of the wrapper accompanies the set. It is 
printed in blue ink, and bears the following inscription : " Cartes mythologiques 
V or Lange Paris V. Lange." 

[34 X 2| in.] 

[Backs coloured.] 

R 79. 




SERIES of fifty-two cards of the suits piques, trefles, cceurs, and 
carreaux, bound together as a small volume. This set is intended to 
afford instruction in heraldry, and is one of the original French versions 
of the sequence which originated with Oronce Fine dit de Brianville, 
an Abbe of Poitiers, and was first published by Benoist Coral, a bookseller at 
Lyons. A full description of this original edition, and of the Italian versions 
which succeeded it, has been already given under I. 13, I. 13. 2, I. 14. 

In the present series the king of hearts and eight of clubs are wanting ; but 
their places have been filled with hand-drawings of the arms absent. 

On the king of clubs are the arms of Pope Innocent XL (Odeschalci), 
1676-1689, with the following description: — "Porte d' argent a six coupes 
couuertes de gueules posees trois deux et un, entre trois filetes de meme mis en 
face, surmontes d'un lion leoparde aussi de gueles au chef cousu d'or charge d'un 
aigle esployee de sable. Lescu tymbre de la Thiare et orne des deux clefs du S* 

The present series commences, however, with the king of spades bearing the 
arms of Leopoldo of the holy Roman empire and of Germany, with a shield oi. 
pretence of the arms of the house of Austria. 

All the armorials are neatly coloured in their proper blazon, but the technical 
execution of the copper-plate engraving is but mediocre. The engraved descrip- 
tions and titles are in French. 

Accompanying these heraldic cards is a curious book-shaped case which for- 
merly contained them. It is of ebony, inlaid with ivory and different coloured 
woods, and fitted with clasps and hinges of chased steel. The following arms are 
represented on the external face of each cover by means of the ornamental inlaid 
ivory and wood, viz. — two lion's jambs couped and crossed in saltire, between an 
estoile of eight rays in chief and a fleur-de-lis in base. These are borne on a 
shield placed between the four letters 

in mother-of-pearl. 

The author of the article in the "Herald and Genealogist" (vol. in. p. 77, 
1866), alluding to these arms, remarks: "We have not ascertained the name to 
which the arms on the case belonged. The family of Rasponi of Rome bore 
Azure two lion's jambs crossed in saltire or, and Raspi of Venice had also lion's 
jambs in saltire, with a lion's head in chief and an eagle's leg in base. The 
letters, however, do not point to a name commencing with that initial." 

[3t X 2| in.] [Backs plain.] 

i 3 6 FRENCH. 


R 79. 2. 


PIQUET set of cards (thirty-two) of the ordinary suits. 

Biographical and historical information is intended to be conveyed 
by it, while it is meant also for the purposes of ordinary play. 

The coate-cards exhibit full-length coloured figures of eminei 
male and female personages. In the suit piques, the king is Caesar, the dame 
Judith, and the valet Guttemberg; in trefles the king is Alexander, the dame Sail 
Genevieve, the valet Christopher Columbus; in carreaux the king is Charlemagne, 
the dame Lucretia, and the valet Moses ; while in cceurs the king is Homer, the 
dame Joan of Arc, the valet Napoleon I. 

In these " honours " the mark of the suit is placed at the upper left-hand 
corner ; at the right, is either the mark repeated or the word " Heros " on a 
wreath, to indicate the character of the person represented. The king of piques; 
Caesar, has " Heros," while the valet, Guttemberg, has a wreath. Below the figure 
is the name and other information. Thus, below the figure on the valet of trefles 
is " Christophe Colomb. 1 492-1506. Amerique." Under that of the dame de 
cceurs is " Jeanne d'Arc. 1428-1431. Sauva La France;" and below the dame de 
carreaux is " Lucrece. 509. AV. J.C. Pudeur. Vertu." 

Moses holds in his hands the decalogue ; Charlemagne a tablet, inscribed 
" Capitulaires, Ecoles ;" and Guttemberg displays a scroll, having on it, " Et la 
lumiere fut." 

The ordinary pip-cards have the signs of their suits at each upper corner, the 
value of the cards being indicated by small medallion heads of illustrious people, 
in number equivalent to the value of the particular card. Below each medallion 
is a name and date. Each set of medallion heads is repeated on the correspond- 
ing cards of the four suits. Thus, on the seven of piques are the heads of Cuvier, 
Newton, Arago, A. Pare, Archimedes, Plato, and Franklin, which are repeated on 
the seven of carreaux, and on the sevens of the other suits. 

The aces have each two designs, the mark of the suit being placed between 
them. On these pieces the histories of Cain and Abel, of the Creation, the Deluge, 
the Crucifixion, are portrayed. 

All the cards have ornamental borders around the designs. 
On the ace of caurs is the address " Mel. G. Deschamps Inv*. Eug. Moreau 
Fecit. Minne Sculp." 

The ornamental engraved title of the wrapper accompanies the set. It is 
printed in black and gold on glazed pink paper, and is identical with that described 
on F. 67. 

[3-g- x 2 i m> ] [Backs plain.] 


F. 80. 


5|fl ORTY-FIVE cards from a pack of fifty-two numerals of the usual 
suits. The four, seven, and ten of cceurs, the ace of piques, the ace, 
two, and queen of carreaux are wanting. 

The secondary purpose of these cards is chiefly of a satirical 
character, though there prevails much caricature and comic spirit among them. 
On the other hand, some of the pieces, particularly of the suit trefles, are of purely 
artistic design. 

The coate-cards have full-length coloured figures on them, and smaller 
whole-length figures are introduced on many of the lower numerals. The 
latter figures are uncoloured, the colour being confined to the marks of the suits 
variously disposed, which are often made to constitute or fit into portions of the 
bodies. There is much spirit in some of the designs, and the engraving and 
colouring has been neatly and carefully executed. 

The satire which prevails is directed against the dominant political party of the 
time. On the king of trefles is represented the editor of the " Journal des Debats," 
endeavouring to carry two large bags, the one inscribed " Empire," the other 
" Debats." Pie has a pen behind his ear, and his countenance and action express 
the difficulty of his labour. Between his legs are two donkeys in the middle 
distance, caressing each other. On one donkey hang the ribbon and medal of 
some order. 

The dame de trefles represents the " Gazette " as an elderly lady, seated at a 
table writing. She has stopped for a moment to look up at a magpie in a cage 
hung up above the table. 

The valet of the same suit exhibits the person of Talleyrand, under the title 
of " Clopineau." He carries his cocked hat under his left arm, and supports him- 
self by his left hand on a stick. His left leg is shorter than the right one, and he 
wears on the left foot a high-heeled shoe. Near the top of the card are the signs 
of the political zodiac, which the minister has already passed through. 

In cceurs the king symbolises the popular journal, the " Constitutionnel." He 
is a figure in Roman costume, with sword and shield, defending a column on 
which is inscribed " Charte constitutionnel, Liberte de la Presse, Liberte indi- 
viduelle, Loi des Elections, Tolerance." The dame is Minerve, standing on the 
steps of a temple, and putting to flight certain evil spirits of the parti pretre. 
The valet is Figaro, in character costume. 

The king of piques is " Conservateur," a Jesuit, at the head of his troop of 
brethren, carrying a flaming torch and sword. The dame is the " Quotidienne," 
an ugly old woman, with an open book in her left hand, and an extinguisher in 
the other, which she is about to place on the head of Truth, a nude, good-looking 
young female, rising, glass in hand, from a well. The valet represents Chateau- 
briand, under the title of Bazile. He is a fine figure, in a clerical habit, hiding 
under his cloak a Jesuit's cap, which he holds in his left hand. Kneeling at his 
left side is a donkey, which is looking up at him and braying. 

In the suit carreaux the king is represented by the " Moniteur," a brazen 
head on a truncated cone, in which are stuck various flags, indicative of the 
numerous parties which have been supported by the journal. A figure of Time 

, 3 8 FRENCH. 

is at the upper right-band corner, flying away. The dame is here absent. 
valet is " Don-Quichotte " attacking a windmill. 

Some of the designs of the pip-cards in cceurs and piques are laughable eno 
while in trefles are represented " L'Ange des Tenebres vaincu par St. Mich 
" Le roi Dagobert," " Insectes," " Vases Etrusques," " Tombeau Turc," &c, 

These cards have been described by Chatto (p. 264), and alluded to 
Peignot (p. 297) in 1826. The latter writer speaks of them as "a very malicious 
series, published at Paris seven or eight years ago, and, as far as I can remember, 
during the ministry of M. D. C . . . . , under the title of ' Cartes a rire.' The 
pack is attributable to M. A . . . . , C. A.D. C.D.D.O. All the cards, whether 
figure or numeral, are of excellent design, with ingeniously grouped figures in 
agreeable attitudes. But the spirit of satire is carried to excess, and it is not by 
such caricatures as these that unanimity can be re-established among the French 

[3t X 2 i m -] [Backs plain.] 


HE series of cards now to follow illustrate the application 
of the latter to the purposes of divination, sortilege, and 

The more important and quasi- scientific — if we may 
so speak — of such cards have been based generally in modern packs 
on tarots sequences, and of these latter, such as F. 39 may be 
taken as a fair example. 

Of the tarots, here playing so prominent a part, much has been 
before stated (pp. 18, 36, 65); but they have yet to be considered 
under their mystical aspect, which forms so important and curious a 
branch of their history, as insisted on by some investigators. Their 
relations in this respect underlie, in fact, according to certain writers, 
not only a particular branch of thaumaturgic knowledge, but the whole 
history of playing-cards. These emblematic figures, the tarots, are 

y asserted to have had a very remote origin ; an origin stretching as 

far back, indeed, as the ancient Egyptians, from whom they have 
descended to us as a book or series of subjects of deep symbolic mean- 
ing. Some of these subjects have in the course of time, however, 
become somewhat changed or metamorphosed, yet leaving traces in 
sufficiency of the original symbols by which those learned in arche- 
ology and illuminism may establish their true nature. 

The discovery and explication of this supposed source and hidden 
meaning of the tarots employed in modern times was claimed by 
M. Court de Gebelin in 1781, who in his " Monde Primitif analyse 
et compare avec le Monde Moderne," tome i. p. 363, gave a disserta- 
tion, " Du Jeii des Tarots ; ou l'on traite de son Origine, ou on 
explique ses allegories et ou Yon fait voir qu'il est la source de nos 
cartes modernes a jouer," &c. 

In this dissertation M. de Gebelin affirms that the series of seventy- 


eight Venetian tarots, i. e. twenty-two atutti and fifty-six numerals, 
has an unquestionable claim to be regarded as an Egyptian book, 
which escaped the flames destroying the ancient libraries, and as 
coming down to us with an epitome of the purest Egyptian doctrine >^ 
on some of the most important and interesting topics. If, states ^ 
M. de Gebelin, the tarots game be closely investigated, it must be 
evident that it is based on the sacred Egyptian number seven. Each 
suit or colour is composed of twice seven cards. The atouts are in 
number three times seven; the total number of cards being seventy- 
seven ; the fool, or "Matto," being 0. If we search the allegories 
they contain, their ancient and Egyptian source becomes still more 

The atouts in general represent the spiritual and temporal heads 
of society, the physical chiefs of agriculture, the cardinal virtues, 
marriage, death and resurrection, or the Creation, the various 
aspects of fortune, the sage and the fool, and Time, the consumer of 
all things. / 

Let us examine these emblematic figures in detail, 1 commencing 
with No. 1, Le Bateleur, or cup-player (thimble-rigger) , and proceed 
up to No. 21, Le Monde, as it is the custom of the present time to 
begin with the lowest number, though the Egyptians, it would 
appear, began at the higher and descended to the lower numbers. 

The first of the atouts in the ascending, and the last in the 
descending scale, is a conjurer with cups, seen at his table, on which 
are dice, cups, knives, and balls. He is known also by his Jacob's 
staff or magician's wand, and by the ball which he holds between 
two fingers, and which he is going to make vanish. Placed at the 
head of all estates of men, he implies that our whole life is but a 
dream, an illusion, a perpetual game of chance, the impulse of a 
thousand circumstances over which we have no control, but upon 
which much influence is necessarily produced by an over-ruling ad- 
ministration. Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 are the spiritual and temporal 
heads of society. No. 2, La Papesse, is the chief priestess, the wife 
of the chief priest ; No. 5, Le Tape. 

We know that among the Egyptians the heads of the sacerdotal 
rank were married. Had these cards been the invention of modern 
times there would not have occurred any high priestess, far less one 
under the title La Papesse, as the German card-makers have ridicu- 
lously entitled the present. The high priestess is : seated in an 
arm-chair, has on a long dress, with a kind of veil behind her 
head, and which crosses over the chest. She wears a double crown 
with two horns, as did Isis, holds an open book on her knees, and 

1 The study of the following pages, 139-155, should be accompanied by that 
of a Tarots sequence like F. 39 or of the plates in Singer (Bibl. 8) p. 284. 

i 4 o FRENCH. 

has two bands adorned with crosses passing like an X over the 

No. 5, the high priest, Le Pape, in long dress and large mantle, 
secured at the neck by an agraffe ; he wears the triple tiara; in one 
hand is a sceptre with a triple cross, with the other hand, of which two 
fingers are extended, he bestows benediction on two persons at his 
knees. The Italian and German card-makers have converted these 
two emblematic figures (2 and 5) , upon whom the ancients bestowed 
the names of father and mother (Oriental terms, signifying abbe and 
abbesse) , into a pope and popess, in accordance with their own cir- 
cumscribed knowledge. As to the sceptre with the triple cross, it is 
purely an Egyptian relic ; it may be seen on the table of Isis, under 
the form of T T ; it is a precious relic, bearing relation to the triple 
Phallus, carried in the famous festival of Pamylies, representing the 
recovery of Osiris, and symbolising the regeneration of plants and 
of the whole of nature. 

No. 3, L'Imperatrice, represents the queen, and No. 4, VEmpe- 
reur, the king. Both have for attributes an eagle on a shield, and 
a sceptre surmounted by a globe thautified, or crowned with a cross, 
termed " thau," the chief of all symbols. 

No. 6, L' Amour eux, is marriage. A young man and woman 
pledge mutually their faith, a priest blesses them. The card- 
makers name this design V Amor eux, and it would appear they added 
the Cupid with his bow and arrows in order to make it of a speak- 
ing character. 

No. 7, Le Oharior, is Osiris triumphant. He advances, sceptre 
in hand and crown on head. He is in his chariot of war, drawn by 
two white horses. Osiris was the grand and supreme deity, in- 
visible, except as manifesting himself in nature. He disappeared 
during winter, but re-appeared in spring with new glory, having in 
the interim conquered all that opposed him. 

Nos. 8, 11, 12, and 14 are the four cardinal virtues. No. 8 is 
Justice as a queen, or " Astrea/' seated on a throne, holding a 
sword in one hand and a pair of scales in the other. No. 11 is 
Force, a woman who has overcome a lion, whose jaws she opens 
with a like facility as she would those of her lap-dog ; on her head 
is the hat of a shepherdess. No. 12, Le Pendu, is in the place of 
Prudence. Could the Egyptians — it may be asked — have forgotten 
the latter for this representation of humanity ? Yet we do not find 
Prudence in the sequence. Instead of it we find, placed between 
Force and Temperance, a man suspended by his leg ! What does this 
mean ? It is the work — writes M. de Gebelin — of some wretched, 
presumptuous card-maker, who, not understanding the beauty of the 
allegory contained in the original design, took upon himself to cor- 
rect it, as he thought, but in lieu disfiguring it in toto. 


'rudence could be represented to sight satisfactorily only by 
means of a person erect, who, having one foot firmly fixed on the 
ground, advances the other, keeping it raised while searching for a 
spot on which he can place it securely. The original title of this 
card was equivalent to a man " pecle suspensu." The card-maker, 
not understanding the sense of the latter, designed a figure sus- 
pended by the foot ! As might be expected, the question has been 
asked why there is such a strange figure as this ' { Le Pendu " in the 
tarots sequence ? It has been replied that it represents the just 
punishment of the inventor of it for having represented therein a 
female Pope ! 

No. 14 is Temperance, a winged female pouring water from one 
vessel into another to cool the fluid they contain. 

No. 9, L'Ermite, is the sage, or seeker after truth and justice. 
He is a venerable philosopher in long mantle, with a cowl on his 
shoulders, leaning on a stick as he walks. He holds a Ian thorn in 
his left hand, as he searches for virtue and justice. The card- 
makers have transformed him into a hermit. There is not any harm 
in having done so. In the East to become addicted to the occult 
sciences and s'herme'tiser is almost one and the same thing. The 
Egyptian hermits were equal in this respect to those of India and 
to the Talapoins of Siam, and the same may be said of the Druids. 

No. 10 is the Wheel of Fortune. Here human beings under the 
form of monkeys, dogs, rabbits, &c, rise in their turns upon the 
wheel to which they are attached. It is a satire on Fortune, and 
on those whom she elevates rapidly into notice, and lets fall with a 
like rapidity. 

No. 13, La Mort, is Death mowing down all humanity. Whether 
kings or queens, rich or poor, none can resist his terrible scythe. 
Nor is it to be wondered at that Death should be placed under this 
number, which has always been regarded as of unfortunate character. 
According to an ancient legend it was on the thirteenth day of the 
infancy of the world that some great misfortune happened, the 
remembrance of which had an influence on all the people of 
antiquity ; on the Jews to the extent that the thirteen tribes have 
never yet been able to complete more than twelve of their number. 

No. 15, Le Diable, is Typhon, a celebrated Egyptian personage. 
He was the brother of Osiris and Isis, the evil principle, the chief 
demon of Hell. He has bat's wings, the hands and feet of a harpy, 
and on his head the horns of a stag. At his feet stand two little 
devils with long ears and tails, and their hands tied behind them. 
They are secured to each other by a cord round their necks, which 
is attached at its centre to the pedestal of Typhon. This implies 
that the latter does not readily allow those to escape who belong to 
him ; Typhon likes too well his own flock to suffer that negligence. 

i 4 2 FRENCH. 

No. 16, La Maison Dieu, is the Castle of Plutus. It is a towi 
filled with gold but falling in ruins, and crushing its worshippers as 
it falls. It symbolizes the history of the Egyptian Prince Rhamp- 
sinit, spoken of by Herodotus. It is a lesson against avarice. The 
moderns added the thunder and lightning of God in bringing to 
close the worship of Mammon. 

No. 17, L'Estoille,\a Sirius or the Dog-star. We perceive a lar 
star having around it seven smaller star3. Below is a woman rest- 
ing on one knee while she pours out two streams of water (two 
rivers) from vases in her hand. Near her is a butterfly on a flower 
(or bird on a tree) . It is purely Egyptian all through. The large 
star is Sirius, rising as the sun passes from the sign of Cancer (in 
the next tarots emblem). The seven smaller stars are the planets, 
and the woman below so attentive at this moment in discharging 
the water from her vessels is the Queen of Heaven, Isis, to whose 
beneficence are to be attributed the inundations of the Nile, which 
begin at the rising of Sirius. For this reason the latter star was 
sacred to Isis; it became her symbol par excellence. The flower and 
the butterfly on it are emblems of the regeneration and resurrec- 
tion of nature due to the rising of Sirius and the favours of Isis, 
causing the naked plains to become laden with fresh harvests. 

No. 18, La Lune, is the moon following the course of the sun, 
accompanied by tears of gold and of pearls, showing that she con- 
tributes on her part benefits to the earth. According to the 
Egyptians it was the tears of Isis which each year increased the 
waters of the Nile, fertilizing the plains of Egypt. At the lower 
part of the design may be seen a crab, which is the sign Cancer, 
indicating alike the retrograde course of the moon, and that it is at 
the time when the sun and the moon leave the sign of Cancer that 
the inundations caused by their tears occur on the rising of the 
Dog-star represented in number 17. On each side is a tower, 
symbolizing the two renowned columns of Hercules, on this side 
and beyond which these two great luminaries never pass. Between 
the towers are two large dogs baying at, and as if guarding, the 
moon ; an idea perfectly Egyptian, correlative to that which likened 
the tropics to two palaces, each building guarded by a dog, as if to 
prevent the sun and moon departing from the centre of the 
heavens and gliding to the poles. 

No. 19, Le Soleil, is the sun, here represented as the physical 
father of man and of all nature ; as enlightening society and as 
presiding over its communities. Tears of gold and of pearls drop 
from his rays, symbolizing the benign influences proceeding from 
the chief of stars. 

No. 20, Le Jugement, has been sadly mistaken and metamor- 
phosed by the card-makers, who have thus converted the original 


emblem into the solemnity of the last day. An angel is seen sound- 
ing a trumpet, and at the same time an old man, a woman, and a 
naked child appear to rise from the earth. The card-makers per- 
sisting in their mistake have added tombs to the design. But take 
away these tombs and the emblem answers to the Creation, taking 
place in and at the beginning of time typified in the next emblem 
No. 21. 

No. 21, Le Monde, properly represents time. In the centre is 
the Goddess of Time, with her scarf flowing and serving as a kind 
of peplum. She is in the action of movement like Time, within a 
circle which represents the revolutions of the latter, and also an 
egg from which everything in the course of time has proceeded. 
At the four corners are the emblems of the four seasons composing 
the revolutions of the year. These emblems are like the four heads 
of the cherubim — the eagle, the lion, the ox, and the young man. 
The eagle symbolizes spring, when the birds re-appear ; the lion, 
summer, or the fervour of the sun ; the ox, autumn, when there are 
labour and sowing; and the young man, winter, when we re-unite in 

Leaving the emblematic tarots and passing to the numeral series, 
four distinct suits may be observed. They are equivalent to the 
four states into which were divided the ancient Egyptians. The 
sword (or epees, piques, spades) designates the sovereign and all the 
military nobility ; the cup (or coeurs, hearts) the sacerdotal rank or 
clergy ; the club {batons, trefles, clubs) agriculture ; and money 
(deniers, carreaux, diamonds) implies commerce. The name of the 
sequence — taro or tarots — is pure Egyptian. It is composed of 
the word tar, signifying way, or road, and ro, ros, rog, implying* 
king or royal. The word taro meaning, therefore, the " Royal 
Road of Life." Other Oriental words are still preserved in con- 
nection with the cards. The word " mat," e. g. the ordinary term 
for the fool, and which exists in Italian as matto, is derived from 
the Oriental mat, meaning assomme, meurtri, fele. Fools have 
always been considered as having le cerveau fele. The conjurer 
with the cups is called pagad in the course of the game. This 
word, which does not resemble anything in our Western tongues, is 
of purely Eastern origin. It has been well chosen, for pag means 
chief, master, Lord, and gad is fortune. Thus le bateleur is repre- 
sented as disposing of fate with his magician's wand. Further, 
when the numeral cards are employed for the purposes of divination 
in Spain at the present time, the three of oros (money) is termed 
the lord (or Osiris) ; the three of copas (cups), the queen (or Isis) ; 
the two of copas, the cow (or Apis) ; the nine of oros, Mercury ; 
the ace of bastos (clubs), the serpent (symbol of agriculture among 
the Egyptians) ; and the ace of oros, the eye (or Apollo, the sun) . 

144 FRENCH. 

Such is an outline of the views of M. de Gobelin, which receiv 
a further development in a memoir with which he accompanied 
own dissertation. This memoir may be found printed entire in th 
appendix to the work of Singer, and is entitled " Recherches sur Lea 
Tarots et sur la Divination par les Cartes des tarots Par M. le C. 
de M. . . ." 

While Court de Gebelin was revealing to the world the origin of 
tarots, and the treasures of wisdom they contain, there was living 
at Paris a perruquier of the name of Alliette. 

" Now perruquiers," writes M. Boiteau d'Ambly, " have been, 
and still are, persons of imagination and of inquisitive spirit. 
Without dwelling on Tasmin, how many of these hair-curlers have 
sought to shine by other qualities than the certainty and perfection 
of the cut of their scissors, and the stroke of their combs ! Many 
have written, even in verse. One lumberingly facetious, wrote 
over the entrance to his shop this highly distinguished sentence : 
1 To-day we shave for money, to-morrow we shave gratis/ Ano- 
ther, highly erudite, had verses in Greek inscribed above his door. 
Alliette was one of the greater men of the caste of perruquiers, nay, 
still more, he was the Pontifex maximus of ' cartomancy/ By 
chance he read the dissertation of Court de Gebelin ; a light flashed 
across his brain; he became enlightened. He at once reversed the 
order of the letters, composing his name, and from Alliette became 
Etteilla, and prophesied — illustrious Etteilla ! One yet finds at 
thousands of little shops on the quays thousands of atrocious 
bilboquets, having inscribed on their covers : ' The art of Divination 
by cards according to the rules of the celebrated Etteilla/ 

u Alliette was earnest in his inspiration. He gave himself up 
with his whole soul to the most out-of-the-way studies. He 
became absorbed in the theory of numbers, according to the system 
of Pythagoras ; he heard the harmonious murmur of the celestial 
spheres, and described their courses in space after the formulae of 
the sublime arithmetic. He invented mythical calculations, de- 
veloped them in designs, grouped their numbers, and finally 
became a professed habbalist. The Jeu des Tarots was his chief 
war-horse. For thirty years he was its apologist, detailing its 
wonders, and interpreting the secrets it could unveil. 

•* The more remarkable of his .writings is the l Maniere de se 
recreer avec le Jeu de Cartes nominees Tarots/ 1783 : — 

" l We may well be astonished/ writes Alliette, ' that time which 
destroys, and ignorance that changes everything, should have 
allowed a work composed in the 1828th year of Creation, 171 
years after the Deluge, and written 3953 years ago, to have 
descended to our own times. This work was produced by seventeen 
Magi, including the second of the descendants of Mercury — 


Athotis ; who was grandson of Cham, and great-grandson of Noe ; 
this Tri-Mercury (or third of the name) , decreed the Book of Thot 
in accordance with the science and the wisdom of his ancestors/' 

" It is impossible to be more precise ; and how well Alliette 
knew how to profit by this science ! f I find therein/ he says, 
' Time and Place through the discipline of the great Hipparch, the 
Rhodian, and the just Aristarch, the Samian/ 

" Notice Hipparchus and Aristarchus ! Alliette adopts an or- 
thography which has an Asiatic, and consequently very religious 
aspect. He willingly quotes those whom he calls his predecessors, 
Raymond Lully, Jean Bellot, Duchesne (ordinary physician to the 
king), Croilus, Agrippa, D'Aubly, and others. Cartomancy thus 
resting on so fanciful a basis, could not fail to strike the minds of 
ignorant fashionable women. The perruquier Alliette became an 
important person, the High Priest of a religion. Perceiving this, 
he assisted Fortune in turning her wheel through his own domain, 
and straightway installed himself in the ' Hotel de Crilloli/ Rue 
de la Verrerie. Etteilla made disciples, who soon became his rivals. 
Female ones, especially, were prominent. Under the pretence that 
Greece had the Delphic priestess, that Judea had the Pythoness of 
Endor, that Rome had the Cumaean Sibyl, and that their own Gaul 
had listened to the Druidesses, the women reclaimed their heritage, 
and began to prophesy" (p. 323.) 

The author of the introduction to the " Nouvel Etteilla/' (F 82) 
observes that Alliette, " in rendering justice to the science of Court 
de Gebelin, overthrew what that grave antiquary had transcribed in 
his eighth volume of the ' Monde Primitif/ it being nothing more 
than information obtained from an amateur who himself had gained 
his knowledge concerning the present subject from his cook only." 

If Etteilla and his more recent disciples can be thus severe on 
De Gebelin, the great man himself, when weighed in the balance 
by Eliphas Levi, is found not to be perfect. 

u The tarot, this miraculous book," writes E. Levi, "the source of 
inspiration of all the sacred books of the ancient peoples, is the most 
perfect instrument of divination that can be employed with entire 
confidence, on account of the analogical precision of its figures and its 
numbers. In fact, the oracles of this book are always rigorously true, 
and even when it does not predict anything, it always reveals some- 
thing that was hidden, and gives the wisest counsel to those who con- 
sult it. Alliette, who from &perruquier, became a kabbalist in the last 
century, after passing thirty years meditating on the tarot ; Alliette, 
who writing his name backwards, or as we read Hebrew, called 
himself kabbalistically Etteilla, was very near finding out all that had 
been concealed in this strange work, but finally succeeded only in 
displacing the keys of the tarot in lieu of understanding them. He 



146 FEE N Gil. 

inverted the order and character of the figures, without, howeve 
entirely destroying their analogies, so sympathetic and coi 
spondont are they with each other. The writings of Ettoilla — n( 
bocome rather scarce 1 — are obscure, tiring, and of truly barbarous 
stylo. All have not been printed, some MSS. yet existing in tl 
hands of a publisher in Paris, to whom we have been indebted 
the means of inspecting them. The more remarkable of their 
characteristics are the obstinate opinions and the incontestable 
good faith of the author, who all his life had a presentiment of 
grandeur of the occult sciences, yet was forced to die at the gate oi 
the sanctuary without ever having passed behind its veil." (" Dogme 
et Rituel de la Haute Magie," vol. i. p. 357.) In another work, 
" Histoire de la Magie," the same writer observes : — 

The cartomancy resuscitated in France by Etteilla was nothing 
more than the consultation of Fate by means of signs agreed on 
before hand ; these signs combined with numbers inspired the 
medium, who became magnetized from looking on them, with 
oracles. These signs were drawn at hazard after the pack had 
been slowly shuffled, were then arranged according to kabbalistic 
numbers, and they always responded to the thoughts of the person 
who interrogated them seriously and in good faith." " This kabba- 
listic and wise book — (the " Tarot ") — is in its various combinations a 
revelation of the harmonies pre-existing among its signs, letters, 
and numbers, and is therefore capable of truly marvellous applica- 
tion. But we cannot with impunity thus wrest solely for ourselves 
the secrets of our intimate communication with the universal light. 
The consultation of cards and of tarots is a veritable^ conjuration 
which cannot be prosecuted without danger and crime. In all evoca- 
tions we compel our astral body to appear before us, and to hold 
converse with us in the divination which results. We thus give 
embodiment to our chimeras, and convert into a proximate reality 
that future which will become veritably our own when we have 
I evoked it by the word and adopted it by faith." (Op. cit. p. 465.) 
Early in this century Dr. Alexander Buchan read a paper before 
the Antiquarian Society in reference to the origin and import of 
cards. The opinions therein broached were communicated by him 
afterwards to Mr. Singer, who printed them in extenso in the 
appendix to his well-known work. The more important of Dr. 
Buchan's views were as follows: — 

The twelve honours in a pack of cards are emblematic of the 
twelve signs of the Zodiac — mansions of the sun — and equivalent to 
the twelve months of the solar year. Each of these signs is divided 

1 Two volumes of the early Amsterdam editions are in the British Museum 
Library— PM. 8630, c. 1, 5- 1, 3- 


into throe decans or thirty degrees ; each honour is equivalent in 

value to ten and 30 X 12 1= 360, the number of the days of the 

ancient Egyptian year, and equal to the number of degrees into 

which the equator is still divided. Cards are generally distinguished 

by the colours, red and black answering to the great division of the 

year into two equal parts from solstice to solstice, equinox to equinox. 

The four suits indicate the four seasons, spades represent acorns 

matured in autumn, while cups — now hearts — mean that wine was 

ready and fit to be drunk in the winter season. The whole number 

of cards in a pack, fifty-two, is equal to the number of weeks into 

which the year is divided, and the number of cards in each suit, viz. 

thirteen, is equivalent to the number of weeks contained in each 

quarter of the civil year. 

The number of pips on one suit is 

Which multiplied by 4 


Pips on honours 


Twelve honours taken at ten each 


Number of cards in each suit 


365 = 

to the precise number of days in the solar year. 

Cards are usually played and dealt circularly from left to right ac- 
cording to the apparent course of the sun, and when arranged as tricks 
they amount to thirteen of four suits each j if each card be considered 
as representing a week, then the tricks may be regarded as symboli- 
cal of the thirteen lunar months composing the year. 

Thus cards were originally devised for the purpose of reminding 
those who understood the allusions, of the system of the universe, a j^r 

system with which the Magi and priests of ancient Egypt were well 
acquainted, though they carefully concealed such knowledge from 
the profane vulgar. Should these and other conjectures be admitted 
some light may be reflected on the very general employment of 
cards for the purpose of divination or fortune- telling, particularly by 
the gipsies. Judicial astrology, or an opinion that the fates and 
fortunes of the sons of men are influenced by the positions and 
aspects of the celestial bodies, is one of the most ancient forms of 
superstition that have prevailed among mankind. But why should 
cards in particular be employed as the instruments of discovering 
this mysterious influence unless they were originally supposed to 
bear some relation to astrology, a science which by the vulgar has 
always been confounded with astronomy ? 

Still more recently views analogous to those of Court de Gebelin, 
Etteilla, and the divinatory and astrological purposes alluded to by 

14 8 FRENCH. 

Buchan, have been advanced by certain writers. In 1857 e. g. M. 
Vailsant, in a work entitled " Les Romes, histoire vraie des vrais 
Bohemiens," sought to show that in the tarots designs were to be 
found the highest conceptions of Hindustani wisdom, while M. 
Eliphas Levi (Alphonse Constant) in his " Dogme et Rituel de la 
Haute Magie," 1861, and his "Histoire de la Magie," 1860, argues 
learnedly for the tarots being a revelation of the mysteries of the 
Hebrew kabbalah. Further, M. Boiteau d'Ambly in his " Les Cartes 
a Jouer et la Cartomancy," Paris, 1854, seeks to prove that cards 
were introduced into Europe from India by means of the gipsies for 
the purposes of divination. 

" It is evident that the tarots, altered as they are, nay perverted 
from their original design, still retain the impress of a civilization 
which is by no means European " . . . " how comes it about that 
the tarots series seems based on the combinations of the number 
seven, the sacred number of the East f" ... " these scraps of 
Eastern speech, these assumed combinations which centre round a 
sacred number, these names of certain figures, assuredly all this 
taken as a whole must be something more than mere speculation n 
... "we can perfectly avail ourselves of these arguments [those 
of Court de Gebelin] , which go to prove that cards are the offspring 
of the learning of Egypt, and at the same time keep to our own 
hypothesis of their Asiatic origin — from India, in fact — along with 
the Gipsy immigration. There is no contradiction involved here. 
Egypt is the East all the same, and every one knows there is a 
family connexion between these venerable civilizations of the past 
—those of Egypt and India. In the ancient legends of Egypt the 
science of cards is connected even with their divinities." (Taylor's 
version of "Boiteau d'Ambly," pp. 13-21.) 

M. Eliphas Levi (Alphonse Constant) in his extraordinary works 
"Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie" (Paris, 1861, 2 vols.), and 
" Histoire de la Magie " (Paris, 1860), finds in the tarots a revela- 
tion of the mysteries of the Hebrew kabbalah. The key to this 
revelation " is contained in a word, and in a word of four letters : 
it is the ' Tetragramma ' of the Hebrews, the Azot of the Al- 
chemists, the Thot of the Bohemians or Gipsies, and the Taeo of 
the kabbalists. This word so variously expressed implies God to 
the profane, signifies Man to the philosopher, and offers to adepts 
the last word of human sciences, and the key of Divine power. But 
he alone knows how to employ it who understands the necessity of 
never revealing it/ (" Dogme," &c. vol. i. p. 90.) 

" The incommunicable axiom is kabbalistically included in the 
four letters of the { Tetragramma/ disposed in the following way : — 



Likewise in the words Azoth and Inri written kabbalistically, and 
in the monogram of Christ as it was embroidered on the lab arum, 
and which the kabbalist Postel interpreted by the word Rota, and 
from which adepts have formed the Taro or Tarot by repeating 
twice the first letter to indicate the circle and make it understood, 
that the word reverts, as it were, upon itself." (Op, cit. p. 154.) 
Thus we have 


"the key of hidden things" — a a word which may be read rota, 
signifying the Wheel of Ezechiel or tarot, which is then synonymous 
with the azoth of the hermetic philosophers. It is a word which 
expresses kabbalistically the dogmatic and natural Absolute; it is 
formed of the characters in the monogram of Christ after the man- 
ner of the Greeks and Hebrews. The latin R or the Greek P is 
placed between the Alpha and the Omega of the Apocalypse : then 
the tau, the sacred image of the Cross, contains the word in its 
entirety." (Op. cit. p. 341.) 

" When the Sovereign Priesthood ceased in Israel, when all the 
oracles of the world became silent in presence of the Word become 
Man and speaking by the mouth of the most popular and gentle of 
sages, when the Ark was lost, the sanctuary profaned, and the 
Temple destroyed, the mysteries of the Ephod and Theraphim no 
longer recorded on gold and precious stones, were written or rather 





150 FRENCH. 

figured by certain wise kabbalists first on ivory, parchment, 
gilt and silvered leather, and afterwards on simple cards, whic 
wero always objects of suspicion to the Official Church as containing 
a dangerous key to its mysteries. From these have originated 
those tarots whose antiquity was revealed to the learned Court de 
Gebelin through the sciences of hieroglyphics and of numbers, and 
which afterwards severely exercised the doubtful perspicacity 
tenacious investigation of Etteilla." {Op. cit. vol. i. p. 337.) 

u Without the tarot, tho magic of the Ancients is a closed book 
us, and it is impossible to penetrate any of the great secrets of tho 
kabbalah. The tarot alone affords an interpretation of the magic 
squares of Agrippa and Paracelsus" (p. 342). "We have stated 
that the twenty-two keys of the tarots are the twenty- two letters of 
the primitive kabbalistic alphabet. The following is a table of the 
variations of this alphabet, according to different Hebrew kabba- 

" tf, Being, Spirit, Man or God, comprehensible object, unity tho 
mother of numbers, the primordial substance. 

" All these ideas are hieroglyphically expressed by the figure of 
the Bataleur (No. 1). His body and his arms form the letter ft, 
around his head is a nimbus of the form go, the symbol of life and 
of the universal spirit. Before him lie swords, cups, and pantacles, 
and he raises his miraculous wand towards the sky. His figure is 
youthful, and his hair in curly locks like unto Apollo or Mercury. 
He has the smile of assurance on his lips, and the look of intelli- 
gence in his eyes. 

'O. The House of God and of Man, the sanctuary, the law, 
gnosis, the kabbalah, the hidden church, the binary principle, 
woman, mother. 

" The hieroglyphic tarot is La Papesse ; a woman crowned with 
a tiara, having the horns of the moon or of Isis, the head surrounded 
by a veil. The solar cross is on her chest, and on her knees a book 
which she hides with her mantle. 

" J . The Word, the ternary principle, fullness, fecundity, nature, 
the generative faculty in the three worlds. 

" The symbol is L'Imperatrice, a winged female, crowned, seated, 
and having at the end of her sceptre the globe of the world. She 
has for her sign an eagle, image of the soul and of life. 

" *J. ' La Porte/ or government among the Orientals, initiation, 
power, the tetragramma, the quaternary principle, the cubical stone 
or its base. 

(< The hieroglyph is ISEmpereur, a sovereign whose body repre- 
sents a right-angled triangle and his legs a cross, the image of 
Athanor of the philosophers. 

" p[. Indication, demonstration, instruction, law, symbolism, 
philosophy, religion. 


" Hieroglyph — Le Pape or the Grand Hierophant. In the more 
modern tarots this sign is displaced by the figure of Jupiter. 
The Grand Hierophant is seated between the pillars of Hermes and of 
Solomon, makes the sign of esoterism, and rests on a cross having 
three transverse bars forming a triangle. At his knees are two inferior 
ministers, so placed that having above him the capitals of the two 
columns, and below the heads of the two ministers, he becomes the 
centre of the quinary principle and represents the divine penta- 
gramma, and of which he thus affords the complete sense. In fact 
the columns are Necessity or Law, and the heads Liberty or Action. 
A line may be drawn from head to head, and two lines from each 
column to each head, thus obtaining a square divided into four 
triangles by a cross, in the centre of which will be the Grand 

" 1. Attachment, entanglement, lingam, union, embrace, contest, 
antagonism, combination, equilibrium. 

"Hieroglyph — (ISAmoreux), a man between Vice and Virtue. 
Above him beams the Sun of Truth, from which Love bends his 
bow threatening Vice with his arrow. In the sequence of the ten 
Sephiroth this symbol corresponds to Tiphereth, that is, to idealism 
and to beauty. The number six [of the tarots] represents the 
antagonism of the two ternaries, i.e. of absolute negation and of the 
absolute affirmative. 

" t. Arms, sword, flaming sword of the cherub, the sacred 
septenary principle, triumph, royalty, priesthood. 

" Hieroglyph — a cubical chariot having four columns, and azure 
and starred drapery. In the chariot and between the four columns 
is a conqueror crowned with a circle, from which rise and radiate 
three pentagrams of gold. The conqueror has on his cuirass three 
chevrons one above the other ; on his shoulders are the Urim and 
Thumin of the High Sacrificator, represented by the two crescents of 
the moon in Gedulah and in Geburah ; his attitude is proud and 
tranquil. A double sphinx, or two sphinxes united by their after 
portions, are harnessed to the car, he guides a sphinx towards each 
side, but one of the sphinxes turns its head so that they both look 
to one point. The sphinx which turns its head is black, the other 
is white. On the square which forms the fore part of the chariot is 
the Indian Lingam, surmounted by the flying sphere of the Egyptians. 
This hieroglyphic is perhaps the most beautiful and complete of all 
the emblematic designs of the tarots. 

" n. Balance, attraction and repulsion, life, fright, promise and 

" Hieroglyph — Justice with her sword and scales. 

" CO. Goodness, horror of evil, morality, wisdom. 

" Hieroglyph — a Sage, resting on his staff, and carrying a lamp 
before him. He covers himself closely in his mantle. The inscrip- 

152 FRENCH. 

tion is VErmite or le Gapucin, but his proper name is Prudence, anc 
he thus completes the four cardinal virtues which appeared incom- 
plete to Court de Gebelin and to Etteilla. 

u *, Principle, manifestation, praise, manly honour or virility, 
phallus, paternal sceptre. 

" Hieroglyph — La Roue de Fortune, that is to say, the cosmogoni 
wheel of Ezechiel, with an Hermanubis ascending on the right hai 
and a Typhon descending on the left hand. Above is a sphinx ii 
equilibrium, holding a sword with its lion-like claws. An admirable 
symbol disfigured by Etteilla. 

" 3. The hand in the act of taking and holding. 

" Hieroglyph — La Force, a woman crowned with the vital oo, ai 
quietly and without effort closing the mouth of a furious lion. 

u S. Example, instruction, public teaching. 

lt Symbol, a man hanging by a foot, whose hands are tied behind him 
in such way that his body forms a triangle, with the point downwards, 
and his limbs form a cross above the triangle. The gibbet has the 
form of a Hebrew tan, the two trees which support it have each six 
amputated branches. It is a symbol of sacrifice and of work 

" D- The heaven of Jupiter and of Mars, domination and force, 
rejuvenescence, creation, and destruction. 

" Hieroglyph — La Mort, who mows down crowned heads in a field 
in which men are seen sprouting. 

" 3. The heaven of the sun, climates, seasons, movement, 
changes of life always new and always the same. 

" Hieroglyph — Jja Temperance, an angel having the sign of the 
sun on his forehead, and on his chest the square and triangle of the 
septenary principle. He pours the two essences which compose 
the elixir of life from one vase into another. 

' { D . The heaven of Mercury ; occult science, magic, commerce, 
eloquence, mystery, moral force. 

' ' Hieroglyph — Le Diable, the he-goat of Mendes, or the Baphomet 
of the temple, with all his pantheistic attributes. This hieroglyph 
is the only one that Etteilla perfectly understood and interpreted 

u y. The heaven of the moon ; changes, subversions, weaknesses. 

"Hieroglyph — a tower, probably that of Babel, struck by lightning. 
Two persons, Nimrod without doubt, and his false prophet or 
minister, are precipitated from the ruins. One in falling represents 
perfectly the letter ]?, gnain. 

u £}• The heaven of the soul ; effusions of thought, moral in- 
fluence of idea on forms, immortality. 

" Hieroglyph — a brilliant star and eternal youth. 

"V. The elements, the visible world, reflected light, material 
forms, symbolism. 


" Hieroglyph — the moon, dew, a crab in the water ascending 
towards the earth, a dog and a wolf at the base of two towers howl- 
ing at the moon. A path lost in the horizon is sprinkled with drops 
of blood. 

"p. Things united — the head, the summit, the prince of heaven. 

" Hieroglyph — a radiant sun and two naked children, giving each 
other their hands within a fortified enclosure. In some tarots the 
symbol is a woman spinning human destinies ; in others it is a naked 
child mounted on a white horse, and unfolding a scarlet banner. 

11 % The vegetative principle, the generative power of the earth, 
eternal life. 

" Hieroglyph — Le Jugement. An angel sounds a trumpet, and 
the dead rise from their graves. Of these revivified dead we see a 
man, woman, and child, the ternary of human life. 

" W. The sensitive principle, the flesh, eternal life. 

" Hieroglyph — Le Fou : a man dressed absurdly, walking at ran- 
dom, carrying a wallet behind him, i.e., loaded with absurdities and 

"ft. The microcosm — the recapitulation of the all-in-all. 

u Hieroglyph — the hether or the kabbalistic crown between the 
four mysterious animals. In the centre of the crown is Truth, hold- 
ing in each hand a magic wand. 

1 ' Such are the twenty- two keys of the tarot, by which are explain- 
able all the numbers of the latter. The Bataleur, or key of the unities, 
explains the four aces, with their quadruple signification, progressive 
in the three worlds and in the first principle. Thus the ace of denier or 
of the circle is the soul of the world; the ace of swords is the combative 
intelligence ; the ace of cups is the animating intellect ; the ace of 
batons, the creative intelligence. They are likewise the principles of 
movement, of progress, of fecundity, and of power. Each number, 
multiplied by a key, affords another number, which, in its turn 
explained by the keys, completes the philosophic and religious 
revelations contained in each sign. So each of the fifty-six cards 
(that is of the numeral series) may be multiplied by the twenty-two 
keys in turn ; thus results a series of combinations all yielding the 
most surprising results of revelation and of light. It is a true philo- 
sophic machine, preventing the spirit from being led astray, at the 
same time leaving it its powers of initiation and of liberty. It is 
mathematics applied to the Absolute, the union of the Positive with 
the Ideal ; it is a lottery of thoughts as rigorously correct as are 
numbers ; in fine, it is perhaps, at the same time, the simplest and 
the grandest conception of human genius. 

" The method of reading the hieroglyphs of the tarot is to arrange 
them either in squares or triangles, by placing the even numbers in 
opposition, and in conciliating them by the uneven ones. Four 
signs always express the Absolute in any order, and are explainable 

154 FRENCH. 

by a -fifth sign. Thus tho solution of all questions in magic is that 
of tho Pentagramina, and all tho antinomies arc explained by 
harmonious unity. 

lf Thus disposed the tarot becomes a true oracle, answering 
possible questions with more preciseness and infallibility than does 
the Androidis of Albert the Great. A prisoner deprived of books 
might, in some years' time, if he had only a tarot which he knew how 
to employ, acquire the knowledge of an universal science, and discuss 
everything with a wisdom which has not any equal, and with an in- 
exhaustible eloquence. This wheel, in fact, is the true key to the 
art of oratory, and to the great science of Raymond Lully. It is the 
veritable secret of the transmutation of darkness into light, it is the 
first and most important of all the arcana of the great work." 

1 ' By means of this universal key of symbolism all the allegories of 
India, of Egypt, and of Judea become plain ; the Apocalypse of St. 
John is a kabbalistic book, the sense of which is rigorously indicated 
by the designs and numbers of the Urim and Thumin, of the Thera- 
phim, and of the Ephod all combined and completed by the tarot. 
The ancient sanctuaries have not any longer mysteries, and we com- 
prehend for the first time the meaning of the objects in Hebrew 
worship. Who does not perceive, in fact, in the table of gold, 
crowned, and supported by the cherubim, and which covered the 
ark of the covenant and served as propitiatory, the like symbols as 
in the twenty-first key of the tarot ? The ark was a hieroglyphic 
resume of all kabbalistic dogmas. It contained the Jod, or flowering 
rod of Aaron ; the He, or cup, the gomor of manna ; the two tables 
of the law, a symbol like that of the sword of justice ; and the 
manna contained in the gomor — four things which translate marvel- 
lously the letters of the divine " Tetragraruma." (" Dogme," &c, 
vol. ii. pp. 344-357.) 

" The book of the tarot having so high a scientific importance, it 
is much to be desired that it should remain unchanged." " An im- 
portant work remains to be performed : it is that of engraving and 
publishing a tarot, rigorously complete and carefully executed." 
" Vestiges of the tarot may be found among every people. The 
Italian tarot is, as we have stated, the best preserved and most faith- 
ful ; but it may be improved by some valuable hints to be borrowed 
from certain Spanish numeral series. The two of cups, e.g. in the 
Na'ibi, is purely Egyptian ; we there observe two antique vases, the 
handles of which are formed by Ibises, placed above a cow. In the 
same cards we may see an unicorn in the middle of the four of deniers ; 
the three of cups represents the figure of Isis emerging from a vase, 
with Ibises rising from other two vases ; one Ibis bearing a crown 
for the goddess, the other a lotus flower, which it appears to offer 
her. The four aces bear the image of the hieratic and sacred serpent; 
and in certain packs, in the centre of the four of deniers, may be 

4 at 




found the double triangle of Salomon, in place of the symbolic 

"The German tarots have undergone more change; little else 
being found than the number of the keys surcharged with bizarre 
or pantagruelesque figures. We have before us a Chinese tarot, 
and some specimens from a like pack may be seen in the Imperial 
Library. M. Paul Boiteau, in his remarkable work on playing- 
cards, has given some examples very well executed. The Chinese 
tarot still preserves several of the primitive emblems ; the deniers 
and the swords are readily to be distinguished but it would be 
more difficult to make out the cups and the clubs. " 

" It was during the time of the Gnostic and the Manichean 
heresies that the tarot became lost to the Church, and it was at the 
same period that the meaning of the Divine Apocalypse ceased to 
be understood. It was no longer comprehended that the seven 
seals of this Kabbalistic book are seven pantacles explainable by the 
analogies of the numbers, characters, and figures of the tarot." 
(Op. cit. vol. ii. p. 361.) 

As opposed to the preceding recondite and thaumaturgic views, 
and all such as place the origin of cards in the East, the opinions 
of M. Merlin (Bibl. 6, p. 37), may be opportunely considered. 

According to this writer, if we take the tarots of Geneva, of Mar- 
seilles, and of Besancon as more faithfully representing the ancient 
Venetian tarots, and compare them with the ( ' tarots-images ** known 
as those of Mantegna, 1 we may perceive that of the twenty-six 
figures [i. e. the twenty- two atouts and the four additional " honours"] 
of the modern tarots, fifteen are due to the sequence in question. 
For example, the 

Fou (mat, matto) . corresponds 

to the Misero . . l, 

Series E of Mantegna. 

L'Empcreur, iv. 



Imperator . 9, 




Lc Papc, v. . 



Papa . .10, 




Le Chariot, vii. 



Mars . . 45, 




La Justice, viii. 



Justicia . . 37, 




L'Hermite, ix. 



Saturno . .47, 




La Force, xi. 



Forteza . .36, 




La Temperance, 

xiv. ,, 


Temperancia 34, 




L'Etoilc, xvii. 



Venus . .43, 




La Lime, xviii. 



Luna . .41, 




Le Soleil, xix. 



Sol . . . 44, 




Le Monde, xxi. 

• 5J 


S Jupiter . . 46, 
X Prima Causa 50, 




Among the 

" honours " of the numerical series 


Le Roi 

. corresponds 

to tl 

Le RE ... 8, 

Series E of Mantegna. 

Le Cavalier . 



Chavalier . 6, 




Le Valet . 



Fameio . . 2, 





r. 1. 

Page 65. 

i 5 6 FRENCH. 

Should scepticism exist in reference to this re-embodiment 
the figures of the so-called Mantegna series in the more modei 
tarots, it should be dissipated on a closer examination of the d< 
signs of the former. For example, the Misero, No. 1, of the serie 
E, is being seized at the leg by a dog ; so is the mat or fool of the 
tarots. Venus, 43, of the series A, is represented in the water with 
a shell or cup in her hand, while I/Etoile, xvii. of the tarots, is 
likewise a naked woman at the edge of a stream, from which she 
draws water with one hand to pour over her limbs with the other. 
Mars, 45, series A, is represented with the attributes awarded him 
in mythology. He appears as a seated warrior, on a car, sword in 
hand ; both warrior and car are seen direct or in full face. The 
Chariot, vii. of the tarots, likewise shows a warrior on a car, with 
crown on head, cuirass on chest, and sceptre in hand. Warrior, 
chariot, and horses, all are seen direct or in full face. In both de- 
signs the car is surmounted by a dais supported by columns. Sa- 
turn, 47, series A, is portrayed as the old Saturn of the fable. 
With his left hand he conveys to his mouth a little child to be de- 
voured, while he supports himself with his right on a staff, holding 
at the same time a winged serpent with its tail in its mouth — 
symbol of eternity. The tarot, more human, has made a hermit of 
him j nevertheless, the profile attitude, the lanthorn held on a level 
with the head, and the staff which gives support, recall the attitude 
of the Saturn of Mantegna. Further, the idea of Time has con- 
tinued to be linked with this figure, for in the so-called " Cards of 
Charles VI." the hermit holds an hour-glass instead of a lanthorn. 

At first sight, but little or no connection may be traced between 
La Prima Causa, 50, of series A, and Le Monde, xxi. of the tarots, 
except in the symbols of the four Evangelists, which exist in both, 
though it must be admitted not in the earlier version of 1470 of the 
sequence of Mantegna. But if we reflect on the meaning of the series 
of concentric circles of the design of the Prima Causa, we shall be able 
to trace the required affinity at once. This design represents the world 
according to the Ptolemaic system, the only system known in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. A like figure may be found in the 
' ' Geomance de Cattan * (translated by Gabr. du Preau) , having above 
it the inscription " General figure of the two parts of the elementary 
and celestial World." In the "Margarita Philosophical of Reisch, a 
curious encyclopaedia often reprinted during the earlier portion of 
the sixteenth century, the same design may be observed illustrating 
a chapter " De Machinse Mundi partitioned' It is likewise the case 
that Le Monde is the last number (21) of the tarots, as is the Prima 
Causa the last of the series A. There cannot be any doubt that the 
author of the former took the title of " The World" from the design 
of the latter. As to the design of Le Monde of the tarots, which 
is sometimes a naked woman much like a savage, at other times a 


naked woman dancing ; its explanation is difficult. It may be that 
its author intended to symbolize " La Volupte " which reigns over 
the universe; but if so, it must be confessed that the engravers 
have translated his ideas in a very peculiar way. Perhaps the oval 
frame, within which this female stands erect, may have been sug- 
gested by what may be seen in the Jupiter, 46, of series A. 

Finally, look at the " Temperance" of the two series. The attitude 
and action are alike in each, so are they in the valet of cups in the 
modern combined tarots and in the Fameio of the ancient sequence. 

M. Merlin proceeds to show that for the additional cards going 
to form the Minchiate of Florence (which consists of forty emble- 
matic cards and fifty-seven numerals) , not less than twenty more 
designs have been taken from the older series, thus forming a theft, 
if we may so speak, in the total of thirty-five designs towards the 
composition of modern tarots. 

Attention may be called next to the fact that the general economy 
of the " Jeu des Tarots " appears to have been taken from that of 
the more ancient game. We find e.g. that the atouts of higher 
value in the former are those, the numbers of which are the more 
elevated. Now these are precisely such as correspond to the 
higher numbers of the latter or ancient series, and which are in- 
cluded between numbers forty-one and fifty. The lowest number 
of the older series is No. 1, the " Misero ; " the figure of the modern 
tarots corresponding to it is the " Fou," which is the ' ' Zero w of the 
latter, or their weakest card. It cannot take any other card, and 
acquires value in a secondary way only, and by favour, as it were, 
of other cards. 

Five series compose the "Tarots-Images" of Mantegna, alike num- 
ber go to form the " Tarots- Jeux." These five series are each made 
up of ten pieces in the former, while in the latter four of the series are 
often each, with pips running from one to ten. There is another coinci- 
dence, the decades of the old sequence are distinguished by the letters 
ABODE; the five series of the "Tarots- Jeux" are distinguished by 
objects, the initial letters of the names of which are ABCDE,u. 
atouts, batons, coupes, denier s, epees, and their equivalents in Italian 
and Spanish. It is true that in Italian the initial letter E does not 
occur, seeing that in this tongue the word for sword is spaa 1 a, and 
not espada, as in Spanish. But as if this objection had been foreseen, 
the letter E of the earlier version [1470] has been displaced by the 
letter S in the version of 1485. 1 Yet once more; if the fourth 
decade of the ancient sequence be examined — the series of Virtues 
— it may be noticed that the signs of the four numeral suits of the 
u Tarots- Jeux," i. e. cups, money, swords, and clubs, are to be found 
among the attributes of the four virtues. Faith, 40, holds a chalice ; 

1 Antea, page 70. 


158 FRENCH. 

Charity, 38, an inverted purse from which issues money; Justice, 
37, is armed with a sword ; and Force, 36, with a maco or club. 
Surely such coincidences, insists M. Merlin, clearly enough indicat 
the parentage of the " Tarots-Jeux." 

In vain may it be objected that differences are to be observec 
between the modern representations and the designs drawn an( 
painted by hand during the earlier periods, and of which fragment 
are preserved in some privileged collections. These differences d< 
not offer any satisfactory basis for reasonable doubt, since the cards 
illustrated by such fragments have been quite exceptional in charac- 
ter, and generally produced for purposes of presentation, or in con- 
nection with important circumstances when, as it may be readily 
conceived, the artists would feel justified in giving full reins to their 

Finally, to what nation, asks M. Merlin, must we not attribute 
the parentage of the Na'ibis cited by Morelli, the precursors of all ? 
To the Italian, without doubt. Everything in them reveals the 
Catholic thought and Italian ideas of the epoch [1393] . The pope 
has in them supremacy over the emperor, who is represented with 
the attributes of the empire of the West. In the version of 1485 the 
crown of the king is an Italian crown ; the valet, merchant, cavalier, 
and gentleman all have Italian costumes. Further, the sciences 
are arranged in the order of the trivium and quaclrivmm ; we find 
the three theologic and the four cardinal virtues, and if we meet 
with Apollo and the Muses it is with the attributes bestowed on 
them by occidentals of the middle ages, and not with such as 
accompany them on the ancient monuments of Greece and Rome. 
(Merlin, Bibl. 6, pp. 38-80.) 

Thus, then — if the views of M. Merlin be correct — the (t Tarots- 
Jeux n cards proper have sprung from the old Florentine or Venetian 
sequence — the cards of Baldini, the tarocchi of Mantegna; and this 
latter had its origin in a series of designs already existing in Italy 
in the fourteenth century, done by hand and termed " Na'ibis. " To 
Italy is likewise due the invention of the latter, and the fable of their 
Eastern origin must be altogether resigned. " Sic transit gloria 
mundi," quoad the reveries of Court de Gebelin, Etteilla, Levi, 
Buchan, Vailsant, Boiteau d'Ambly, and others. But it may be 
asked — is the matter really to be so disposed of ? 

There still remains to be noticed a view of the origin and meaning 
of numeral cards, which may be as appositely referred to here as any- 
where else. It is that of Saint Bernard and of Saint Anthony. Accord- 
ing to the former, who preached at Bologna in 1474, against the use 
of cards, the latter are the work of the devil. Satan became jealous 
of the act of Christ in causing the offices of his church to be recorded 
in books richly adorned with miniatures. He decided therefore, "nee 
deficere volo officiis meis Breviaria ac Diurna, quse esse jubeo char- 


ticellas seu Naibos in quibus varias figures pingantur, sicut fieri solet 
in Breviariis Christi ; quae figuram in eis mystica prasfigurent ut 
puto : (i.e. St. Bernard). 

Denarii } avaritiam. 

Bacidi, stultitiam seu caninam saevitiam. 

Calices, ebrietatem et gulam. 

Enses, odium et guerram. 

Beges atque Begince prsevalentes in nequitiis supra dictis. 

Militcs etiam inferiores et superiorcs luxuriam et sodomiam aperta 
fronte proclamant/'' — See note in Merlin,, p. 51. 

It has been the opinion of some authorities that cards were intro- "1 / 
duced into Europe for the purposes of divination and fortune- telling 
by the gipsies some time between 1275 and 1325, an opinion 
strongly opposed by others. 1 The truth is, we are not sure of the 
exact time when the gipsies entered Europe, of the birth-place of 
cards, nor of the period when they were first employed for thauma- 
turgic purposes. But since, as Taylor observes (p. 453), there is 
so great a faculty of wonder in the uneducated — so infinite a 
longing for some knowledge of events to come, there can be 
little doubt that very early, both high and low alike sought oracular 
responses from any adepts who could be found, and would be satis- 
fied if the replies were only vague enough to give countenance to 
the hopes they entertained. 

According to Chatto (p. 116), there is in the "Magasin Pit- 
toresque," for 1842, p. 324, a cut entitled "Philipe le Bon con- 
sultant une Tireuse de Cartes," copied from a painting attributed 
to Jan Van Eyck. Though it has been denied that this picture 
is really by V. Eyck, who died in 1467, it is allowed that the 
costume represented in it belongs to the reign of Charles VIII., 
between 1483 and 1498. If this be correct, we have thus evidence 
of cards having been used for the purpose of fortune-telling before 
the close of the fifteenth century. We have positive evidence that 
they were applied to this purpose early in the sixteenth century in the 
publication of the rare and beautiful book known as " Le Sorti di 
Francesco Marcolini da Forli, intitolate Giardino di Pensieri, alio 
illustrissimo Signore Hercole Estense, Duca di Ferrara/' the colo- 
phon of which runs as follows : — " In Venetia per Francesco Marco- 
lini da Forli negli Anni del Signore MDXXXX. del mese di Ottobre." 

It has been supposed that this work was not the first of its kind, 
and that Marcolini may have been prompted to his undertaking 
by the treatise of Sigismondo Fanti, of Ferrara, entitled 
" Triompho di Fortuna di Sigismondo Fanti," and printed at 
Venice in 1526. But this latter treatise, though professing to teach 
the art of solving questions by divinations of various kinds, does 

1 Antea, pp. 8, 1 1. 

160 FRENCH. 

not profess to use cards. The interpreters of fate are the signs 
the zodiac, the constellations, sibyls, and various astrological per- 
sonages, dice sometimes being used for the direction of the coi 
sultant. The cards employed by Marcolini are the king, knight, 
knave, 10, 9, 8, 7, 2, and ace of danari. Though the ten was em- 
ployed in MarcoUm's system, it appears to have been generally 
omitted from the packs used by the Italian jugglers of the sixteenth 
century. The work of Marcolini is known to iconophilists for the 
beauty of its woodcuts after the designs of Giuseppe Porta, or 
Salviati. Reference may be made to Singer, p. 64, Chatto, p. 117, 
and to Jackson and Chatto' s "Treatise on Wood Engravings," p. 390, 
for details connected with the treatise of Marcolini. In Jackson 
and Chatto's work copies of several of the cuts are given, accom- 
panied by some valuable criticism. In vol. i. I. W. 4, folio 136, of 
Italian Chiaro-scuros, in the British Museum, may be seen the 
engraved frontispiece to Marcolini's book, to which Jackson and 
Chatto make particular allusion. 

Leber assures us that he had examined ff un grand nombre de 
tours de cartes," described in the pamphlets of the Italian jugglers 
of the sixteenth century, yet he refers to two works only on the sub- 
ject printed before 1600. One of them is entitled " Opera Nuova 
non piu vista, nella quale potrai facilmente imparare molti giochi 
di mano. Composta da Francesco di Milano nominato in tutto il 
mondo il Bagatello," 8vo. circa 1550. The other bears the title 
t( Giochi di Carte bellissimi e di Memoria, per Horatio Galasso." 
Venetia, 1593. These works, however, together with the brochure 
11 Li Rari et Mirabili Giuochi di Carte da Alberto Francese detto 
Perlimpimpim" (Bologna 1622), have more to do really with ordi- 
nary legerdemain than with divination. 

It appears to have been the case that the recourse to cards for 
divinatory purposes gradually declined among the upper classes 
until the middle of the eighteenth century, though it was prevalent no 
doubt among the lower grades of society frequenting fairs and the 
caravans of mountebanks. About 1750 divination through cards 
again became popular — in Paris at least — for in 1751, 1752, and 
1753, three persons were publicly known as offering their services 
for this intention. To these adepts were soon added others, since 
the venture was profitable, but the cry of sacrilege was raised, and 
\y^ in order to save — as it was pretended — the card-augurs from the 

vengeance of the devots, the former were seized and sent by the 
police to the Bicetre, or to the Salpetriere, unheard in their defence 
and regardless of remonstrance. 

It was at the latter period, i. e. 1753, that Etteilla (Alliette) 
made his debut by superseding the ordinary practice of employing 
the cards of a pack singly, and in substituting the art of reading 
the masteries they might unfold when the whole sequence was 



arranged upon the table. The former practice was , according to 
Etteilla, but an absurd imitation of ancient sortilege, or of consult- 
ing the oracles through the Odyssey and the verses of Virgil. 
Etteilla, enlightened — as we have seen — in 1757 by the Pied- 
montese as to the tarots, and afterwards by the theories of Court 
de G-ebelin on that series of emblematic figures, published in 1783 
his work on the " Tharoth or tarots," following it up by additional 
memoirs on occult and divinatory subjects as connected with 
u cartomancy." These treatises, when afterwards collected to- 
gether, bore the title : " Collection sur les hautes Sciences ou Traite 
theorique et pratique de la sage Magie des anciens peuples absolu- 
ment complet en douze livres lesquels contiennent tout ce que 
Etteilla a ecrit sur la philosophie hermetique, Fart de tirer les cartes 
— et notamment le sublime livre de Thot." Paris, 1783-90, 4 
tomes, 12° figs. 

The part the writings of Etteilla have played in furnishing the 
stock, and often the whole ingredients of the many popular works 
and chapbooks on cartomancy and its associated subjects published 
since his time, may be well judged of — as far as France, at least, is 
concerned — on reference to the first volume, p. 227 et seq. of M. 
Charles Nisard's interesting work : (< Histoire des Livres Populaires 
ou de la Litterature du Colportage depuis le XV. siecle jusqu'a 1852. 
Paris, 1854/' 

The annals of cartomancy, like those of supernatural appearances 
and second-sight, contain among them a few anecdotes associated 
with evidence which prevents us either rejecting the relations as 
false, or of explaining the circumstances in a satisfactory way. , 
For example, Eowland in his " Judicial Astrology Condemned," 
relates the following in respect to Cuffe, a celebrated Greek scholar, 
" a man of exquisite wit and learning, but of a turbulent disposi- 
tion," and secretary to the unfortunate Earl of Essex : — 

" Cuffe was told twenty years before his death that he should 
come to an untimely end, at which Cuffe laughed, and in a scornful 
manner intreated the astrologer to show him in what manner he 
should come to his end \ who condescended to him, and calling for 
cards, intreated Cuffe to draw out of the pack three which pleased 
him. He did so, and drew three knaves, and laid them on the 
table with their faces downwards by the wizard's direction, who 
then told him if he desired to see the sum of his bad fortunes, to 
take up those cards. Cuffe, as he was prescribed, took up the first 
card, and looking on it he saw the portraiture of himself cap-a-pie, 
having men compassing him about with bills and halberds ; then he 
took up the second, and there he saw the judge that sat upon him ; 
and taking up the last card, he saw Tyburn, the place of his 
execution, and the hangman, at which he laughed heartily; but 

162 FRENCH. 

many years after, being condemned for treason, he remembered 
declared this prediction." 

Cuffe was hung at Tyburn on the 13th of March, 1602, 
having counselled and abetted the Earl of Essex in his treason, 
alluding to this story, Taylor remarks : — 

" It is evident that the cards used by the cartomancist on 
occasion were tarots. The first drawn was in all probability an 
atout, called the traitor, which in some Italian packs held the place 
of the devil, the second could be no other than Justice, and the third 
would be sufficiently shadowed forth by the hanged man (Le 
Pendu)." (Bibl. 9, p. 456.) 

During the exciting periods of the first consulship of Napoleon I., 
and of the empire which followed, the higher as well as the lower 
grades of the people eagerly sought to question the augurs of the 
future. At that time lived a well-known divini tress, named 
Mademoiselle Lenormand, the believed truth of whose predictions 
gained her such repute, that crowned heads were not beneath 
craving her assistance. Herself naturally vain and arrogant, thus 
flattered, she could scarcely keep at last within decent bounds, and 
actually attended the Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle, deeming her 
presence there of the highest importance. She published ten 
volumes in 8vo. of " Souvenirs Prophetiques," and " Memoires His- 
toriques," and in 1825 appeared the prospectus of an "Album de 
Madlle. Lenormand mis en ordre et enrichi de manuscrits auto- 
graphes, de commentaires, de notes biographiques sur la Revolution 
Francaise et sur les Auteurs et les Acteurs de ce Drame politique." 
This album was intended to form five volumes in 4to. or twenty- 
eight vols, in 8vo., and to cost 975 francs. Sufficient subscribers 
were not forthcoming, however, to justify its being given to the 
world. (Boiteau d'Ambly, p. 330.) 

On one occasion, Joachim Murat, when King of Naples, sought 
the aid of Mademoiselle Lenormand. He was received by the 
prophetess with her customary haughtiness, who, however, produced 
the cards. Murat cut the pack. The king of diamonds appeared. 
Now this card, according to some systems of cartomancy, is re- 
garded as a portent of the extremest ill-fortune, and receives the 
name of the " grand pendu." Mademoiselle Lenormand told the 
king that, prosperous as he might then be, an execution awaited 
him. Murat, disconcerted, laid two Napoleons on the table, and 
begged for another trial. It was granted. He again cut the king 
of diamonds. Still more dissatisfied, Murat again produced a similar 
sum. The Sibyl permitted another trial. The sortilege was made, 
and for a third time the king of diamonds was cut. Bewildered 
and annoyed, Murat now produced fifty Napoleons, and besought 
the hesitating Pythoness to grant him one more experiment. It 


was at length permitted, when with fatal iteration the same ma- 
lignant portent — the king of diamonds — again appeared. In 
desperation, the king now offered Lenormand one hundred Napo- 
leons for another and final chance. Angrily she threw the cards 
at him, telling him to begone, and turned him out of her sanctum, 
with the assurance that his fate would be the gallows or the 
musket-ball. It is well known that Murat met his fate by military 
execution in Calabria in the year 1816. 

Again, Gerard, one of Bernadotte' s aid-de-camps, was one day 
relating to the latter stories illustrating the strange power of 
Mademoiselle Lenormand. Gerard at last asked his superior to 
accompany him to the house of the prophetess. Bernadotte agreed, 
and they proceeded to the Rue de Tournon. This, it should be 
remembered, was in January, 1804. Colonel Gerard presented his 
general as a rich merchant, desirous to learn what would be the 
issue of some commercial speculations which he was on the point of 
commencing in various parts of Germany. Examining her cards, 
the sibyl remarked : " Sir, you are not a merchant, but a military 
officer, and an officer of very high rank." She was assured that she 
was wrong. Lenormand shook her head, replying : " Well, sir, if 
you go into commercial speculations, you will be unsuccessful, and 
forced to re-enter the career intended by destiny." After examining 
the cards again, she continued : u Not only are you of high military 
rank, but you are, or will be, related to the emperor." "What 
emperor?" exclaimed Bernadotte and Gerard. "I mean the first 
consul," said Lenormand. Then with her finger slowly tracking 
the mysterious signs as they opened before her, she answered in a 
solemn and as if inspired tone : " Yes, he will be emperor, but here 
are some clouds intervening between you." On Bernadotte looking 
significantly at Gerard, the sibyl continued : " But there is not any 
separation; you are still attached to him — ah! how his star is 
rising ! " She ceased, as if in surprise, for a moment, and then 
resumed : " Sir, be careful not to break with him j he will be very 
powerful, the world will be at his feet, and you — you, far away from 
him, will be a king — yes, yes, you will be a king." She stopped. 
" Good," said Gerard ; " what then ? " "I cannot perceive any- 
thing more, nor can I add anything," replied the prophetess. 

Napoleon was crowned emperor by the Pope in December, 1804, 
and Bernadotte afterwards became King of Sweden and Norway. 

Thus, inj3pite of the poet's assertion, 

" Heaven from all creatures bides the Book of Fate,"' 

humanity has always persisted in trying to read it, and carto- 
mancy, not unlike other expedients, has had its fortunate episodes, 
and occasionally, without intending it, has spoken the truth. 



F. 81. 



(Grand Etteilla.) 

SET of emblematic cards based on the designs of the typical tarots, 
accompanied by a numeral series, the whole being equal in number 
to the earlier Venetian sequence of seventy-eight pieces. The marks 
of the suits of the numerals are batons, coupes, epees, and deniers. The 
coate- cards have on them whole-length figures holding in their hands the signs of 
their suits. 

This set of cards is designed and arranged for the purposes of divination. It 
is accompanied by a book of explanations and directions, bearing the title : 
" Maniere de tirer. Le Grand Etteilla ou tarots Egyptiens. Paris, chez tous les 
marchands des nouveautes."' 

In the " Notions Preliminaires " with which the book commences, it is stated 
that Hart de tirer les tarots, or the Egyptian cards, is an agreeable science and of 
exciting interest, but that its results become serious or recreative, miraculous or 
frivolous, in a ratio with the greater or less degree of faith possessed by those 
who resort to it. It is a pursuit that merits especially the confidence of amateurs, 
particularly female ones, who are so partial to secrets. 

Directions then having been given pour tirer les tarots, the meanings of the 
latter are explained under seventy -eight heads, and then follow the details neces- 
sary to elicit these meanings, and certain other values appertaining to the 
numeral series. 

All the card-pieces in the set are numbered consecutively from one, Etteilla 
questionnant, to seventy-eight, Folie, which seems to correspond to the Fou or 
Misero of the older tarots. The designs of the emblematic series of this set are 
much modified in several instances by Etteilla's interpretation of the older type, 
as is likewise the order of the sequence. Nos. 1 and 2, the questionnant and feu, 
may be said to be equivalent to No. 1 9, Le Soleil, of the ordinary series. 

S T o 


Eau . . . 

. to No 

. xviii 

. La Lune. 









Terre . . . 



Le Monde. 



Jour . . . 





Protection . 







11 . 

1 , 



La Justice 



La Justice. 



La Temperance 



La Temperance. 



La Force . 



La Force. 



La Prudence . 


J xii. 

Le Pendu. 



Mariage . 






Force Majeure 



Le Diable. 



Maladie . 



Le Bataleur. 






Le Jugement. 



Mortalite . . 



La Mort. ♦ 



Traitre . 






Mis ere . . 



La Maison Dieu. 



Fortune . 



La Roue de Fortune 



Dissension . 



Le Chariot. 

The designs on these emblematic pieces are mostly full-length figures, and 
subjects simulating more or less the typical tarots, and are often accompanied by 


astronomic or astrologic signs. Above and below each design is a title, e. g. on 
No. 5 is Voyage at the top and Terre at the bottom of the card ; on No. 1 1 is 
La Force above and Le Souverain below. Each card is numbered twice, viz. at 
opposite corners diagonally and in reverse like Spanish cards. 

The numeral series begins with the suit batons. The king and queen are 
seated and wear crowns, the cavalier is mounted, the valet is on foot. Each 
personage carries a long wand or staff. Each honour has two titles. Above the 
king of batons is Homme de campagne, below, Homme bon et severe. Above the 
queen is Femme de campagne, below, Bonne Femme. On the cavalier is depart 
and disunion. On the valet is Stranger and nouvelle. The honours of the other 
suits have like titles of various import. 

The marks of the suits are placed in proper number on either blue or green 
coloured grounds, below the compartments containing which are bright yellow 
squares, some of them having within astrologic and other symbols or small 
emblematic figures; other yellow compartments are void of all marks. Each 
of the pip cards has an upper and lower title printed in reverse like the 
honours. On the eight of deniers, e. g., is Fille Brune above, and plus below. 
On each of the marks of the suit, here coloured pink on a green ground, is fi 
(Omega). On the lower and yellow division of the piece is a crescent moon with 
Venus by her side. On the aces are always a human hand and part of the arm, 
the former holding up a large symbol of the particular suit. In the ace of deniers 
the hand bears a figure of Apollo with a radiant sun above his head, while below 
in the yellow compartment is a circle for the mark of the suit. These cards are 
all neatly engraved and coloured, some of the numeral series being particularly 
clear and distinct. The backs are ornamented with pink dots. 

[4i X 2 J- in.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 82. 


(Petit Etteilla.) 

PIQUET set of cards (thirty-two) made subservient to the purpose 

of divination through dreams. 

The series is accompanied by a book of directions and solutions, 

which bears the following title : " Le nouvel Etteilla ou moyen 
infaillible de tirer les cartes et de lire dans l'avenir par 1' interpretation des songes. 
Auquel on a joint un tableau alphabetique de tous les objets qui se presentent 
dans les songes et les visions nocturnes, avec leur signification, traduit d'un 
manuscrit de Pythagore, commente par le celebre Urbain Grandier, lTman de la 
grande mosquee d'Alexandrie, et divers auteurs persans et arabes. Paris, Impr. 
de Ducessois $$ quai des Gr. Augustins (Pres le Pont Neuf)." On the opposite 
fly-leaf we are informed that " Dans le meine magazin Ton trouve : Le grand et 
le petit Etteilla ; L' oracle des dames ; Les grands tarots italiens et allemands ; 
et generalement tout ce qui a rapport a la cartomancie." 

After an exordium au beau sexe et a tous les amateurs de la cartomancie, comes 
a sketch of what we owe to the " celebrated," the " profound Etteilla," who made 
his debut in 1 753 by his " L'art de tirer les Cartes." The information also is afforded 
us that this " learned professor of cartomancy, instructed by a native Piedmont 
that the book of the first Egyptians, the book named thot or tout, written in hiero- 
glyphics and known by the name and game of tarots, or better tharoth, contained 
all the ancient sciences, he made a serious study of it, and in spite of the hinder- 
ances of the royal censors, of the library administrations, and of the police during 

166 FRENCH. 

1782, published in 1783 his work on the tharoth or tarots, a work which had 
cost him more than ten consecutive years of study and reflection." (p. 16.) 

Page 20 enters on the "Methode pour tirer les cartes," which extends to 
page 50, when follows a " Maniere simple, naturelle et facille d'expliquer les 
songes avec les cartes." A " Treatise on Dreams and Visions after the Egyptians 
and Persians " concludes the book. 

Each card-piece, 3| in. in height by 2-^ in. in width, has the representation 
of a particular card in its centre, \\ X 1 in. in size. Around this are certain 
titles, phrases, and numbers, having reference to the mode of employment of th 
cards, and the details of the divinatory doctrines propounded. Around the 
quadrangle of the ace of trefies, e.g., are engraved at the upper margin the words, 
Bourse d' Argent, No. 26, Orphelin, R 5 Mauvais, E Prison ; at the lower margin 
in reverse way, Noblesse, No. 26, Rancune, R 5 Mauvais, E Prison. At the 
right hand side, 4 As Lotterie, 3 As Petite reussite, 2 As Duperie ; and at the left, 
4 As Deshonneur, 3 As Libertinage, 2 As Ennemi. The coate-cards have on them 
full-length coloured figures in erect attitudes, with titles and numbers similar to 
the lower cards. Thus on the Dame de piques may be read Femme Veuve, No. 
16 Vie, R 13 Ivrognerie, E . . . Cocuage, Femme du Monde, No. 18, Avarice, 
R 1 3 Ivrognerie, E . . . Cocuage, 4 Dames, grand pour parler y 3D... tromperie 
de femme, 2D... amie, 4 Dames mauvaise societe, 3D... gourmandise, 2 
D . . . ouvrier, ouvrage. The first card in the series is marked N 1 Etteilla ou 
le Questionant, and has the direction, Voyez ce que signifie cette carte etant a cote 
des autres cartes. 

All the cards are from neatly engraved copper plates, and are carefully 
coloured. The backs are marked with small hexagons formed by dotted lines of 
a blue colour. 

[3 1 x 2 f m *] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 83. 


SERIES of forty -two separate card-pieces, including twenty-two pure 
tarots and twenty distinct numerals, the remaining numerals being 
added to the tarots series, as smaller cards placed at the lower corners 
of the tarots. In the twenty separate numerals, the pip and honour 
cards likewise appear only as smaller cards at the lower corners of emblematic 

The series is intended to serve the purposes of divination and fortune-telling. 
It is accompanied by a book of directions, entitled " Le petit Oracle des Dames 
ou recreation du curieux contenant soixante-douze figures coloriees, formant le jeu 
complet de cinquante-deux cartes avec la maniere de tirer les cartes, tant avec ce 
jeu qu'avec les cartes ordinaires." Paris Impr. de Ducessois S3 quai des Gr. 
Augustins (pres le Pont Neuf). 

An " Epitre aux Dames " commences the book, in which we are assured that 
" lorsqu'une belle prend les cartes magiques, et tache de lever un coin du voile 
quicouvrel'avenir, elle nest portee a ce mouvement de curiosite que par une ten- 
dresse bien juste, un sentiment bien honorable," &c. 

A description of the mysteries symbolized in the tarots cards is next given. 
These latter are divided into three series, each of the magic number seven. The 
first series of seven represents the Golden Age of the world, the second series the 
Silver Age, the third series the Age of Brass. 




The first emblematic card of the first series is terre, voyage, 4' element, 
corresponding to Le Monde, xxi., of the typical sequence, and is thus described, 
" under the Sign of the Lion :" — " The goddess Isis in the centre of a circle 
formed by a serpent biting its tail, representing the Universe. The circle is the 
emblem of the yearly revolutions, and the symbol of eternity, which has neither 
beginning or end. Isis, whom the Egyptians regarded as the origin of all things, 
appears ready to run. At the four corners of the design are the emblems of the 
seasons. The Eagle, under the sign of the Virgin, indicates the Spring, which 
brings back the birds. The Lion, under its ordinary sign, implies Summer, or the 
ardour of the sun. The Ox is the allegory of Autumn, when one labours and sows ; 
while the Youth, under the sign of the Twins, represents Winter, the season when 
we re-unite together. To this design is added the eight of diamonds, which is 
placed beneath the Ox. It implies the same subjects as before -mentioned — the 
country, earth, labour. When this design is preceded by the sign of Jupiter, it 
becomes of very favourable augury." 

Details of the various ways in which the cards may be worked are given, along 
with an account of the pieces, "auxquelles les diseurs de bonne aventure attachent 
des pronostics." 

Some of the tarots proper have each two designs on them, printed in reverse. 
Thus the piece No. 10 is divided into two equal portions. On the upper portion 
is a seated female, pouring a fluid from a vase in her right hand into a vase held 
in her left. At the lower left-hand corner of this division is represented a small 
numeral card, viz. the four of hearts. The title, La Temperance, is engraved 
above the figure. On the lower division is represented Night, in the form of the 
moon beaming down from the darkened heavens on the earth. 

Some of the tarots designs are almost identical with the typical ones, though 
bearing other numbers, but several are sui generis. No. 2 1 of the tarots repre- 
sents Le Bataleur, while No. 22 is both consultant and consultante, with appro- 
priate designs. 

All the separate numeral cards have each two emblematic designs on them, 
printed in reverse. Some of the designs have at the corners the representation of 
a diminutive pip or honour card ; others have not. Above each design is a title. 
On No. 29, a ship in a tempestuous sea is represented in the upper division of the 
piece, and a diminutive ten of spades is at the left-hand lower corner. Above is 
the title Naufrage, Grand Malheur. 

In the lower division are the arched vaults and staircase of a prison, with the 
title "prison." The number 29 is at the upper left-hand and lower right-hand 
corner in reverse. 

The designs, execution, and colouring of these cards are of inferior character 
The backs are marbled in madder and white. 

[3^ X 2£ in.] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 84. 



SET of seventy-eight cards, viz., twenty-two atouts and fifty-six 
numerals, designed and adapted to the purposes of divination. As 
far as the twenty -two tarots proper are concerned they may be said 
to be coarse copies on wood of the designs of the tarots of F. 81. 
Some slight differences of detail exist, as in No. l, Le Chaos, No. 10, La Tem- 
perance, No. 12, La Prudence, No. 15, Maladie, and No. 21, Droit. As in F. 81, 
the fou is No. 78, the last card of the series, and entitled Folie. 



The marks of the suits of the numeral series are batons, coupes, epees, anc 
deniers. The designs on these pieces differ from F. 8l in certain respects. Eacl 
piece is divided into two compartments, the lower and smaller compartment 
always coloured yellow, but the upper division is in all instances parti-colourc 
pink and blue. The symbols represented in the lower or yellow compartmei 
differ from those of F. 8l. In batons, keys, tablets, cards, lightning, arrows 
&c, are to be seen ; in coupes medallions, within which are various things, 
harp, dolphin, bull's head, bee-hive, &c. ; in epees, busts of men ; and in deniers 
whole-length female figures seated, and at various occupations. The honours 
exhibit like designs to those of F. 8 1 , but are differently coloured. 

The titles and descriptions on all the cards differ in certain details from those 
on the series F. 8 1 . On No. 2, for example, at the summit of the card, is printed 
Droit eclaircissement ( 1 er jour de la creation) ; below the design are Renverse, 
feu (2 e element) ; on the right-hand side is La Lumiere, and the same on the 
left. At each corner of the piece is the number 2. Each of the numeral series 
has its suit and value printed on each side of the design, thus on the third figure 
card in batons, le chevalier de baton is printed on each side of the man on horse- 
back, and on the like card of the suit coupes, is le chevalier de coupe. But in 
general, though the marks of the suits are the old Italian ones, as before stated, a 
twofold description of the suit and value of each card is given, viz., one answer- 
ing to their actual signs, and the other to the more recent French symbols. Thus 
on the left-hand of the ten of deniers is printed le dix de denier, and on the 
right-hand le dix de trefles, on the three of coupes is le trois de coupe on one side, 
and le trois de cornr on the other. 

The book of directions which accompanied this series is wanting. 

The backs are coloured blue. 

[4| X 2 J-]. [Backs coloured.] 

F. 85. 


SERIES of seventy-eight cards, viz., twenty-two tarots proper, ant 
fifty-six numerals. The suits of the latter are batons, coupes, epees, 
and deniers. 

These cards are designed according to the principles of Le Grand 
Etteilla, and adapted to the purposes of divination. Most of the designs are in- 
tended to be Egyptian or Assyrian in character. 

The first card of the tarots series is L'homme qui consulte, sagesse, genie. 
The last piece, lefou, is No. 78 of the whole sequence, and entitled Folie. 

No. 2 is Osiris ou le soleil, No. 3, Isis ou la lune, No. $, Apis ou les saisons, 
(Horus), No. 13, le premier prophete, gardien des divines paroles, No. 18, L'ermite 
de la grande Thebaide dEgypte, No. 1 9, Le Rhamesseium ou Temple funeraire 
de Rhamses LI. (Mejamoun), No. 21, le Tyran Buswis. 

The king of batons is le Roi Ptolemee Lagus, the queen Didon, reine de Car- 
thage, the cavalier, le Prince- Gouverneur oVEthiope, and the valet is the Surinten- 
dant des Greniers ; the king of cups is le Grand Pretre, the queen Esther, reine de 
Perse, the cavalier le Prince- Gouverneur de Memphis, and the valet le grand 
E chanson ; the king of swords is represented by Ninus, roi aVAssyrie, the queen 
by Semiramis, veuve du roi Ninus, the cavalier by le surintendant de la cavaleric, 
and the valet by le chef des grammates du palais ; the king of money is Sesostris 
(Rhamses Mei'amoun le Grand), the queen Makeda, reine de Saba et oVEthiope, the 


cavalier Joseph, surintendant du double tresor, while the valet is le commandeur des 
constructions du palais. 

The pip cards of the suit batons are divided into two portions ; the upper and 
larger portion contains the marks of the suit, here termed baguettes ou batons, the 
ace representing la baguette ou verge de Mo'ise. The lower divisions have a 
variable number of objects like long nails arranged together in various ways. 

The conditions and fortunes symbolized by the various pieces are indicated by 
such terms as melancholie, catastrophe, bonnes nouvelles, union, ordre. On No. 65 
(Makeda, or reine de deniers) is femme genereuse below the figure, and femme brune, 
femme suspecte above it in reverse. On the ace of deniers are Le Denier de la 
Fortune, and Bonheur parfait below, and argent above. 

The designs on these cards are of good character, and have been very neatly 
engraved on wood. All are uncoloured, but have been printed off on a buff- 
toned paper. 

[4 X 2|- in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 86. 


SERIES of fifty-five cards, including fifty-two numerals of the suits 
trefles, piques, cosurs, and carreaux, and three supernumerary pieces, 
viz. a "Consultant," a " Consultante," and a "Diable," or zero, the 
symbol of negation. 

This set is intended for the purposes of prognostication and fortune -telling, in 
aid of which there is a book of directions and solutions, entitled, " Livre du Grand 
Oracle avec le Jeu explicatif, compose de S3 cartes. Paris, chez Gustave 
Arnoult 24 Rue des Fosses Saint- Victor, 1 858." 

Each card-piece is of considerable size — at least 4f X 3 j- in. — and may be 
said to consist of three portions. The upper division has at its left-hand corner 
the representation of a diminutive numeral card of the usual character, pip or 
honour, as the sequence may require. At the right-hand corner in a similar space 
is a kabbalistic sign. Between the card and the sign are a varying number of 
stars in special astrological positions as respects each other, and connected by 
continuous and dotted lines. 

In the central division is an emblematic design of whole-length figures indi- 
cating some virtue or state, as concord, power, perfection, marriage, fecundity, &c, 
as illustrated in the history of some true or fabulous person or event. Sometimes 
two events are recorded in the central design. At the lower third of the piece are 
other emblematic illustrations of pictorial character. 

The following account is given in the " Livre du Grand Oracle," of the " Roi 
de Trefle, No. I." — " Man of knowledge and of great sagacity, capable of giving 
wise and judicious advice." 

Chief subject : — 

" Phineus, king of Thrace, become blind as a punishment, is seated at a table 
taking his repast ; on one side the harpies are fouling his dishes, on the other he is 
giving advice to the Argonauts as to the road they should take to Colchis. 

" Follow in all points the counsels of a venerable man whom you have need to 

Lower portion. Subject of the right-hand side : — 

" Two groups of rocks, a dove on this side of them. 

" Distrust and precaution to prevail on undertaking a journey." 

170 FRENCH. 

Subject of the left-band side : — 

" Two groups of rocks, a dove beyond them. 

" Safety on undertaking a journey." 


" Plumbago, Sweet Basil, Poppy. 

* The undertaking on which you are about to enter is a doubtful one, but riches 
and glory are connected with it, and on taking precautions and counsels from a 
wise man you may succeed." 

Like descriptions are given of each of the fifty-two cards. The pieces repre- 
senting the male and female consultants, have on them simply full-dressed whole- 
length figures. On the " Diable," " Emblem of a wicked Genius," are the swords 
of the angel Gabriel and of the angel of Justice, and a thistle in flower. 

The designs are generally mediocre in conception and inferior in engraving and 

The backs are coloured blue. 

[4J- X 3s- in.] [Backs coloured.] 

F. 87. 


SET of seventy-eight cards, 1. e. twenty-two pure tarots and fifty-six 
numerals, intended and arranged for the purposes of fortune-telling. 

It is accompanied by an ornamental title bearing the inscription : 
" Le Grand Jeu de 1' Oracle Des Dames. 78 Cartes Tarots." "Des. 
et Lith, par G. Regamey Delarue Editeur. Lith, Haugard-Meuge." 

The designs and sequence of the pure tarots are according to one of Etteilla's 
versions. No. l is Chaos ; 2, La Lumiere ; 3, Les Plantes ; 1 5, Le Magicien ; 
16, Le Jugement dernier; 21 is Le Despot, corresponding to Le Charior, No. 
vii., of the typical series. 

Each tarots is numbered at the four corners, and has " Droit " at the top and 
" Renverse " (in reverse) at the bottom of the design. At each side of the latter 
is the title. Le Fou is here the last card, and is numbered 78. 

The figure-cards of the numeral series are whole-length figures bearing the 
symbols of their suits in their right hands. They are numbered at each corner, 
have " Droit " and " Renverse " top and bottom respectively, and the title and 
value on each side. The marks of the suits are batons, coupes, epees, and denier s. 
In the pip pieces the marks of the suits are contained within large shields, sur- 
rounded by floriated ornaments. The face of the shield is unornamented, except 
in the case of the aces, where a delicate tendril-like design is present. 

The marks of the suit deniers represent the obverses and reverses of small 
Roman coins. On the large sign on the ace is the figure of Ceres. 

These cards have been executed in chromo-lithography, and printed in rather 
positive colours. Some of the designs are very good, and care has evidently been 
taken in the treatment of the costumes and draperies, which are intended to be 
those of the time of the long-toed, pointed shoes known as "poulains." 

[4|- X 2J- in.] [Backs decorated.] 


F. 88. 


PIQUET set of cards (thirty- two), of the ordinary suits — piques, 
trefles, cceurs, and carreaux. 

Each piece may be regarded either as an ordinary playing-card, or 
as a fortune -telling one, the latter belonging rather to the amusing 
or comic variety than to the serious divinatory class. A quarter portion of each 
piece is occupied by the representation of an ordinary playing-card, so large and 
so distinct that there would not be any embarrassment in using the set in cus- 
tomary play. The remaining portion of the card-piece is taken up with some 
amusing design, below which is the title. Thus, e.g. on the seven of carreaux a 
man's head with a night-cap and large spectacles projects from behind the smaller 
pip card in the left-hand upper corner ; just below, the man puts out his right 
hand, holding up the index finger towards a woman, who holds up her's likewise, 
and appears with open mouth to be arguing with the man above. The woman 
rests with her left hand on a long birch-broom handle. Below the pip card 
hangs a red parroquet in a cage. Under the design are the words " Bavardage," 
" Caquets." 

On the reine de trefles is a very neat design of the honour card at the left- 
hand upper corner. Below is a three-quarter figure of a young woman, regard- 
ing with satisfaction a handful of gold coin, of which there are three piles upon 
the table over which she leans. Below is engraved " Amour d' Argent." 

This set is accompanied by a small ornamental title, on which is inscribed : 
" Le petit Sorcier compose de 32 Cartes." 

These cards are from engraved metal plates of a soft description, such as 
pewter or zinc. Some of the small figure-pieces or honours are of extremely 
careful and neat execution. The pieces are gaily coloured throughout. 

The backs are marked with dotted arrow-heads, and large stars of a green 

[3f x 2 t m -] [Backs decorated.] 

F. 89. 


PIQUET set of cards of the suits piques, cceurs, carreaux, and 
trefles. It is intended for the purposes of fortune-telling as well as 
for ordinary play, but belongs to the amusing variety of fortune-telling 
cards, and not to the serious divinatory class. 
Each card-piece has a representation of a small numeral card at its upper 
left-hand corner. Occupying the greater portion of the piece is an emblematic 
design, including full-length figures and landscapes ; below is the title. The ace 
of piques has on it a Cupid on clouds, about to let off an arrow on some one 
below. Above him are two billing doves, below is the title, V Amour. The ten 
of carreaux exhibits a large parterre of flowers, from which a serpent protrudes 
his neck. Over these are some birds hovering, and at a little distance other 

172 FRENCH. 

birds arc being caught in a net. At the lower margin are the words : " Piege ou 

A book of explication accompanies the set. It is entitled : " Le Livre de 
Destin," and commences with an " Epitre aux Dames," by M. Violet, editeur, 
which begins with the assurance that " L'homme galant doit toujours faire 
hommage aux Dames du fruit de ses travaux." After the address comes the 
" Maniere de tirer les Cartes," followed by an " Explication des Cartes," with 
finally the " Rencontre des Cartes ayant meme valeur." 

The imprint is " Impr. de Carpentier Mericourt, Rue Trainee S. Eustache, 
No. 15." 

These cards have been carefully designed, neatly engraved on metal, and the 
impressions coloured. The costumes and accessories are of modern description. 

[4g- X 2i in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 90. 


PIQ UET set of cards (thirty-two), of the usual suits, subservient to 
the purposes of fortune -telling, as well as of ordinary play. 

This pack is a replica of F. 89, accompanied by the book of 
X 2i in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 91 


PIQUET set of cards of the usual suits, intended for the purposes of 
fortune-telling as well as of ordinary play. 

The set belongs rather to the amusing than to the serious class of 
divinatory agents, being based on exactly the same principles as are 
F. 89 and 90. 

The greater portion of each piece is occupied by an emblematic design, while 
the representation of an ordinary numeral of small size is placed at the upper 
left-hand corner. The title of the design is engraved beneath the latter. The 
emblematic representations, though after the same kind as those of the previous 
series, are yet different in detail. On No. 1, the ace of piques, e.g. are two 
Cupids wrestling among the clouds, and around whom roses are scattered. Below 
is the title : " La Bagatelle ou L' Amour." Some of the compositions are very 
fair, and all are neatly engraved and coloured. The small numerals and 
honours at the summits of the large pieces are particularly good. 

This set is accompanied by a book of directions, on which is the title in MS. 
"Cartes du Destins" — (aux Dames) — "Aug. Legrand." It opens with an 
account " De la Maniere de Tirer les Cartes ;" which is followed by a " Troisieme 
moyen pour connaitre la pensee de quelqu'un," and concludes with an "Explica- 
tion des Cartes." 

The edges of these cards are gilt. 

[3t X 2|- in.] [Backs plain.] 


F. 92. 


FULL set (fifty -two) of numerals of the ordinary suits, carnrs, piques, 
trefles, and carreaux. 

The series is of an amusing and humorous character. 
The court-cards are full-length figures, strongly and positively 
coloured by chromo-lithography, while the figures which are on the pip -pieces 
are left in outline and hi shadow, the marks of the suits being coloured over them. 

The king of spades represents a Red Indian chief with spear and shield, the 
queen Joan d' Arc, the valet a " Suisse " in the well-known attire ; the king of 
clubs is a tippling Boniface on a donkey, the queen a Swiss flower-girl, and the 
valet a gardener mowing. The king of diamonds is an inferior Court attendant of 
the period of long-pointed shoes, the queen a buxom market-woman, the valet a 
man-servant sweeping the carpet. The king of hearts is Cupid, the queen a 
" star of the ballet," the valet a porter delivering a letter. A supernumerary 
piece of this valet commences the series. A variety of amusing and comic 
designs are on the pip numerals. 

Some of the compositions are serious, however, such as the subject on the 
ace of spades, which represents a nun at devotion before an altar ; on the four 
of clubs is a bishop in full canonicals with crozier, and on the ten of clubs is a 
monumental effigy of a knight in armour. The way in which the mark of the 
suit, spades, is made to constitute the head and face of a negro nurse in the four 
of the suit is admirable. 

The backs are of a rose-colour. 

[3i X 21 in.] 

[Backs coloured.] 

F. 93- 


SERIES of thirty cards, having on them whole-length figures repre- 
senting eminent personages of the time of Louis XIV. 

These pieces are purely cartes de fantaisie, not possessing any 
of the essentials of ordinary playing-cards. A book of biographical 

summaries connected with the persons represented accompanies the series. 

It is entitled, " Le Siecle de Louis XIV., ou Vie des Personnages Celebres qui 

174 FRENCH. 

out illustre ec Siecle. Paris Libraire de Gide Fils, Rue S. Marc-Feydc 
No. 20." 

Among the celebrities are Boileau, Conde, D'Aguesseau, Fenelon, Luxembourg, 
Mansard, Le Notre, Poussin, Racine, Madame de Sevigne, and Turenne. 

The portraits- are in general well designed, and neatly engraved and coloured ; 
some, like those of Tourville, Conde, and Racine, are bad in proportions and 
attitudes. The representations of Flechier, Bossuet, and Fenelon, are particu- 
larly good. 

The name is engraved in a separate marginal compartment below the desic 

[4f x 2f in.] [Backs plain/ 

F. 94. 


SERIES of thirty-eight cards, eighteen of which represent emblematic 
designs ; the remaining twenty giving descriptions of the scenes and 
persons represented. 

These pieces are purely cartes de fantaisie, not having any of the 
essentials of ordinary playing-cards. The character of the amusement offered 
may be gleaned from the following account given on the introductory piece of 
the set : 

" Jeu de Societe : charades en action. 
" Chaque charade est composee de trois petites scenes en monologues, ren- 
fermant le premier mot, le second et l'entier de la charade. La Societe se divise 
en deux parties, Tune pour jouer et 1' autre pour deviner. 

" Les charades se jouent comme les ' Proverbes,' autre jeu qu'on trouve 
chez l'auteur de celui-ci, soit en pantomimes, soit en scenes dialoguees. II est 
bon d'avoir les objets et les costumes qui conviennent a la scene que Ton vent 
representer. La partie qui a devine joue a son tour." 

The words of the charades represented by the designs on the eighteen cards 
are ballot, mariage, theatre, oranges, ecriteau, and delire. 

The compositions and execution of these pieces are but of mediocre character. 
[4J- X 2|- in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 95. 


SERIES of fifty-two pieces, having on them emblematic designs with 
their titles below. The set is purely fanciful, not having any of the 
characters of true playing-cards. A supernumerary piece has on it 
" Explication du Jeu de la Sybylle des Salons. Se vend a Paris 

chez Alph. Giroux & Cie. Rue du Coq. St. Honore, No. 7 ; Gihaut Freres, 

Boulevard des Italiens, No. 5." 

This series of designs is excellent in all respects. The compositions are good, 

and full of meaning : they are etched with freedom and delicacy, and the colouring 


is tasteful, light, and appropriate. On each piece at the lower left-hand 
corner is " Mangion, inv 1 ." 

The class of subjects represented maybe gleaned from the following emblems. 
On one card a countryman has brought money to an accountant, which is 
being sorted in piles on a table, over which the accountant leans ; behind the 
countryman at his feet are bags of money. Below is the motto : " Beaucoup 
d' Argent." A man closely enveloped in a cloak, from which protrudes a bludgeon, 
is waiting concealed behind a wall, for a person who is on the point of passing 
before him. Below is inscribed, " Ennemi." Some of the figures are well 
worthy of Gavarni, and such pieces as the Maison de Ville and Maison de 
Campagne are extremely characteristic of the places represented. 

[4§- X 2|-in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 96. 



SERIES of thirty-six card-pieces, having on them whole-length 
figures of persons supposed to be engaged in the furtherance and 
celebration of a marriage. Accompanying the series is a description 
of the game, which is entitled : " La Dot. Nouveau Jeu de Societe." 
Each player must have twenty counters, and be supposed to represent one of 
the various persons engaged in the ceremony, e.g., le Pretendu, la Pretendue, le 
Pere, la Mere, le Cure, le Bedeau, and others. Of these counters the players 
contribute, according to circumstances, to the " Corbeille de Mariage." La Pre- 
tendue, a nicely designed and executed demoiselle, has La Demande made in 
reference to her, as follows : 

" Un jeune homme bien ne, d'une bonne tournure, 
Desirait s'unir a cet objet charmant, 
On dit qu'il le prendrait sans dot assurement, 
Mais il est toujours bon de doter la future." 

The above demande is engraved on a distinct card, as are likewise Le 
Consentement and Le Contrat. 

The last card exhibits a .table of Refraichissemens, which " ayant paru les 
imporiuns qui restent dans la main des joueurs ne paient rien, et la partie est 

Some of the designs are good, others but mediocre. The execution and 
colouring are careful. 

[31- X 2 B" m -] [Backs plain.] 

F. 97. 



SERIES of thirty-six cards, having on them whole-length male and 
female figures, in characteristic costumes. 

Four of the cards have each a figure of Polichinello in various 
pantomimic attitudes ; one being on stilts. The remaining thirty-two 
pieces are divided into four suits, distinguished by the colours of the costumes. 


The eight cards in each suit have different designs on them, but these designs are 
repeated in each suit. 

In each suit there is a leader of the "troupe" with book and baton ; a courtier 
in full dress, plumed cap, and sword ; a countryman by whose side is a diminutive 
Polichinello on stilts ; a lady in Court costume with ermined train ; a lady in 
long veil and train ; a lady with stomacher and feathered hat ; a lady in a bonnet 
leaning over a parapet, and a country girl with basket on arm. 

To each of these suits belongs a Polichinello. 

It is not easy to make out in all cases the suit to which the card belongs, 
there being often such a mixture of colours in the costumes as to render the 
question doubtful. In other cards the distinction is plain enough. The colours 
distinguishing the suits appear to be brown or violet, blue, red, and green. 

Excluding the four Polichinello cards, the number of each suit is that of 
the suit of a piquet set of cards, but there are neither pips, numbers, nor any 
indications on the pieces by which they might be said to simulate ordinary 

The designs, engraving, and colouring, are of a superior character, much care 
and artistic ability being displayed in them. 

Accompanying the cards is a title, cut apparently from a sale catalogue. It 
runs thus : " Jeu des Polichinels Yampires, par A. Giroux. Coloured. Paris, 36." 

[4£ x 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 

F. 98. 



SERIES of thirty -two fancy cards, designed for Le Jeu de Quilles. 

On nine pieces is represented a large skittle in the upright position 
against a landscape background ; then follow nine pieces with skittles 
on the ground, and landscapes ; next come nine bowls ; then three 
pieces, each piece with a running dog on it ; and lastly, two cards, on each of 
which are two prostrate skittles. 

Each of the nine pieces having prostrate skittles is numbered at the upper 
left-hand corner. The cards with the dogs on them are named Medor, Diamant, 
and Mirault respectively, while those with two prostrate skittles on each are num- 
bered 2, 4, and 3, 6, 9, respectively. 

A number of counters must accompany the cards, the game requiring a pool. 
A paper of directions and rules is given with this set. The engraving and 
colouring are careful. 

[3f X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 

R 99. 


SERIES of twenty-four cards, having on them designs and scenes 
emblematic of the vicissitudes of human life. 

These cards are described here as of purely fanciful character, not- 
withstanding that the marks of the suits, piques, trejles, cceurs, and 
carreaux, are placed at the right-hand lower corner of each piece. There is one 

mark c 


rk only on each card, and the same mark extends but to six pieces. The six 
cards with the mark of piques, and the six with that of, i. e. les douze cartes 
noires, represent the troubles of humanity ; while those pieces having on them the 
marks of cceurs and carreaux, i.e., les rouges, symbolize its joys. 

Each card has a number and the title of the design at the lower margin. 

On the card numbered 8, with the mark of trejies, a young lady in a violent 
passion is smashing the drawing-room chairs ; below is the inscription, " Madame 
brise Menage." 

On the piece numbered 6, and with the mark of cceurs, a marriage ceremony 
is being performed. Below is the title, " Les Amans a l'Autel." 

The game requires to be played with counters, a set of which accompanies the 
pack. The counters are blue, red, yellow, and white. 

An explication du jeu is given, entitled, " Jeu des Vicissitudes Humaines, on 
les Peines et les Plaisirs." 

The designs, execution, and colouring are but of mediocre character. 

[3t X 2 f in -] [Backs plain.} 

F. 100. 



SERIES of ninety cards, having on them designs representing hu- 
morous characters, or laughable incidents. Accompanying these 
pieces are twenty-four long cards, each card being divided into 
twenty-seven squares. Some of these squares are coloured, others 
are left plain ; the colours being yellow, green, blue, and red. The fifteen plain 
squares on each card are numbered with large numerals, varying from one to 
ninety according to circumstances. 

A leaf of instructions accompanies the series, entitled " Regie du Jeu de Loto 
en Cartes a rire." 

Counters are required in the game, as a pool is necessary. 
Each pictorial card is numbered at the top, and below the number is the title 
of the design represented. 

On No. 8 is " Le bon Coin," with the representation of a drunken man 
(whose hat has fallen off) leaning helplessly against the friendly corner of a 
wine-shop, the owner of which, " Boneau M d de Vin," is at the door, gazing with 
astonishment at the drunkard. Some of the designs are comical enough in inten- 
tion, but the artistic power displayed is in many instances but of very mediocre 
character. All the pieces are coloured. 

[3 J x 2 f m -] [Backs plain.] 

F. 101. 



SERIES of thirty-six cards, having on them whole-length male and 
female figures, in national costumes. 

These pieces are for the purpose of playing the Jeu du Nigaud, the 
performance of which is described on an accompanying sheet. Counters 
are required in the amusement, a set of which goes along with the cards. These 


178 FRENCH. 

square counters are numbered with large figures up to 36, and correspond 
like numbers on the cards. 

Some of the designs are admirable in respect of drawing, engraving, 

[3r x 2 J- in -] [Backs plain.] 

R 102. 


SERIES of twenty-eight cards, representing the pieces of a set of 
dominoes. Each card is divided into six equal compartments. In 
the middle white space are marked the values of the pieces by the 
usual black dots, here having a white star in the centre. In the 
lateral divisions at the corners, opposite diagonally, are shields with castellated 
crowns, and arabesque ornaments are at the other corners. Each shield is divided 
longitudinally, having the domino points of the central compartments repeated in 
its divisions. 

On the first card is inscribed across the upper central compartment : " Propriete 
de l'auteur." 

The engraving of these cards is very neatly executed ; the shields and orna- 
ments being relieved white off a black ground. 

[3f X 2| in.] [Backs ?] 



Fl. 103. 



COMPLETE set of combined tarots, i. e. twenty -two atouts and 
fifty-six numeral cards. The marks of the latter suits are coupes, 
epees, deniers, and batons. The designs of the tarots proper 
are like those of the French set, F. 37, before described. No. 2 
has on it a whole-length portrait of Le Spagnol Capitano Era- 
casse, in place of the typical La Papesse. On No. 5 is Bacus 
in lieu of Le Pape, and No. l 2, Lepen-du, must be reversed in order that the figure 
may hang in the usual way, viz., head downwards. No. 16 is La Foudre, a tree 
struck by lightning, instead of La Maison Dieu, and Le Fou bears a number — 
xxii. The title on No. 1 is spelt Le Bataleux, on vi. Lamour, and No. 13 has 
here a title — La Mort. 

On the ace of deniers is inscribed — top and bottom and jn reverse — " Cartes 
de Suisses, fabriquees par F. I. Vandenborre Cartier a Bruxelles." On the two 
of deniers is "F. I. Vandenborre" on a scroll between the marks of the suit, and on 
the two of coupes on a broad margin at the bottom may be read : " Pour conoistre 
que la plus basse de Deniez et de Coupes, en porte les plus hautes quand au fait 
du jeu." On the shield in the middle of the four of deniers is a lion rampant 
with a castle on his right paw, in place of the letters I * G in the pack F 37. 

Though the designs and execution of these cards are poor enough, they are 
not so bad as those of the French set. 

M. Merlin, alluding to the old Venetian or Lombardian tarots, draws atten- 
tion (p. 83) to the constancy with which the primitive types have been preserved 
and transmitted without notable change to the south and east of France, as like- 
wise to Switzerland. " The alterations produced by time have done scarcely 
more than affect the costume of the figures belonging to the numeral series, 
the cavaliers and valets of which on entering France relinquished undoubtedly 
the iron armour of the fifteenth century for the garments of a more recent epoch. 
It is not implied that the engravers have been always faithful to the primitive 


models; they have swerved from them but rarely, however, and in the rich 
collection of tarots in the Imperial library scarcely three or four examples of such 
a liberty are to be seen. . . . The Swiss had a jeu de tarot, however, slightly dif- 
ferent from the Venetian tarot, at least in the eighteenth century, for some engraved 
wood-blocks preserved in the i Musee de la porte Hal' at Brussels yield the figures 
of a series, the ace of deniers in which bears the following address, viz. : ' Cartes 
de Suisse, fabriquees par T. S. Vanden Borre Cartier a Bruxelles.' " In this set, 
No. 2, instead of representing La Papesse, is L Espagnol Capitano Fracasse, 
while on No. 3 the Pope is displaced by a Bacchus astride on a barrel and holding 
a bottle in his hand." 

The backs of these cards are marked with a net-work of hexagonal monili- 
form meshes, within which are radiant suns printed in black. 

[4J- X 2J- in.] [Backs decorated.] 

Fl. 104. 


SET of fifty-two numerals of the suits trejies, cceurs, piques, and car- 
reaux. The figures on the honours are whole-length and bear titles. 
In trejies the latter are Alexandre, Argine, and Lancelot ; in cceurs 
Charles, Judith, and Lahire ; in piques David, Pallas, and Hogier; and 

in carreaux Caesar, Rachel, and Hector. 

The valet of trejies holds a shield in his right hand, on the border of which 

are the words, " Administ. des Droits Reunis, 1813." On each coate-card the 

mark of its suit is placed both at top and bottom, the bottom mark being reversed. 

Below each mark are black circular spots, three in number on the kings, two on 

the queens, and one on the valets. 

[3J- * 2 i i 11 *] [Backs plain.] 

Fl. 105. 


SERIES of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits — piques, cceurs, 
trejies, and carreaux. 

The coate-cards have on them whole-length figures in semi-histo- 
rical, semi-theatrical middle-age and subsequent costumes. The kings 
of piques and of carreaux wear armour, the queen of cceurs has a high pointed 
head-dress and long veil, and the queen of piques an elevated cap with large veil. 
The designs and execution are very mediocre. An introductory or supplementary 
card accompanies the set ; on it are represented a hand displaying a pip card of 
each suit, a large mark of a suit at the corners of the piece, and a flower at each 
side of the hand. The impression is in black from either stone or a zinc plate, 
probably from the latter. 

The backs are dotted in pink. 

C3f X 2f in.] [Backs decorated.] 


Fl. 106. 


SERIES of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

The coate-cards have busts printed double and in reverse. The 
queens hold roses in their right hands. The designs and execution 
are of mediocre character. Engraved on zinc probably. 

The backs are dotted and starred in black. 

[3i X 2 f m -] [Backs decorated.] 

Fl. 107. 


SERIES of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

The figure-cards have busts printed double and in reverse. 
This set appears to be a replica of Fl. 1 06, somewhat differently 
coloured. It is accompanied by a supplementary piece, on which is 
represented a boy dancing, and holding up in his right hand a seven of diamonds. 
He holds a cap with feather in his left hand. The backs are like Fl. 1 06. 
[3 J X 2\ in.] [Backs decorated.] 

Fl. 108. 


SET of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

The figure-cards have on them busts printed double and in reverse. 
On a tablet in the middle of the roi de cceurs is the title " Hubertus 
Agneessens." The aces are illustrated in an exceptional manner. 
They have each two landscapes printed in reverse, neatly engraved and coloured, 
the truthfulness of which, however, is less than doubtful. Within a circular space 
in the middle of the card is placed the mark of the suit. On the ace of spades 
are portrayed the " Conte de Fife" and the " Conte de Perth ;" on that of clubs 
the " Chateau de Ribnian" and the " Bord du Rhin." On- the ace of diamonds 
are the " Chateau de Finckenstein" and the " Chateau de Ribnian ;" on that of 
hearts the " Bord du Rhin" and " Saint Leonard." The backs are marked with 
blue vermiform lines. 

[3i * 2 f m -] [Backs decorated.] 



Fl. 109. 


SET of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits. 

The honours exhibit busts printed double and in reverse. 
The roi de carreaux represents Napoleon I. crowned with a 
wreath, and holding an eagle in his left hand. The valet of the 
same suit is a Turk with a scimitar. The king of spades is Henry IV. of 
France, crowned with a wreath, and holding a drawn sword in his left hand. 
On the belt of the valet of clubs is the name VEYRAT P. The backs are 
marked with a blue vermiform line. 

[3i * 2 | m *] ' [Backs decorated.] 

Fl. 1 10. 


PIQUET set (thirty-two) of cards of the suits piques,, 

carreaux, and cceurs. 

The honours are whole-length figures in conventional costumes, 

very poorly designed and coloured. The king of hearts rests his 
right hand on a shield bearing a double-headed eagle. One or two of the designs 
have a slight Spanish look about them. Part of an engraved wrapper accompa- 
nies this set. It exhibits a valet in conventional costume, having a drawn 
scimitar in his right hand and a shield on his left, bearing what look like three 
marks of the suit trefles with feathered tails. The backs are marbled in Vandyke 
brown colour. 

[3f X i-g- m -] [Backs coloured.] 



D. in. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the suits spades, hearts, diamonds, 
and clubs. 

The coate-cards or honours have on them whole-length, 
standing figures, in full characteristic costumes, representing 
historic personages, whose arms are borne by the valets on 
'• shields placed on their chests. The king of spades is 
Crodefroid de Bouillon; the Queen, Richilde, the valet is unnamed. The 
king of hearts is Baudouin de Constantinople, and the queen, Marguerite 
d'Autriche. The king of clubs exhibits Philippe le Bon, the queen 
Marie de Bourgogne. The king of diamonds is Franc,ois Premier ; the 
queen, L' Infante Isabelle. On the king of each suit a crown surmounts 
the mark of the latter. The marks of the suits on the aces are surrounded by 
ornamental and arabesque framework, printed in blue. On the ace of spades is 
inscribed "Cartes Deposes;" on the ace of hearts, " Daveloy," " Brevete." 

All the designs are neatly executed and coloured. The lissage is consider- 
able, the cards working most freely in the hand. The backs are marked with blue 

The engraved ornamental title of the wrapper accompanies the set. On it is 
the inscription : " Supra Fijne Speelkaarten Erve Wijsmuller Amsterdam." 
[3i X 2 f in-] [Backs decorated.] 

D. 112. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

The figure cards have on them busts, printed double and in re- 
verse. The same bust is printed twice on each card. That on the 
king of spades represents Prins Willem HI. ; that on the queen of this 
suit, a lady of Friesland ; on the valet, a field labourer of Noord Brabant. The 

184 DUTCH. 

king of diamonds exhibits Prins Willem I. ; the queen, a young woman of Eiland- 
marken; the valet, a boatman of Zeeland. On the king of clubs is Prins 
Frederick Hendrik ; on the queen, a lady of Kamper-eiland ; on the valet, a 
countryman of Eilandmarken. Oh the king of hearts may be seen Prins 
Maurits ; on the queen, a young woman of Zuid Holland ; and on the valet, a 
fisherman of Scheveningen. On each of the aces are two landscapes in reverse. 
On the ace of clubs are representations of Zaandam and Scheveningen ; on that 
of diamonds are Leyden and Utrecht. On the ace of spades are Amsterdam 
and Sgravenhage, and on that of hearts are Rotterdam and Dordrecht. 

All the figures and landscapes are neatly engraved and coloured, the cards 
generally being of superior manufacture. The backs are coloured blue, and over 
them runs a lace-like pattern of leaves and flowers in white. 

An engraved ornamental title of a wrapper accompanies the pack. It bears 
the inscription, " Nederlandsche Speelkaarten. Supra fin." 

Below are the arms, with supporters, of Holland, and the motto, "je main- 

[3f X 2i in.] [Backs decorated.] 

D. 113. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits. 

The figure cards have on them busts, printed double and in reverse. 
The kings hold sceptres, the queens flowers, and the knaves partisans. 
The aces are plain 
The backs are marked with oak -leaves (?), printed in blue. 
The engraved title of the wrapper is present, and bears the inscription : "Supra 
Fijne Speelkaarten Erve Wijsmuller Amsterdam." 

[3t x 2 f m -] [Backs decorated.] 


D. 114. 

Number 1 642 of Political and Personal Satires. 


SERIES of fifty-two numerals and two supplementary card-pieces, 
printed off on a large sheet, 2l|r X I7f in. in size. 

The marks of the suits are spades, diamonds, clubs, and hearts. 
The marks are placed at the upper right-hand corners of the cards. 

The values are indicated by Arabic numerals placed at the sides of the marks in 

the suits spades and clubs, and in the centre of the marks in diamonds and hearts. 

The figure cards are Heer, Vrouw, and Knecht, the names of which displace the 

Arabic numerals. 


The major portion of each piece is occupied by a figure and its accessories 
below which is a couplet in Dutch verse, referring to the emblematic sense of the 

This set is made subservient to satire on the South Sea, Mississippi, and other 
bubble companies of the year 1720. Besides the present copy there is another 
which may be found as No. 8, in vol. i. of " Het Groote Tafereel Der Dwaasheid," 
a collection of Dutch satires on those schemes in the Library of the Print Room. 

One of the supplementary pieces bears a large, strutting cock, holding by its 
beak a placard, on which is represented a horse grazing. Below is the following 
inscription : — "Dese fyne modese kaarten worden gemaakt to Schothauenburg by 
Lawrens Bombarist in de Wroetende droom goud-myn graver." (These fine, 
fashionable cards were made at Schothauenburg at Lawrence Bombarist's in the 
rooting dream (of the ?) digger of gold mines.) 

On the other supplementary piece is the title to the series. A man holds ex- 
tended a piece of drapery having on it, " April-Kaart of Kaart Spel van Momus 
Naar de Nieuwste Mode." 

Below is a couplet, having reference to Law and to Frederick Henry's ghost. 

These card-pieces have been ably designed and engraved; they are not 
coloured. A set was exhibited before the Archaeological Association by Mr. 
Patin ("Herald and Genealogist," v. 3, p. 72, 1866; "Notes and Queries," 
I. v. 217). 

A detailed description of each of the fifty -two pieces, and other information 
connected with the satire therewith conveyed, may be found in the second volume 
of the "Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires," p. 648, No. 1642. 

[3 1- X l|-in.] [Backs plain.] 

D. 115. 


Etchings, vol. V. folio 3. 

N an impression of the scarce landscape known as the " Vue d'Omval 
pres d' Amsterdam" (Ch. Blanc, No. 3 1 2, Wilson, No. 206) in one of 
the sets of the etchings of the great master in the National Collection, 
three designs have been superadded, which were etched by some 
strange hand on the original copper after it had become worn, apparently for the 
purpose of destroying the plate, or preventing further impressions of its original 
state being taken. 

These designs are an eight of clubs, 3y X 2f- in. in size ; a woman carrying milk 
or water-pails, l\ X if in., and a boy blowing soap-bubbles, 2| X if in. in size. 
The first two compositions occupy places at the upper right-hand corner of the 
impression lying transversely, and the piece having the milk-woman on it is so 
drawn as to appear lying partly over the eight of clubs. The upper right-hand 
corner of the card touches the right-hand side of the plate mark of the landscape, 
and the lower left-hand corner of the piece of the woman approaches the upper 
margin of the landscape. A branch of the large tree on the right is intruded on 
by the card and the woman. The naked boy blowing bubbles is placed obliquely 
across the deep mass of foliage, beneath which sit the two figures near the lower 



left-hand corner of the piece. The composition of the boy is represented as lying 
on a large piece of green -coloured paper. 

On the piece of the milk -woman is the word "Boerinne 5," at the upper part 
of it ; her boddice is tinted yellow, as are likewise the pails, while the skirt of her 
dress is light red: A wash of the latter colour has been thrown over a portion 
of the boy, the flower-pots on each side of him being coloured yellow. Above the 
boy is inscribed " Leven 2." The marks of the suit in the card are coloured blac 

In reference to this peculiar impression M. Charles Blanc remarks : " 1 sav 
a singular impression of this plate at the British Museum. In place of the t\ 
figures which are on the left, those of the young girl and young man who ph 
a garland on her head, is a small coloured engraving of a child blowing sot 
bubbles between a vase of flowers, and another vase from which smoke esca[ 
Above is inscribed the word " Leven " (la vie) and the numeral 2. On the rigl 
above the two mills a card — the eight of clubs — is drawn diagonally, and on this 
card appears to be thrown a coloured figure of a woman after the style of the boy 
and equally coarse. Above the figure is inscribed " Boerinne " (paysanne), and 
close to it is the number 5. At first I supposed that I had before me simply an 
impression disfigured by some barbarian, but on closer examination I perceived 
that the original plate had been scraped, and that another hand had engraved 
these designs, of which two are coloured, on the veritable copper of Rembrandt. 

" This is the only example I have seen of this disfigurement of the plate. Who 
could have been the unhappy person that, possessing a plate of Rembrandt, could 
have permitted or have perpetrated such an act of Vandalism ? " (" L'ceuvre 
complet de Rembrandt," vol. ii. p. 291.) 

Wilson, in his " Descriptive Catalogue," p. 1 50, writes : " There are impres- 
sions of this plate when worn, on which an eight of clubs is engraved at the top 
on the right." Whether Wilson here speaks of " impressions " from actual obser- 
vation, or from hearsay only, is not determinable. The present impression 
belonged to the Slade collection, and was formerly in the possession of Deighton, 
his mark being at the lower right-hand corner of the landscape. It has been 
recorded here chiefly on account of its peculiarity and rareness. 


G. 116. 


COMPLETE set of combined tarots, seventy-eight in number, 
or twenty-two tarots proper and fifty-six numerals. 

The marks of the numeral suits are hearts, diamonds, clubs, 
and spades, and the figure-cards are king, queen, cavalier, and 
'* The designs on the tarots represent a wedding procession, 

each card-piece having on it either figures on horseback, or groups of the mar- 
riage guests drawn in festively decorated cars. Below each composition is a 
couplet in German ; above is the number of the tarot in numerals five-eighths 
of an inch long. 

The piece corresponding to the Fou is unnumbered, and appears first. 
It exhibits two persons : a man in rather a comical costume standing and playing 
a harp, a woman semi-recumbent playing a guitar. The couplet is as follows : — 

" Da wenn unsre Saiten klingen 
Mils das Herz vor Freiide springen." 

No. 1, equivalent to "Le Bataleur," is a trumpeter on horseback, holding up 
a large glass of wine, and has below : — 

" Ihr Hochzeitgaste kombt herbey 
Damit der freude volkom sey." 

The clergyman is represented on No. 6, and has below the following 
couplet : — 

" Der Pastor waru heiit so schon 
Will er zu frau Pastorin gehn." 

On No. 21 are wedding guests in a decorated car, with the verse below : — 

" Briider last uns lustig sein 
Denn die freiid ist allgemein." 

188 GERMAN. 

The designs on these cards are but of mediocre character, but the technical 
execution of them is rather peculiar. They are from engravings on metal, are 
coloured and illuminated both in silver and gold. The marks of the suits in 
spades and clubs have a few gold lines on what may be considered the shadow 
side, here the left ; the marks in hearts and diamonds have them likewise, but on 
the right side. 

The figures on the coate-cards are whole-length and heavily draped. In 
spades, the king is in conventional costume, holds a sceptre in his right hand, be- 
neath which is a harp. In diamonds, the king wears a turban with a plume and 
aigrette, and carries a sceptre surmounted by a crescent. In hearts, the cavalier 
is a mounted Tartar (?). Below the figure of the valet of clubs is the address — 
" Andreas Benedictus Gobel." 

The backs of the cards are diapered with stars and cross -lines printed in blue. 

[4i X 2 J m «] [Backs decorated.] 

G. 117. 


SET of combined tarots, or twenty-two atutti and fifty-six numerals. 

The suits of the latter are spades, clubs, diamonds, and hearts. The 

figure- cards are king, queen, cavalier, and valet. 

The designs on the proper tarots are very poor in character, being 
chiefly animals in ludicrous actions or positions. The matto or fou is without 
number, and is represented by a violin- player in fantastic dress. No. 1 is a 
harlequin, having a child-harlequin perched at the end of the conventional flat 
sword of the former. 

These cards are numbered at both top and bottom with large numerals in 
margins an inch wide ; the designs occupying the spaces between. The design 
on No. 7 is an unicorn. At the lower part of the valet of clubs is the address — 

The backs are marbled in rose-madder. 

[4f- x 2f in.] [Backs coloured.] 

G. 118. 


PACK of combined tarots, seventy-eight in number. The suits of 
the numeral series are spades, clubs, diamonds, and hearts. Two 
cards are wanting, viz., the queen of diamonds and valet of spades. 
The designs on the tarots proper are landscapes and sea-pieces of 
the most inferior design. They are printed double and in reverse on each card, 
above and below the designs being the numbers in wide margins. 

The fou is a plumed Indian warrior, discharging an arrow from his bow. 
No. 1 , equivalent to the Bataleur, is a harlequin holding a human head in his right 
hand, which is extended upwards. The landscapes, &c, on most of the atouts, 
though double, vary in composition on each card. On No. 2 is the address — 
" Wolfgang Scheidl. B. und Karten fabricant in Regensburg." 

TAROTS. 189 

The figure-cards of the numeral series have on them busts, printed double 
and in reverse. 

All the cards have an ornamental border. 

The backs are marbled in rose-madder. 

[4 x 2f in.] [Backs coloured.] 

G. 119. 


PACK of modern North German tarots, seventy-eight in number. 
The marks of the numeral suits are spades, clubs, diamonds, and 
hearts. The tarots proper have each two different designs on them 
printed in reverse. Each design is numbered in large, open, Arabic 
figures within the composition. All these tarots designs are from neatly engraved 
metal plates, and remain uncoloured, with the exception of the " fool," which is a 
double bust of a man with cap and bells neatly coloured. The compositions vary 
much in character. On No. 1 5 is a stout gentleman hailing the train on a rail- 
way ; on No. 10 is a scene reminding one of that in " Auerbach's Keller " (Faust) 
and likewise a joust at a tournament. No. 19 represents Napoleon I. the 
night before the battle of Austerlitz, and No. 1 1 a countryman having the grease 
removed from his coat by a man at a stall, who is vaunting his wonderful compo- 
sition. The words " Flek Seife " are on an advertisement board by the table of 
the renovator of soiled garments. On one of the designs of No. 1 3 is a young 
girl in sorrow at a tomb, near which on a monumental cross is the word " Pommer " 
and the date " 1852." 

The figure-cards of the numerals have on them busts printed double and in 
reverse, and are coloured. 

Most of the compositions are carefully drawn and neatly engraved. The true 
fou of the tarots is remarkably good. 

The backs are marked with sinuous dotted lines terminating in three larger dots, 
printed in blue. 

[4| X 2|- in.] [Backs decorated.] 

G. 120. 


BOUND volume (in a case) lettered "Trappola Cards," (and having 
the press number 94), containing forty-seven card-pieces lightly 
mounted on its pages. These cards are from a series of fifty-two 
numerals, the suits of which are swords, cups, fruit, and batons ; the 

fruit being a pomegranate. The pieces wanting are the three of cups, the nine, 

ten, valet, and king of pomegranates. 

This is an important and interesting sequence, and one, though very rare, well 

known both to the archaeologist and iconophilist from the references made to it by 

various writers. The designs are from engravings on copper, the productions of 

i 9 o GERMAN. 


a very early master of the German school, who worked with a goldsmith-like 
technic. They have been attributed by some writers to Israhel van Meekenen, 
an ascription, however, not acquiesced in by others. There are good reasons for 
believing that these cards cannot be more ancient than the time of Martin Schon- 
gauer — the last quarter of the fifteenth century — since the design on the two of 
batons of the figure of the naked female with a child upon her knees, and having 
her right hand on the top of an escutcheon, appears to be taken from a circular 
print — B. vi. p. 1 6 1 , No. lOO — by this master. The idea of the sow and young pigs 
on the three of swords surely has also a connection with the design of Martin 
Schongauer, B. vi. p. 160, No. 95. 

The figure-cards, or " honours," are king, queen, and valet, proving that in so 
early German cards a second valet did not displace the dame, a circumstance here, 
perhaps, in unison only with the adoption of the Italian marks of suits, coppe, 
spade, and basloni; the fruit, or pomegranate, being substituted for the sign 
danari. This fruit " was perhaps intended by the artist to commemorate the 
marriage of Philip the Fair, son of the Emperor Maximilian, with Joanna, 
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Spain, who on their 
subjugation of the kingdom of Granada in 1497 appear to have adopted the 
Granada, or pomegranate, as one of their badges. The cards unquestionably 
belong to that period, and in support of the speculation it may be further observed 
that they are generally ascribed to Israel van Mecken, who, as a native of Bocholt, 
was a subject of Philip, who inherited the Netherlands in right of his mother 
Mary of Burgundy." (Chatto, Bibl. 4, p. 226.) 

The figure-cards are decidedly better designed and executed than any of the 
other pieces. In some of the former may be perceived the work both of a superior 
artist and engraver to that of the authors of the ordinary numerals. The queen 
of swords is an admirably designed and executed figure, and the arabesque work 
below is delicately and carefully engraved. When placed by the side of the six 
of batons, for example, the contrast is very marked. The king of swords, valet, 
queen, and king of cups, and king and queen of batons may be instanced as note- 
worthy pieces. 

The valet is always represented on horseback ; the kings, bearing the symbols 
of their suits in their hands, are seated on rich thrones of Gothic character, and 
the queens are slender and elegantly draped forms. 

All the cards are richly ornamented with groups of figures, often of a burlesque 
or grotesque character, and with a variety of arabesque-like ornaments. Some of 
the latter, however, are too large in proportion, and look heavy in work for the 
size of the card. On the tens and aces are scrolls or banners, on which are 
letters and inscriptions more or less distinctly engraved, but to which it is 
difficult to give any meaning. On a scroll on the ace of swords are the following 
letters, some of which, too, it must be admitted, are of doubtful definition : — 
C. T. A. O. T. S. E. S. H. D. On the three of swords are "Ante, 
Motorum, Meus." On the ten of swords, H. Z. D. H., on the ten of cups C. B. F. 
S. A., on the ten of batons J N K. Z. Q. Some of these inscriptions are printed 
in reverse. 

In the Suit of Sivords, 

On the ace are a large scimitar and scroll, having on one side an unicorn, on 
the other a bird on a shrub. 

On the two, the pictorial design is a man kneeling, and asking alms of a lady. 

On the three is a sow with her pigs. 

On the four are birds, and armed men on horseback. 

On the five are monkeys and flowers. 

On the six is large arabesque ornamentation. 

On the seven are two naked children playing with a stag, and plants. 

On the eight is a peasant addressing a lady. 


On the nine, St. George killing the Dragon. 
On the ten a man in armour, holding a large banner, having below a tree and 
an escutcheon. 

In the Suit of Cups, 

On the ace is an ornamental fountain, on the brink of which are two falconers, 
and above are two Cupids, discharging arrows. 

On the two is a fool below, a lady and gentleman are above. 

On the four above is a man kneeling, below is a nondescript animal's head. 

On the five are two armed men. 

On the six are four naked children playing. 

On the seven are only seven cups, each cup being of a different design. 

On the eight is a lady in the middle, playing with a bird. 

On the nine is a grotesque figure, into whose mouth falls a stream from one 
of the cups. 

On the ten is a banner carried by a lion. 

In the Suit of Pomegranates or Fruit, 

On the ace are two children, seated within the opened fruit, above which are 
five birds. 

On the two are two naked children below, one of whom emerges from the 
fruit ; above are three children, one of whom is entering a fruit. 

On the three are three naked children, and birds and flowers. 

On the four are five naked children, two of whom are seated within pome- 
granates, and threaten each other with bows and arrows. 

On the five are two wild hairy men, and a child in a pomegranate. 

On the six are various fanciful figures, among which are a naked man, woman, 
and a monkey. 

On the seven is a fool below, and above are two boys fighting. 

On the eight are eight birds. 

In the Suit of Batons, 

On the ace are two men sawing the trunk of a tree. 

On the two is a naked woman with a child on her knee, and her right hand 
on the top of an escutcheon. Birds are above the marks of the suit. 

On the three is a centaur fighting against two dragons. 

On the four are five naked children ; playing on the back of the central figure 
is a bird. 

On the five are two birds, and three naked children. 

On the six are birds, and three playing children. 

On the seven are birds, flowers, and arabesque ornamentation. 

On the eight are two playing children above, and arabesques below. 

On the nine is a scroll at the summit of the central mark of the suit. 

On the ten is a banner carried by a griffin. 

The tens in each suit are distinguished by the Roman numeral X only, which 
i,s placed, as in all the other pip cards, at the upper margin of the piece. 

The example in the collection of the British Museum of this rare series was 
formerly in the possession of Dr. Silberrad, of Niirnberg. It afterwards passed 
into the cabinet of Count de Fries at Vienna, next into the hands of the Messrs. 
Woodburn, and finally into the keeping of Messrs. Smith, of Lisle Street, from 
whom it was purchased by the authorities of the British Museum. 

Breitkopf has inserted copies of nine of these engravings in his work on the 
origin of playing-cards ; Chatto has given four, including the ten of pomegranates, 
which is wanting in the present series, and Mr. Ottley, in his " Facsimiles of 
Scarce and Curious Prints," London, 1828, has introduced the entire sequence of 
forty-seven pieces, accompanied by descriptions of each engraving. 

i 9 2 GERMAN. 

These cards are described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 76, No. 2, under the title of 
" Cartes allemandes, avec les marques de la trappola," and are referred to b) 
Passavant, vol. ii. p. 246, as "Cartes a Jouer Allemandes Anciennes." 

The series of pieces before us has been called erroneously one of " Trapj 

Breitkopf described the engravings as " German Piquet Cards of the 1 5t 
Century with Trappola Characters ; " then Von Murr termed them " Trappola 
Cards ;" Bartsch, " Cartes allemandes avec les marques de la Trappola ;" while 
Passavant wrote of them as " Cinquante-deux cartes d'unjeu de Trappola-" 

The truth is, there are not any marks special to trappola cards, and that 
these cards were not intended simply for the game of trappola, nor for that of 
piquet. The game of trappola is played with a series of numerals, of which the 
3, 4, 5, and 6 of each suit are suppressed, and as long as this is done, trappola 
may be played with cards showing no matter what marks of suits. Now the 
series under consideration has all the low cards, and therefore could not have 
been intended solely for the game of trappola. The latter might be played with 
them, no doubt, if the low cards mentioned were rejected. 

, From the circumstance of trappola being a Venetian game, the original marks 
of the suits were naturally the Italian ones, viz. spade, bastoni, coppe, and danari. 
Since like marks, or slight modifications of them have been retained for the cards 
in Silesia, and a few other places where the game has been practised in more 
recent times, the idea arose that these marks have some essential connection with 
the game in which such cards are employed. 

[5 X 2|- in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 121. 


SINGLE figure -card — the valet of cups — from the numeral series 
before described. A young gentleman on horseback advances towards 
the left hand carrying the symbol of the suit in his right hand. The 
cavalier wears a low, plumed cap, his hair over his shoulders, and looks 
downwards towards the right side. Beneath the feet of the horse is arabesque 
ornamentation, having in the centre a bird. 

This piece belonged to the Slade Collection, and is among the works of the 
early German masters. 

[5 X 2J- in.] [Back plain.] 

G. 122. 


BOUND quarto volume, on the pages of which are mounted eight 
small sheets, containing generally three perfect card-pieces and portions 
of others. The cards are numerals of the suits herzen, schellen, and 
eicheln ; both court and pip-cards are present. 
The first sheet contains a perfect knave of eicheln and king of schellen, with 
portions of other five figure-cards. The second sheet exhibits a perfect knave of 


irrzcn, king of schellen, knave of eicheln, and portions of other four figure-cards. 
On the third sheet are the four of herzen, and the two and five of schellen. On 
the fourth sheet are the two, three, seven, and nine of glands ; while the fifth sheet 
contains a king of glands or eicheln, a king and knave of herzen, with parts of 
other pieces of the suits herzen, schellen, and eicheln. The sixth sheet contains 
the knave of eicheln, and portions of four other pieces, and the seventh presents 
the five and six of eicheln, with parts of four other pieces. The eighth and last 
sheet presents the ten of herzen, the ten of schellen, the king and knave of herzen, 
and parts of other two pieces. 

In the figure-cards the kings are seated, the king in the suit of schellen having 
a sceptre in the left hand. 

The Unterm'dnner, or lower knaves, or inferior valets, have either a crossbow 
or scimitar in their raised hands. On sheet 3, the two of schellen shows the figure 
of a lion below the marks of the suit. On the first piece (two of eicheln) of sheet 
4, likewise, is a lion and part of an inscription in a scroll. The latter is not 
satisfactorily decipherable ; it may be read perhaps as either niulner, inwiner, or 
in(or zu)ulm. 

These card-pieces are uncoloured, stencilled in black, and of stiff*, archaic 
design. There is, nevertheless, expression in the head of the king of schellen on 
sheet 5, and the designs of the suit marks are of good character. 

These cards, along with F. 42, are in an archaeological aspect two of the more 
interesting series in the national collection. The present set constitute probably 
the most ancient playing-cards in the Museum Cabinet. 

Facsimiles of sheets 2 and 5 are given by Chatto, p. 88, accompanied with 
the following observations : — [these old cards] " formed part of the covers or 
boards of an old book, and were sold to the British Museum by Mr. D. Colnaghi. 
Looking at the marks of the suits in these cards, the character of the figures, and 
the manner in which they are executed, I should say that they are not of a later 
date than 1440. Though cards of only three suits occur, namely, hearts, bells, 
and acorns, there can be little doubt that the fourth suit was leaves, as in the 
pack described by Mr. Gough in the eighth volume of the ' Archasologia.' As 
in Mr. Gough's cards, so in these there is no queen, though like them there 
appears to have been three coate-cards in each suit, namely : a king, a knight or 
superior officer, and a knave or servant ; in other words, king, jack, and jack's man. 
The lower cards, as in Mr. Gough's pack, appear to have been numbered by their 
pips from two to ten without any ace. 

" That these cards were depicted by means of a stencil is evident from the 
feebleness and irregularity of the lines, as well as from the numerous breaks in 
them, which in many instances show where a white isolated space was connected 
with other blank parts of the stencil. The separation seen in the heads of the 
figures in No. 1 of the facsimiles here given would appear to have been occasioned 
by the stencil either breaking or slipping, while the operator was passing the 
brush over it. 

" From the costume of the figures in these cards I am inclined to think that 
they are the production of a Venetian card-maker. A lion, the emblem of St. 
Mark, the patron saint of Venice, and a distinctive badge of the city, appears as in 
the annexed cut in the suit of bells, and a similar figure with part of a mutilated 

inscription also occurs in the suit of acorns From repeated examination 

of them I am convinced that they have been depicted by means of a stencil, and 
not printed nor ' rubbed' off from wood-blocks." (Bibl. 4, pp. 88-90.) 

A close examination of these card-pieces along with the copies of the " Stukely 
Cards" given by Singer, p. 172, et seq. leads to the belief that they were meant 
to be a like series with the latter, with the exception of the emblematic figure on 
the two of glands, which figure in the " Stukely cards " is a unicorn couchant, 
having below a shield bearing a pick and hammer crosswise, probably the arms or 
mark of the card-maker. The resemblance between the present cards and the 

i 9 4 


" Stukely" ones had struck Mr. Taylor also, who referred to it at page 1 14 
the work he edited. 

The remarks of Passavant in respect to the present subject may be quot 
here appositely. 

"In the Royal Library at Berlin are thirty-one German playing-cards, wl 
belong to the fifteenth century. They have been engraved on wood in a rati 
coarse manner, in simple outline, the figures being coloured in red and gre< 
The sequence appears to have consisted of forty-eight cards, in four suits of tweh 
pieces each suit, the latter being hearts, bells, leaves, and glands. 

" The king is seated, the two valets are erect, the remainder being numerals 
from two to ten. The ace is wanting, but the two has on it a shield bearing en 
saltire a pick and a hammer. On the two of glands is a unicorn whose horn is 
edged like a saw ; the intended meaning here of this animal, usually a symbol of 
chastity, it is not easy to divine. The pick and the hammer are connected with 
miners' labour, and these coarsely executed cards may have been intended for 
the amusement of those persons who worked in the mines. The Berlin specimens 
came from the HofFmann-Fallersleben Library, and are for the most part in bad 
condition. The card least mutilated measures still 2 inches 8 lines in length, 
and l inch 9 lines in width. Dr. Stukely, of London, possessed in 1763 forty 
similar cards, which Chatto, who gives facsimiles^ regarded as ancient Venetian 
cards, but they are only copies of those at Berlin, and of very inferior character." 
(Bibl. vol. i. p. 15.) 

In connection with the present series it may not be out of place to consult the 
remarks of Singer, pp. 1 7 2-7, upon the Stukely sequence. 

[3x2 in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 123. 

WO facsimiles of card-pieces in the set before described, G. 122. 
The pieces here present are the seven of eicheln and the king of 

[3X2 in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

G. 124. 


HREE cards from a numeral series, the suits of which are schellen, 
herzen, eicheln? and laub? 

One of the pieces is the king of herzen, another the superior valet 
of schellen, and the third is the three of schellen. 
The king is seated, and holds up the index and third finger of the left hand as 
in the act of benediction ; his right hand rests upon his knee. These card-pieces 
are not from stencils but from engraved wood-blocks, and are slightly coloured. 
They are from a very early series unquestionably, and appear to have been re- 
moved from the binding of a book. 

[3J- X 2 in.] [Backs plain.] 

1 Singer gives facsimiles of the " Stukely cards," Chatto facsimiles of the 
present series, which are like the Stukely ones. 




G. 125, 


WO pieces of four unseparated cards, each piece belonging to a numeral 
series of the suits eicheln, laub, roth, and schellen. 

The cards present are the three of eicheln, three of laub or 
griin, six of eicheln and six of laub on one sheet ; and the three of 
roth, three of schellen, four of roth, and four of schellen on the other sheet. 

On the pieces of eicheln and griin are arabesque-like or ornamental trees to 
which the suit marks are attached, while on roth and schellen at the lower half 
of the cards are animal and other figures,- but so indistinct, from imperfect printing 
and mutilation, that they cannot be described. 

These card-pieces have been printed from engraved wood-blocks and coloured 
in an inferior manner. They are of stout consistence, and appear to have been 
removed from the binding of a book. They were formerly in the Weigel collec- 
tion. See Weigel, " Die Anfange der Druckerkunst," vol. ii. p. 1 86, n. 311. 
[3x2 in.] [Backs plain,] 

G. 126. 


^IVE card-pieces, two of which contain two cards each, the other piece 
is a single card. 

The cards are numerals of the suits eicheln, schellen, and herzen, 
or roth. On one piece are the kings of eicheln and schellen, on a 
second the six and eight of roth, and the third is the nine of roth. 

The kings are seated, holding the symbols of the suits in their hands. The 
king of eicheln is bearded, and turned towards the right, the king of schellen is 
bearded, and directed to the left. On a broad margin to the left of the king of 

eicheln is the inscription ZU VLM J-fZ* • On a scroll on the eight of herzen 

is the date 1 504, and below the marks of the six of herzen is a dog running 
towards the right. On the separate card of the nine of herzen is the monogram, 

The cards appear to have been executed from stencils, and are of neat and 
careful design. They are uncoloured. Weigel, of whose collection they formed 
part, remarks : " We do not know anything respecting the author of these cards. 
On roth nine there is a monogram, which refers probably to the printer or pub- 
lisher of the cards, and not to the designer of them. If this be the case, the 
monogram is perhaps that of the well-known Ulm printer, Johannes Zainer, or of 
a son of the latter, who was living in 1523, and printed not only books but wood- 
cuts." (Op. cit. p. 183.) 

These pieces have been removed evidently from the binding of a book. 

[3| X 2J-in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

i 9 6 GERMAN. 


G. 127. 


PIECE of three unseparated numeral cards of the suit roth or herzen. 
The cards are the six, seven, and nine of herzen. On the six is the 
figure of a dog running towards the right, with his head raised, and on 

the nine of the suit is the monogram VHfc • Below the latter, which 

is on the central card, is the address ZU VLM tl~£ , in a broad margin. These 

card-pieces are from a series of the same designs as those before noticed — G. 1 26. 
They are not from the same stencils, however, which have been here of a heavier 
or coarser kind. The stencil plate appears to have undergone a slip angularly 
during the working-off the design, and so doubling the lines ; the right-hand 
lower corner having been the more fixed point. 

The cards are uncoloured, and have been removed from the binding of a 

[3f x 2 j in -l [Backs plain.] 

G. 128. 

[NE entire card and part of another of the suit herzen. The entire 
piece is the six of the suit, the other is probably the seven. 

Below the marks of the suit on the first card is the figure of a dog 
running with his head downwards, towards the right hand. In outline 
only, and from stencils, uncoloured. 

This specimen is from a series after the designs of G. 126 and G. 127, but 
not from thg same stencil plates. 

[3f X 2J- in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 129. 


EN more or less perfect cards of the ordinary old German suits, glands, 
hearts, leaves, and bells. Seven of the ten pieces exhibit the fronts, 
three the versos of the card-pieces. 

The numerals present are the three and four of leaves, the four 
and nine of glands, the five and six of hearts, and the three (?) of bells. 

In several of the pieces below the suit marks are ornamental designs and 
figures, difficult to define satisfactorily, however, from the bad condition of the 

The backs of the cards shown are diapered with fieurs-de-lys running diagonally, 
and printed in black. 

The cards are from wood-blocks, and are uncoloured. 

[3f x 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 


G. 130, 


MUTILATED sheet, containing portions, more or less perfect, of 
sixteen card-pieces ; nine cards are in tolerably good condition. The 
suits are eicheln, roth, laub, and sche.llen. A noteworthy circum- 
stance is that seated queens occupy the places of the superior valets, or 
obermdnner, in the suits of acorns and hearts. It may be remarked also that while 
in the suit of glands or acorns, and probably in leaves, the suit-marks are con- 
nected by arabesque or ornamental trees, the marks in hearts and bells are not so 

The kings of hearts, glands, and bells are in the central row of pieces ; each 
king is mounted on a rearing or curvetting horse, and holds a sceptre in the left 
hand. On the horses behind the kings of bells and glands are sows rearing up on 
their hind legs. The king of bells rides towards the right hand, the king of glands 
towards the left. The eight of hearts and eight of bells are perfect pieces. 

In the upper row the lower portions only of the unter -manner, or inferior valets, 
can be seen. 

The queens of glands and hearts and the king of leaves in the lower row are 
entire, with the exception of the feet. 

The costume of the figures points to the second half of the sixteenth century. 
The designs are but of mediocre character, and the execution, as regards the 
printing, is bad. The pieces are uncoloured. 

Formerly in the Weigel collection. 

[3 X 2 J- in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 131. 


(IX pieces of four cards each piece, of the suits herzen, laub, schellen, 

and eicheln. 

Eight figure-cards are present, viz., the under valets of leaves, 

glands, bells, and hearts, the kings of glands and hearts, and the queens 
of bells and leaves ; queens in this series displacing the superior valets. The 
queen of bells is represented by a young female turned towards the left, in a long, 
stiff robe, bordered at the lower part, and with puffy sleeves. On her head is a 
narrow dentated crown, and in her raised right hand she holds the symbol of the 
suit. The queen of leaves is a nearly naked female, having a little drapery around 
her waist only, one end of which scarf is thrown over her right forearm. Around 
her neck are a ribbon and medal, on her head a narrow crenated crown, and in her 
right hand the symbol of the suit. The kings of glands and hearts are on horse- 
back, holding swords in their right hands. Narrow crowns are on their heads. The 
horses are slightly caparisoned. The valets of leaves and hearts have drawn 
swords in their right hands, while the valet of glands bears an arquebus on his left 
shoulder, and the valet of bells holds a cup in his left hand, which is raised. 

i 9 8 GERMAN. 

The pip-cards present are the four, five, six, and nine of leaves ; the seven, 
two, three, and eight of leaves ; the three, five, seven, and nine of glands ; and 
the four, six, eight of glands, and the three of bells. 

The suit marks are connected "by arabesque -like work. Below the marks 
the three of bells is a running stag followed by a dog. On the two of leaves is 
stag crouching on his hinder quarters, from whose muzzle springs an arabesqi 
stem, supporting and connecting by its branches the marks of the suit. 

The artistic value of these card designs is but slight. The figure-cards 
uncoloured. The pip-pieces are coloured green and red. 

The costume points to the second half of the sixteenth century. The backs of 
the figure-cards are diapered with large black squares or lozenges, running 
diagonally, each square containing four white pearl-like drops. 

These cards were formerly in the Weigel collection, and three of them may 
seen figured in the second vol. p. 184, of the " Anfange der Druckerkunst." 

[3t x 2 m [Backs decorated.] 

G. 132. 


|EVEN cards from a numeral series, the suits of which are leaves, bells, 
glands, and hearts (?). 

The cards present are the four, six, seven, and nine of leaves; the 
six and seven of bells, and the ten of glands. 
The marks of the suit of leaves are connected by a tree-like stem ; those of 
bells are not so connected. The marks on the ten of glands are connected, and 
two birds are perched on the base of the flower-like stalk. 

The impressions are from wood-blocks, and scarcely more than in outline ; the 
shadow sides of the leaves being indicated by distant lines, and those of the cups 
of the glands by punctations. 

On the backs of some of the pieces are the remains of the tarotage. It con- 
sists of alternate figures of fieurs-de-lys and flowers, running diagonally, in large 
diamond spaces across the back of the card. They are printed in black. 

[4 X 2| in.] [Backs decorated.] 

G. 133. 


WELVE cards from a numeral series of fifty-two, the marks of the suits 
being leaves, glands, hearts, and bells. 

The cards present are the king, four, and seven of leaves ; the 
three and nine of glands ; the five, seven, eight, and nine of hearts ; 
and the upper valet, seven, and eight of bells. 

These cards have on them either figures or arabesque ornaments, along with 
the marks of the suits. 

On the king of leaves is a whole-length figure in armour, with large plume to 
his helmet, and long straight sword by his side. He extends his left hand, and 
looks upwards towards the left, to which his steps are directed. 
Below is the couplet, 

" Ein konig aufrichtig un grecht 

Ein loblich gdechtn9 enpfecht." [sic.'] 



At each of the upper corners of the piece is a mark of the suit. 

At the base of the tree-like stem, uniting the marks on the four of leaves, are 
two naked children at play. One is drawing the other in a sledge. At the bottom 
of the seven of leaves are two arabesque dolphins. 

The marks on the three of glands rise on a stem from a large vase, on each side 
of which is a small whole-length figure ; a female on the right, a man on the left- 
hand side. 

On the five of hearts is a group of armed men, fighting ; on the seven of the 
suit there appears to be an ogre or giant about to devour a boy ; on the eight of 
hearts is a large vase-like ornament ; and on the nine are a man and a woman, as 
if warming their hands over a cylindrical German of en. 

The obermann, or superior valet of bells, is represented by a military officer in 
puffed sleeves and breeches, and with a single stiff feather in his cap. 

Below is a couplet, undecipherable, with the exception of the words — 

" Eines hauptmas gerechte — 
feld gut regiment." 

On the seven and eight of bells are grotesque faces and arabesque ornaments. 

The coarse and slovenly colouring of these cards hinders a full appreciation of 
the designs. 

On the back of each card-piece is a musical score of three lines. On that of 
the king of leaves is likewise the inscription, " Paciencia mus ich han." On the 
seven of hearts may be read also, " Sie ist mein Bui." 1 2 ; while on the obermcum 
of bells are the words, " So wiinsch ich Ihm ein giite nacht." 

[3f x 2 f m -J [Backs decorated.] 

G. 134. 


SINGLE figure-card, apparently ; but there is not any title or indica- 
cation of suit. 

The design is a whole-length figure of an Oriental, with spear and 
shield. The figure is in outline, enclosed in broad dotted border, and 
of inferior workmanship. 

[3 J x 2 I" m [Backs plain.] 

G. 135- 



(Cards of F. C. Z.) 

SHEET of ten unseparated card-pieces in two rows of five pieces each 
row. The marks of the suits are hearts, bells, leaves, and glands. 

The upper row contains the sixes of the four suits and the nine of 
irlands ; the lower row the fives of the four suits and the nine of 

These cards are highly ornamental, the marks of the suits being connected or 
accompanied by decorative stems and foliage, having below groups of figures of 
very varied kind. 

The designs and technical execution are of very superior character, recalling 
to mind the best period of the school of German wood-engraving. 

200 GERMAN. 

The pieces are uncoloured. Commencing at the left-hand corner of the upper 
row is the six of hearts. On it is a standard-bearer in a landscape, who raises a 
standard with his right hand, between the marks of the suit. Next comes the six 
of bells, having below the marks, a fool with the cap and bells on the left hand, 
and a female on the right hand of an ornamental pedestal which springs from a 
female head, and has on the top the head of a cherub. On the six of leaves arc 
seated an amorous couple. The man has his right arm around his companion's 
waist, to whom he offers something to drink from a large cup. At the base of the 
six of glands is a wedding (?) procession, preceded by a fool with cap and bells, 
who plays a violin. On the nine of glands are two boars seated, with an open 
backgammon board between them. The left-hand boar has one foot on the board 
and appears to be addressing his opponent, who is in the attitude of listening, 
In both animals there is much expression. On the lower row, beginning at the 
left, is the five of hearts, having a couple at a fountain. The woman has her 
back to the spectator. She holds a vase-like pitcher in her left hand, and keys in 
her right. On the next card — the five of leaves — are a richly dressed burgher and 
his wife, followed by a female servant, having a pannier-basket at her back, and a 
large pitcher in her right hand. Below the marks on the five of bells are four 
naked children dancing in a circle. One child has the back turned to the specta- 
tor, and holds a flaring torch in the right hand. In the centre of the group is a 
pedestal, at the top of which is a child blowing two horns. On the five of glands 
is a man mounted on a goat, and tilting with a spear against a boar. Behind a 
contiguous tree is a woman attentively regarding the result, and holding up a 
laurel crown in her left hand. The whole appears to be a travesty of St George 
and the Dragon. 

The last card of the row is the nine of hearts, having on it the figure of a 
naked child who fondles a dog with each hand. From the boy's head springs an 
ornamental pedestal, which rises among the signs of the suit. 

A point of interest in connection with the present sheet of cards is that it 
forms part of a sequence of fifty-two numerals, known as the cards of F. C. Z., 
copies of thirty- six of which are given in the work of the Bibliophiles Francais 
(Bibl. 2, pp. 92-95,) of four in Singer, pp. 210-213, and of two in Chatto, pp. 
236, 237. Thirty-four pieces were in the Weigel collection. In commenting on 
them in his larger work, "Die Anfange Der Druckerkunst " (p. 191, vol. ii.), 
Weigel makes the following remarks : — 

"No. 314. German Playing-cards with the signature, F. C. Z. 36 pieces 
(a.d. 1525-1550). These interesting specimens, which are among the best of the 
German playing-cards of the sixteenth century, are most probably of Nurnberg 
origin, since the ace of hearts, or roth, bears the arms of the city. Chatto places 
their origin in the year 1 5 1 1 • We are not aware of the source from which 
Chatto draws this deduction. On the examples before us there is not any date, 
but we believe we may, without hesitation, assign their origin to the second quarter 
of the sixteenth century. 

" The technic and costume of the figures point to that period, and particular 
figures, as the king of bells, for example, strikingly recall certain ones in Diirer's 
woodcuts. The king of glands would appear to be the portrait of the Emperor 
Maximilian I. The designer of the cards has placed his monogram, F. C. Z., on 
the ace of glands [on the two ?] We have searched in vain Murr and Baader's 
catalogue of old Nurnberg's Formschneider Kartenmacher and llluministen, for the 
meaning of the signature. A Formschneider of the name of Christ. Zell lived during 
the second half of the sixteenth century, but it might be too venturesome to look 
for the author in him, or even in one of his ancestors. 

" The series, of which we possess thirty-six pieces, is of the ordinary suits ; 
the pieces are five pip-cards, vi.-x., under and upper valets, king, and ace of each 
suit The pip-cards are ornamented with figures overstepping occasionally, in 
their actions and stories, the bounds of propriety. The drawing is of consider- 


able delicacy, spirit, and firmness, and full of appreciation of the forms and 
costumes it is intended to portray. The technic is decided, and that of a practised 
hand Two examples of these cards, viz., under valet of glands and upper valet 
of leaves, are given — but not very accurately — by Chatto (pp. 236-7), who finds 
therein a resemblance to the style of Lucas Cranach. Two other copies may be 
seen in Singer's ' Researches,' and in the beautiful French work, ' Jeux de Cartes 
Tarots, par la Societe des Bibliophiles Franqais ; ' other representations may be 
found on plates 92-95." 

" In the latter work the series is more complete, since, including the pieces 
now detached, but evidently formerly present, it contains forty-eight cards. Never- 
theless, we are inclined to believe that our own series, which — as before stated — 
contains but thirty-six pieces, is a complete set, since each suit begins with the 
pip-card six. We have here evidently two different editions of one and the 
same series of cards, intended perhaps for different countries and places, just as 
we have at the present day. This is clear from the complete difference of the 
ace of leaves in our own set from that in the Paris example ; in the latter it bears 
the arms of Saxony, which probably induced Chatto and others to look on these 
cards as of Saxon manufacture, and as related to the style of L. Cranach." (Op. 
cit. pp. 191-6.) 

We may remind the reader that numerals of five pips are present in the 
British Museum example, and of two, three, four pips in the Paris series. It is note- 
worthy, also, that the piece bearing the arms of Saxony in the Paris version, has 
on a shield below them a pick and mallet in saltire, resembling those in the 
Stukely cards before mentioned (p. 193). 

On a shield borne by a lion on the two of glands, in the Paris set, is another 
mark, impossible to describe by words, however. This is the same card which 
bears the signature F. C. Z., the last letter implying zeichnet, probably. 

These card-pieces are uncoloured, and the backs free from any decoration. 

[3f X 2} in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 136. 


WO pieces, exhibiting fragments of four numeral cards on each piece. 

On one piece are the aces of glands and of bells, and the seven of 

glands and of bells. On the second piece are the aces of leaves 

and of hearts, the seven of leaves, and the six of hearts. 

The suit marks are connected by neatly engraved arabesque ornaments. On 

the aces are large scrolls bearing inscriptions, but of which wis ; is ; ni only 

remain. The marks of the suits have been coloured — but not carefully — green 

and red. 

In these pieces the divisions between the cards, where the latter should be 
separated, are indicated by crosses, and not by the usual border lines. 

One piece has been backed with printed paper, having a Latin text on it. 
From the Weigel Cabinet. 

[3ir X 2 f in -] [Backs plain.] 

202 OEBMAN. 

G. 137. 


"WO sheets of numeral cards, each sheet having three rows of three 
cards each row, of the usual suits. 

In the upper row of the first sheet are the under valet of leaves, 
the king of leaves, and the king of bells. In the second row are the 
under valets of hearts and bells, and the upper valet of bells. On the lower 
range are the five, ten, and eight of bells. 

On the second sheet, upper row, are the kings of hearts and of glands, and 
the upper valet of leaves. Second row, the under valet of glands, the upper 
valet of glands, and upper valet of hearts. Lower row, the seven, nine, and six 
of bells. 

All the kings are seated, and bear sceptres in their hands ; those of leaves and 
glands wear turbans, and semi-Oriental costumes. The valets in the central rows 
have drawn swords in their hands, and are represented in various actions, and 
positions of attack and defence. The under valet of glands has a sword in each 
hand. The under valet of leaves (first row of first sheet), is a standard-bearer ; 
he rests the colours on his left shoulder. The upper valet of leaves (first row of 
second sheet), is an officer directed towards the left ; he wears a plumed hat, 
carries a commander's baton in the right hand, resting the former on his right 
hip, and his left hand on the other hip. He stands with outstretched legs in a 
formal manner. 

Below the marks of the suit on the five of bells, a female is represented 
sitting in a large bath-tub, leaning over which is a fool with cap and bells, and 
harlequin's wand(?) in his right hand. At the bottom of the ten of bells sits a 
hare, turning round a dog on a spit over a fire. On the eight of bells is a goat, 
and a tub before him. On the seven of bells a fox is seizing a duck ; on the 
nine of the same suit is represented the fable of the " Fox and the Stork." On 
the six of bells is a naked woman astride on a hedgehog or porcupine, and holding 
a mirror in her left outstretched hand, while she seizes with her right the ear of 
the animal. 

On the right-hand margin of the first sheet runs an inscription in Roman 
capitals, but too mutilated to be decipherable. 

The technical execution of these card-pieces is of an inferior character in all 
respects. They are from wood-blocks, and are uncoloured. They formed part 
of T. O. Weigel's collection, who observes of them : — 

"In R. v. Eitelberger's Essay on Playing Cards (Wien, i860), at p. 16, two 
examples are given, viz. the two of leaves and upper knave of bells, which closely 
resemble our own set ; for the soldier on the upper valet of bells is represented in 
a like offensive position, and the general intention of the figures and the costume 
are substantially of the type of our own cards. Both examples are in the fine 
Hauslab collection at Vienna, and belong to a series of kemptener origin, bearing 
the address of the designer, George Schachomair. The date of their production is 
about the end of the sixteenth century. Our own set appears, from the costume 
of the figures, to belong to that period, and is probably likewise of Kemptener 
or Ulm origin, since, as before observed, the whole type of the series strikingly 
coincides with the cards of the Hauslab collection." {Op. cit. vol. ii. p. 197.) 

These cards are very thickly mounted, and- the backs are diapered with large 
rosettes, running diagonally. Printed in black. 

[3{- x 2 i m> ] [Backs decorated.] 


G. 138. 



(Cards or H. S. Beham ?) 

HREE large sheets of unseparated card-pieces, of the suits leaves, 
glands, flowers, and fruits. 

The marks of the latter two suits are somewhat of a conventional 
character, the flower being something like a rose, and the fruit having 
a distant resemblance to a poppy capsule, or a pomegranate with a slit in it. 

The first sheet contains the twelve figure-cards, and below them the twos 
of the four suits. 

In the first row are the four under valets, in the second row are the four 
kings, and in the third row from the top are the four upper valets. The kings 
are mounted ; the horse of the king of leaves is standing quiet, the horses of the 
kings of glands and of flowers are rearing, and that of the king of fruit trotting 
forwards. The king of leaves has on a crown with a convex top, surmounted by 
a small cross. The other kings have simple dentated crowns. The king of 
leaves, directed towards the right hand, bears the symbol of his suit in his left 
hand. The king of glands, advancing in the same direction, bears it in his right 
hand. The king of flowers, advancing towards the left, carries the long-stalked 
rose in his left hand ; while the king of fruit, trotting towards the right, turns 
round in his saddle to the left, and elevates the large capsule with both hands. 

The valets of leaves are military figures in large plumed hats, like the designs 
of Burgkmair and of the time of Maximilian. Those of glands are adorned as 
dissolute rustic Bacchuses ; the valets of flowers are running peasants, with 
cowl-like caps on their heads, the upper valet blowing a horn as he advances. 
The valets of fruit are characterised by their jerkin boots with large overlapping 
tops. The marks of the suits, glands, flowers, and leaves, are borne on long 
curved stalks by the valets. The stalk of the rose on the under valet of flowers 
is broken and separated from the blossom. 

The marks of the suits on the pip-cards are throughout the series connected 
on each piece by a central stout, arborescent, and leafy stem, having lateral 
branches. Slight variations, however, occur on two cards. On the two of 
glands (first sheet), at the lower part, is a shield bearing a large pine-apple or 
fircone-like fruit. This shield hangs from the neck of a winged child, who is 
holding it with his left hand while he kneels and extends the right arm. From 
the child's head springs a short stem, bearing the dependent symbols of the suits. 
At the base of the three of glands (second sheet) is a hog, supporting the short 
leafy stem which bears the signs of the suit. 

The second sheet presents the three, four, five, and six, seven, eight, nine, 
and ten, of fruit and glands. 

The third sheet bears the three, four, five, and six, and the seven, eight, nine, 
and ten, of the suits flowers and leaves. 

All the aces of the series are absent or have been originally suppressed. 

Each pip-card has its value indicated in Roman numerals at the top, and in 
Arabic ones at the bottom. 

These card-pieces are from well-engraved wood-blocks, and are of superior 
character. They have been attributed to Hans Sebald Beham, a distinguished 
engraver, born at Nurnberg 150a, and dying there about 1550. As far as the 
designs alone of the marks of the suits are concerned, there is much similitude 
between them and the designs of the suit marks in the series of cards ascribed to 



Errhard Schon (Singer, pp. 42-3). The groups below the connecting stei 
in the pip-cards, present in the E. Schon series, are wanting in the present 01 
" Beham " sequence. 

These cards are uncoloured ; the figure pieces are devoid of names or titles, 
and not any address or inscription is present. 

[3i x 2 i m -J [Backs plain.] 

G. 139. 


*W0 sheets of sixteen unseparated card-pieces in each sheet. 

The cards absent are the four aces, and the three, four, and five 
of each suit. 

Each sheet has three rows of six card-pieces on each row. The 
suit marks are leaves, glands, bells, and hearts. 

The first sheet contains all the figure-cards, and the six, seven, eight, nine, and 
ten of hearts, and the seven of bells. In the first row are the four superior valets, 
in the second row are the four kings, in the third row are the four inferior valets. 

The superior valets of bells and leaves are whole-length figures in Oriental 
costume, those of glands and hearts are in dresses of Frederick the Great's time. 
The valet of hearts carries a letter in his right hand, in his left a footman's cane 
with tassel. 

All the kings are on horseback, advancing towards the left hand. The horse 
of the king of hearts is rearing on his hind legs. The king of leaves is in Oriental 
costume, and wears a turban surmounted by a crescent. In his left hand is a 
sceptre, having at the top a radiant sun. The other kings are crowned and carry 
short sceptres. The king of bells alone has spurs. 

The under valets of leaves and hearts are in Oriental costume, directing their 
gaze upward. The under valet of bells is a postilion in " Kannonen Stiefeln," 
and with a whip in his right hand. The under valet of glands is a "jager," hold- 
ing a hawk in his left hand. 

Each figure-card has the mark of the suit at the proper corner. On the six 
of hearts — the first card in the upper row of the first sheet — is a monumental 
erection, having an urn at the top and large tablet at the base, on which is in- 
scribed — " Feine Teische Karten zu finden Bei Anton Herbst. in Prag. No. 257." 

On the eight of hearts are two half-draped semi-savage figures, with bows and 
arrows in their hands. Below the marks on the seven of hearts are two female 
figures, one carrying a large jug, the other having a tray upon her head. On the 
seven of bells — the sixth piece in the upper row of sheet one — are two men, 
having between them a couple of posts, connected by a cord at the top, from 
which hangs a bird. The man on the right is running towards the latter, while 
he on the left appears as if shooting or pointing with a stick upwards. On the 
ten of hearts is an Indian woman, reclining in a sort of hammock supported by 
palm trees ; below, seated on the ground and raising his left hand, is an Indian, 
with the conventional circle of feathers around his head. On the nine of hearts is 
a drummer and another person in a dancing attitude ; both have feather head- 

The second sheet contains the six, eight, nine of bells, seven and nine of glands, 
and seven of leaves in the first row. On the second row are the eight of glands, 
two of hearts, glands, bells, and leaves, and eight of leaves. On the third row are 
the six of glands, the nine of leaves, the ten of glands, the ten of bells, the ten of 
leaves, and the six of leaves. On each of these card-pieces are figures or scenes 


of a grotesque character. Monkeys wear cocked hats and ride dogs, carry lant- 
horns, umbrellas, &c. A mermaid is on the two of bells ; a sea-dog or lion, from 
whose fish-like tail rises the stem bearing the symbols of the suit, is on the two of 
glands, while on the seven of leaves a man rides astride on the trunk of an ele- 
phant. A rearing tiger, muzzled, and led in chains by a man in Oriental dress, is 
on the eight of leaves. The tens are the only pip-cards which have their values 
expressed in Roman numerals placed at the top of the pieces. Each card has an 
ornamental border. 

This series consists of very inferior designs from wood-blocks engraved in an 
equally bad manner, as far, at least, as the decorative figures and scenes are con- 
cerned. The suit marks themselves have been executed in a neater manner. 
All the pieces are uncoloured. 

[3 j. X 2 j- in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 140. 


SHEET containing eighteen unseparated card-pieces of the suits, bells, 
leaves, hearts, and glands. There are three rows, each row having six 
cards. The upper row exhibits the under valet of leaves, the upper 
valets of bells and glands, the ten of hearts, the nine of hearts, and the 
six of this suit. 

On the second row are the kings of leaves, bells, and glands, the two of hearts, 
with the under valet and seven of the same suit. 

On the third row are the upper valet of leaves, the under valets of bells and 
glands, the king of hearts, the upper valet, and ten of hearts. 

The designs on this sheet of card-pieces have been suggested evidently by 
those in G. 137 — the sequence containing the fighting figures. The valets of 
bells, glands, and hearts have swords in their hands, and are in either offensive or 
defensive postures. The valets of glands carry a sword in each hand, as do the 
valets of the like suit in G. 137. The under valet of leaves is here a military 
fifer, the upper valet a drummer. 

The four kings are in Oriental costume and seated, as in G. 137. The 
costume of both kings and valets is based clearly on that in the previous series. 
The pip-cards have ornamental designs on them. On the ten of hearts a Cupid 
holds his bow towards a flower ; on the nine of the same suit is a cone, around 
which is spirally twisted a branch of leaves. 

On the two of hearts is a shield of armorial bearings, crested by a bird and 
leaves. The seven of hearts exhibits a tub, from which rises a small tree, while 
the six of hearts bears on a shield the following inscription — 

" Hib Karden Fein 
Zu Finden Seind 

On the ten of hearts is the value in a Roman numeral at the top of the piece. 

All the pieces are uncoloured, the drawing, technic, &c, being even worse than 
in the preceding series, G. 1 39. 

[3f X 2 i in [Backs plain.] 

2o6 GERMAN. 

G. 141 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the suits hearts, clubs, spades, aiu 
diamonds. The coate-cards are king, queen, and valet, as busts 
printed double and in reverse. 

All the aces bear two designs (in reverse) of battle scenes, white 
circular spaces being reserved in the centre of the card for the mark of the suit. 
On the ace of hearts are represented an attack on Frankfurt and the battle of 
Hanau. On the upper division is the following address, on a pedestal surmounted 
by a shield bearing an eagle and machiolated crown — "Zu finden bei E L Wiist 
in Frankfurt a/m." The word Frankfurt is at the upper right-hand corner, and 
that of Hanau at the lower left-hand corner (in reverse) of the card-piece. 
Within the space for the suit mark is " J C F Neubauer fee." 

The battle of Leipzig and " heiliger augenblick," or prayer before action, are 
represented on the ace of diamonds ; on the ace of spades are the engagements 
at Brienne and Katzbach. On the ace of clubs are the attack on Montmartre and 
the entry into Paris. 

The busts on the figure-cards are intended to be in the costume of the time. 
Mr. Chatto, who was cognisant of this series, remarks, " The Duke of Wellington 
figures as the knave of diamonds, and Marshal Blucher as the knave of clubs " (p. 

An ornamental engraved title of a wrapper accompanies this set, having on it 
the following inscription : — " Feine Spiel-Karten in Staats Militair Costum, dem 
Andenken in die merkwiirdigen Jahre 1813 und 1814 gewidmet. Von. Corn, 
Ludw., Wiist in Frankfurt a.M." 

The above is encircled in a wreath of oak -leaves, at the top of which is an 
eagle displayed with the letter F on its breast ; below are a sword and conqueror's 
palm within another wreath. The whole is printed in blue ink. 

These cards are neatly engraved and coloured, but the compositions on the aces 
are destitute of any artistic merit. 

The backs are adorned with blue dotted lines and oval ornaments. 

[3s X 2 i m -] [Backs decorated.] 

G. 142. 


^LL the coate-cards, with the exception of the valet of spades, of a 
numeral series of fifty-two (?). 

The figures are king, queen, and valet, in busts printed double and 
in reverse. 

On one of the divisions the name of the person represented is engraved in 
modern Greek, on the other in Roman characters. Thus, the king of spades is 
^.ovXifxdv on one bust, and Soliman on the other. The queen of the same suit is 
(deotiwpa and Theodora. The king of hearts is Apovy a\ pav^id and Harun al 


Rashid, the queen 2o/3/3cu£e and Sobbaide, the valet BoTffaptg and Botsarys. 
The king of diamonds bears MexpeS and Mohammed II., the queen P^avrj and 
Koxane, the valet Ylvppog and Pyrrhus. The king of clubs is Ti/xovp-Bey and 
Timur Beg, the queen is ^artfui and Fatima, and the valet E/cavdep-Bey and 

On a transverse space between the busts on the valet of clubs is the address, 
"Niederlage am Peter, No. 577-" 

These cards are neatly engraved and coloured, though without any particular 
artistic merit. The backs are tarotees with pale blue dots in diamond shapes, 
within dotted circles. 

The series was probably published at Vienna for the Greek market. 

[3| X 2 in.] [Backs decorated.] 

G. 143. 



(Circular Cards.) 

HREE circular card-pieces of a numeral series, the exact number of 
the suits of which is, in the opinion of some persons, undetermined. 

The cards here present are the upper valet of parroquets, the 
under valet of roses, and the under valet of columbines. 

The upper valet of parroquets is a single piece ; the two other pieces are on 
one sheet, having been engraved on the same plate. They touch each other by 
the outer borders. 

The valet of parroquets is an armed man, running towards the right hand. 
He bears on his right shoulder a mace-like flail, having a spiked iron globe at- 
tached. A long curved sword is at his side. On a level with his shoulder, at the 
right-hand upper part of the field, is the mark of the suit. 

The valet of roses is a man proceeding towards the right. He bears a cross- 
bow on his left shoulder, and holds an arrow in his right hand. From his left 
side, and projecting from behind his back, is a bundle of arrows. The mark of the 
suit is on a level with his knee, at the right-hand lower part of the circular field. 

The valet of columbines is an armed man dressed in a long slit coat, and 
walking towards the left. He bears a long spear or halberd on his left shoulder, 
and from his left side projects a long straight sword. He carries the mark of the 
suit in his right hand. 

The groundwork of each piece is formed of hillocks with plants on them. The 
field of each card-piece is enclosed within a border of three circles. 

Considering their time of production the designs on these cards are good, as is 
also the technic. 

Though the three specimens here present are of the same set as regards de- 
sign, it may be doubted if they have all been engraved by the same hand. The 
lower two cards appear to be the work of a heavier burin than that which produced 
the upper valet. 

Much interest attaches to these specimens of early German metal engraving, 
and rare examples of play ing- cards ; they are three of a sequence described by 
Bartsch, vol. x. p. 70; Singer, pp. 45, 205; Passavant, vol. ii. pp. 176-7; 
alluded to by Chatto, p. 223, and by Taylor, p. 119. 


The following quotation is from Passavant, under " Le Maitre des Cartes a 
jouer de forme ronde" {Op. cit.): — 

" The originals of these cards are to be ranked among the finer engravings, au 
burin, of the fifteenth century. The inscription, Salve Felix Colonia, accompanied 
by three crowns,- which is on the titled wrapper, informs us that these cards had 
their origin at Cologne. We must conclude, at the same time, that they appeared 
between the years 1461 and 1483, if we accept the figure of the mounted king of 
columbines as representing Louis XI. of France, who reigned at that period. 
Up to the present time we have remained in ignorance «,s to the master who exe- 
cuted these engravings, and further, it is almost impossible to point out any other 
engraving which could be safely attributed to him. His manner resembles that of 
John of Cologne, from Zwolle, though it cannot be said to be identical with it in 
details. The five suits — each suit having thirteen pieces — contain nine pip-cards 
in each suit, an upper and under valet (pber et unter), a dame, and a king, as was 
formerly the practice in Germany. 

" Hitherto but a few incomplete specimens of the original series have been 
recorded, as those, e.g., at Oxford and Dresden. They are executed with much 
delicacy of drawing, the etching generally terminating with points or dots, and 
some impressions being printed off" in a pale black ink. 

" There are two copies of the original cards. 

" (a). The first copy, that by Telman de Wesel, bears at the lower portion of 
each piece the initials T. W. 

" (b). The second, by an engraver of Upper Germany, is treated in a stiff 
and very inferior manner to the former by Telman. The king of pinks (Bartsch, 
N. 39 of the original series) bears on the bridle of the horse the inscription : 
' Demi. Ich. War. Gertei (Getrei ?).' In the Albertine collection. 

" Heinecken (* Neue Nachrichten,' p. 353), mentions a mounted king of 
the suit of pinks, who bears on his crown the inscription, 'Ich. Win,' &c." 
{Op. cit.) 

From the scattered and imperfect sets of these cards which exist, two deduc- 
tions have been drawn, one of which is no doubt right, but the other we think 
rather questionable. The first conclusion has been that not any pip-cards of the 
value ten entered into either of the suits. Nevertheless, the number of pieces in 
each suit was the regular one, viz. thirteen ; but this was made up by there being 
four figure-cards or honours, viz., a king, queen, and two valets. 

The second conclusion has been that this series consisted of five suits, viz. 
hares, parroquets, pinks, columbines, and roses. It is true that some pieces of a 
suit of roses exist, as likewise of suits of pinks and columbines, and which appear 
to be undoubtedly the work of the same engraver, as proved by the examples in 
the British Museum collection. This suit of roses was intended, we think, to dis- 
place, as occasion or taste might demand, the suit of pinks, and not to be added 
to it. Singer's belief that tens existed in the sequence, that there were five suits 
of fourteen cards each suit, and that the series belonged to Tarocchino, does not 
merit discussion. 

Mr. Chatto writes in connection with these examples : — 

" In the circular cards described by Bartsch and Singer the inscription on 
the ace of hares is in Latin, and the initials of the engraver, T. W. are wanting. 
(See next series, G. 144.) From a wrapper, of which a facsimile is given by 
Singer, it would appear that those cards were engraved at Cologne, and it has 
been supposed that they are of as early a date as 1470. They are unquestionably 
the work of either a German or a Flemish artist ; and some amateurs of 
engraving have erroneously ascribed them to Martin Schongauer. Bartsch, in his 
description of them, includes a fifth suit — namely, that of roses — and says that each 
suit consisted of thirteen cards, which would thus give sixty -five pieces for the 
complete pack. Mr. Singer also, in his account of such of those cards as were 
formerly in the collection of Mr. Douce, gives it as his opinion that the complete 


pack ought to consist of five suits of fourteen cards each — in all seventy pieces. 
Mons. Duchesne, however, thinks that those authors were wrong, and that the 
complete pack consisted of only four suits of thirteen cards each, as displayed by 
those preserved in the Bibliotheque du Roi. But as he entirely overlooks the 
difficulty of accounting for a suit of roses engraved in the same style, he does not 
seem to be justified in pronouncing so decisively that Bartsch and Singer are 
wrong in supposing that a complete pack consisted of five suits, for it is by no 
means unlikely that a fifth suit might have been introduced by the artist with a 
view of giving variety to the game, but which might have been subsequently 
discarded as inconsistent with the old established principles of the game, and as 
only making it more complicated, without rendering it more interesting." 
(Op. cit.) These cards are uncoloured. 

[2f in. diameter.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 144. 


(Circular Cards by Telman von Wesel.) 

BOUND folio volume, lettered " Cartes a jouer du XVI. Siecle," 
with the press mark, " Sheepshanks Cabinet, 23, No. 2." 

It contains a series of fifty-two circular card-pieces of the suits 
hares (or rabbits), parroquets, pinks, and columbines. Of the 
specimens present, twenty-six are genuine pieces, and twenty-six are facsimile 
drawings. The card-pieces are unseparated, with the exception of two — the 
queens of hares and columbines — appearing as they came from the hands of the 
printer in separate sheets, either of four or six cards each sheet. The original or 
genuine pieces are the four aces on sheet 1 ; the two and three of columbines on 
sheet 2 ; the nine of hares on sheet 4 ; the four, five, six, seven, eight, and nine 
of pinks on sheet 6 ; the four, five, six, seven, eight, and nine of parroquets on 
sheet 7 ; the six valets on sheet 8 ; and the queen of hares, number 9. 

Within the outer circle of the border at the lower part of each card are the 
initials T. W. This circumstance, combined with the style and technic of these 
rare and interesting objects, has led to the opinion that they are copies by Telman 
von Wesel, generally in reverse, and with certain variations of the series last 
noticed (G. 143). 

The values of the pip-cards are given in Roman numbers at the lower portion, 
and in Arabic figures at the upper part of each piece close to the inner circle of 
the border. In the Arabic numbering the numerals 4 and 7 are of the old forms : 
* (4) 1 (7), and the 5 is 7- 

The figure-cards have not either titles or numbers. On the first sheet are 
the aces of the four suits — rare, genuine pieces. In the first ace, that of hares, 
the hare sits upright in the centre of the circle, having above a long waved scroll 
or banderol, on which is the inscription in Platt-Deutsch : 

. a a 


The precise meaning of this it is not easy to determine. Passavant read it thus : 

" O weh ! mich drangt man fein, 
Darum muss ich ein Hase sein." 

1. e. Alas ! men hotly me pursue, 
I am a hare it is most true. 

210 GERMAN. 

Chatto remarks : " Taking the contracted ave to have been intended for auwe, 
a meadow, the couplet may be thus done into English — 
1 Me o'er fields men keen pursue, 
Therefore I'm the hare you view.' 

But supposing the word ave to have been meant for augen, the eyes, and gn 
slight turn to one or two other words, the meaning would be that the hare 
called lepus, quasi lippus, on account of its blear eyes" (p. 222). 

On the ace of hares in the original set, from which the present is supposed to 
have been copied, is the following inscription, according to Bartsch (vol. x. p. 75) : 
" Felix medic, quisquis turba parte quiet," which favours rather Passavant's 
reading than that of Chatto. 

On the second ace is a parroquet perched on a stumpy tree ; above in a waved 
scroll is the inscription — " quidquid facimus. venit. ex alto." 

On the ace of pinks, above the large flower in the centre, on a very long 
waved scroll is : " fortuna. opes, auferre. non. animum. potest." 

On a scroll around the drooping flower on the ace of columbines may be 

read — " Par. ille. Svpis [superis] cvi Partt (? Parturiunt) Dies, et Fortvna. 

On sheet 2 are inlaid the two and three of columbines, genuine pieces, and 
the two and three of hares, facsimile copies. On the two of hares is a large 
leaf below the marks of the suit. 

On sheet 3 are copies only of the two and three of parroquets, and of the 
two and three of pinks. 

On sheet 4 the only genuine card is the nine of hares, the four, five, six, 
seven, and eight of hares being copies. The hares on the four, five, and six are 
represented eating leaves. 

On the fifth sheet all the pieces are copies, and consist of the four, five, six, 
seven, eight, and nine of columbines. 

The six cards of the sixth sheet are genuine, and include the four, five, six, 
seven, eight, and nine of pinks. 

On sheet 7 all the pieces are genuine, and comprehend the four, five, six, 
seven, eight, and nine of parroquets. 

Sheet 8 includes six valets in two longitudinal rows of three each row. All 
the pieces are genuine. The first valet is the ober of hares. His dress is peculiar: 
he has a long-tailed cap on his head, carries a large arrow in his right hand, and 
runs towards a hare on a bank on the right. The hare jumps towards the man. The 
unter of parroquets has been discharging an arrow at the bird sitting on the ground 
at the right hand ; the bird has caught the arrow in its mouth. The third valet 
is the unter of hares. He is in oriental costume, bears a lance on his left shoulder, 
and carries a hare head downwards by the hind legs in his right hand. The first 
card in the lower row is the ober of columbines. His back is turned to the spec- 
tator. He advances towards the right, bearing a lance on his left shoulder, and a 
long sword projecting backwards from under his right arm. The untermann of 
columbines follows ; he is a young man of condition advancing in front, extending 
the left hand, and supporting some object — difficult to define — with the right 
against his chest. The symbol of the suit is at the right hand. There are some 
peculiar marks immediately in the foreground at the feet of the young man ; they 
may be intended for ants, upon which the student-like youth may be moralising. 
The unter of pinks is a stooping figure in a large cloak directed towards the left, 
and contemplating with raised hand the flower, the mark of the suit. Below this 
sheet (8) of valets is a single card, No. 9, representing the queen of hares. It is 
genuine. The lady is mounted and rides towards the left ; she wears a coronetted 
head-dress, rich drapery spotted with fleurs-de-lys, and having peculiar leafy appen- 
dages to the arms. The palfrey is richly caparisoned, and has a tuft of hair with 
a cross upon it projecting from the brow. Behind the queen on the left hand a 


hare is seated on a bank level with the lady's shoulder. On sheet l o are four 
facsimiles of the kings of hares, parroquets, columbines, and pinks. The king of 
hares is a mounted Turk galloping towards the right. The hare is behind, spring- 
ing towards his back from a bank. The king of parroquets is mounted on a 
rearing horse turned towards the left. The bird is perched on a branch behind 
the horseman. The king of columbines on horseback advances towards the 
right ; the mark of the suit is behind him on the left. The king of pinks mounted 
rides towards the left. The flower of the suit is on the right. The king of pinks 
is a youthful and graceful figure with long wavy hair, the king of columbines is 
an old man. 

Sheet 1 1 contains facsimiles only of the queens of pinks and parroquets, and 
of the upper valets of the same suits ; both queens are on horseback advancing 
towards the left hand. The flower of the suit is on the right, and behind the queen 
of pinks ; the bird of the queen of parroquets is on the left in front of the lady. 
The two valets are armed men running towards the left ; one bears a halberd, the 
other a mace-like flail on his shoulder — long swords are at their sides. The 
marks of their suits are on the left hand, i.e. in front of them. 

Below is No. 1 2, a single card, being a facsimile of the queen of columbines. 
She is seated on a mule advancing towards the right. Her full-front is towards 
the spectator. The head-dress is peculiar. The flower-mark of the suit is on 
the left-hand side of the circle. 

It should be remarked that in the present sequence there are not any tens, but 
that there are four court-cards — king, queen, and upper and under valets. In 
reference to this circumstance Chatto observes : " The third character in those 
coat-cards cannot properly be called a cavalier, and has indeed very little pre- 
tensions to the designation of squire. The knaves are evidently common foot- 
soldiers, such as were known in Italy by the name of fanti." — " The distinction 
between the two latter is not, indeed, very clearly expressed in the costume, 
though there cannot be a doubt that the lowest character is that which in each 
suit is represented as running, and thus plainly corresponding with the Italian 
/ante.'" (p. 221.) 

Though a full and regular numeral sequence is here present, viz., fifty -two 
cards divided into four suits of thirteen cards each suit, some authorities con- 
sider that the series has properly five suits of fourteen cards each suit ; in toto, 
seventy pieces, similar to the sequence G. 143. According to this view the 
original sequence is supposed to have possessed the tens and a fifth suit, the suit 
of roses. The number being thus increased to seventy, the multiplicity of suits 
and the circular shape of the pieces have been assumed to show in this example, 
not only the Oriental origin of playing-cards, but the Persian characteristics of 
the latter in the style and decorations of the pieces. 

" Demandez " — writes M. B. d'Ambly — " au Cabinet des Estampes l'exem- 
plaire des cartes rondes. Elles sont a peu pres du meme temps, car on croit y 
lire la date 1477, ce sont les seules que j'aie vues avec cette forme. En Orient 
on aime, on adore veritablement cette forme-la, qui est la forme symbolique du 
pantheisme. En Europe on n'en a pas voulu ; nous aimons les angles." (Bibl. 
3, P. 85.) 

A complete set of genuine impressions — fifty-two in number — of these card- 
pieces is preserved in the Paris Collection. It formerly belonged to a Monsieur 
Volpato, " Amateur distingue attache au Theatre Italien a Paris." (Bibl. 2, fol. 2 
verso, No. 10), and were purchased of him for the Bibliotheque du Roi in 1833. 
M. Volpato received in exchange twenty-six genuine cards of the same series, 
and twenty-six facsimile drawings of other pieces necessary to complete the set, 
along with a sum of money. M. Volpato afterwards sent his copy to the Messrs. 
Smith of Lisle Street for sale. It passed into the Sheepshanks Cabinet, and from 
thence to the Collection of the British Museum, being the series now under 

212 GERMAN. 

Accompanying the latter is the legal agreement to the transaction just refer 
to, having attached to it M. Guizot's signature. It is as follows : 

*' Entre les Soussignes Letronne Directeur de la Bibliotheque royi 
agissant au nom du conservatoire de la dite Bibliotheque et avec l'autorisation 
Ministre de l'lnstruction publique, a lui donnee par la lettre en date du 22 
Deceinbre, 1832, d'une part. 

" Et Jean Antoine Vincent Volpato artiste graveur demeurant a Paris, rue 
Godot Mauroy, No. 36, d' autre part. 

" II a ete convenu de ce qui suit, savoir moi Volpato, je cede au departement 
des estampes cartes et plans de la Bibliotheque royale, un jeu de cartes complet 
de 52 cartes grave vers 1477, toutes dans un etat de parfaite conservation 
et a, pleine marge. Ces cartes proviennent de la vente du Cabinet de M. Bitter, 
Peintre, faite a Bercy en 1 832, sont en forme de medallions ronds et portent au bas 
la marque T. W. ; elles sont au nombre de six sur six planches, et de quatre 
sur quatre autres planches. 

" La quelle cession en faite par moi pour le prix de deux mille cinq cents 

" Et j'accepte pour le prix de la meme jeu — 1°, une somme de mille huit 
cents francs qui me sera fournie en deux payemens; 2°, pour les sept cents 
francs restant je m'engage a prendre vingt-six cartes de ce meme jeu, savoir, 
trois planches entiere de six medaillons chaque, mais sans marge et avec 
quelques deteriorations, une planche contenant les quatres As, enfin quatres 
autres cartes separees et rognees. 

" Et moi Letronne m'engage a faire payer a M. Volpato la somme de mille 
huit cents francs en deux paymens, savoir, le premier sur les depenses de Janvier, 
1833, et le second sur celles d'Avril, 1833, et a lui livrer pour solde du prix 
total de 2,500 francs les vingt six cartes ci-dessus mentionnees pour la valeur de 
sept cents francs les dites cartes provenant, vingt quatre du volume No. 624, 
pages 13, 14, 15, et 16 de la collection donnee par M. Begon en 1 770, la vingt 
cinquieme du No. 57, page 10 de la Collection acquise de M. de Marolles en 
1666, et la vingt sixieme d'une donation faite par M. Delamotte en Tan 9. 

" Apres que le Present Marche aura ete soumis a l'approbation du Ministre 
de l'instruction publique, conformement a l'ordonance du Roi en date du 14 
Septembre, 1822. 

" Le present Acte Fait double, Paris, Bibliotheque royale, le 10 Janvier, 
1 833. " Volpato. 

" Letronne Directeur de la B. R e . 

"Vu et approuve Paris, le 22 Janvier, 1833. Le Ministre Secretaire 
d'Etat au departement de l'lnstruction publique. " Guizot." 

The set thus acquired by the Parisian authorities from Volpato has been 
copied in entirety by the Bibliophiles Franc, ais for their work on " Jeux de Cartes 
Tarots et de Cartes Numerates " (pi. 71-80). 

[2J in. diameter.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 145. 


WO circular card-pieces of a numeral series of fifty-two. The cards 
present are the under valet of hares and the upper valet of par- 
roquets. Within the circle of the border at the lower part of each 
piece are the letters T. W. 
These examples are from the series just described (G. 144), supposed to have 


been engraved by Telman von Wesel, after an older sequence (G. 143). The 
description of the two valets of hares and parroquets, under that number, may 
apply to the present examples, which formed part of the Willet Collection. 
[2f- in. diameter.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 146. 


WO circular card-pieces of a numeral series of fifty -two. The cards 
present are the six of hares and the seven of columbines. Within 
the circle of the border at the lower part of each piece are the 
letters T. W. 

From the series previously described, as engraved by Telman von Wesel 
(G. 144). The examples formed part of the Slade collection. 

[2f in. diameter.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 147. 


CARD-PIECE from a numeral series, one of the suits of which had 
chimeric animals for its sign. 

The example present is a three of animals, the latter being a frog 
and two dragons. 

The animals are represented as on the declivity of a hill on which grow a tree 
and plants. A large dragon with spotted body and jagged curled tail is in the 
centre. To the left is another dragon with small body, but a longer neck and 
tail. Its head is at the bottom of the piece, the tail extending upwards to the 
spot on the side of the hill from which the tree springs ; above the central dragon 
and near the top of the hill is a large frog, directed towards the left. 

This example was formerly in the Weigel cabinet, into which it had passed 
from that of Quandt. It is No. 446 in Weigel' s large work. 

"Its period of production may be assumed to have been from 1470 to 1480. 
The somewhat awkward and laboured technic implies the hand of the goldsmith. 
The print is interesting from the circumstance that it appears to be not an im- 
pression from one plate simply, but from two superimposed plates/' (Vol. ii. 

P- 379;) 

This piece is referred to by Passavant, vol. ii. p. 243, n. 226, but neither he 
nor Weigel alludes to it as a card. Bartsch, however, recognized its true character, 
and as such described it (vol. x. p. 103, No. 8). 

[3r x 2 f m -l [Back plain.] 

214 GERMAN. 

G. 148. 


PORTION of a card-piece of a numeral series, one of the suits of 
which were quadrupeds — bears and lions. 

The part present represents a bear sucking his left fore -paw, anc 
scratching himself with his right hind claw. 

In the sequence of which this card-piece forms part, the suits appear to hav< 
been — bears and lions, stags, birds, and flowers and leaves (laub or grun). 
somewhat different view is taken by Chatto, pp. 224, 225. We are of opinion, 
however, that the strange little figures in the numeral piece five of plate 9 1 , in 
the " Jeux de Cartes Tarots," &c. of the Bibliophiles Francais (Bibl. 2), beloi 
to the suit of leaves. 

The present example appears to be an impression from a card-plate which 
had been cut down to form a separate print, on account of the admirable technical 
execution and truth to nature exhibited in the design, or for the reason adduced 
by Wilson, presently to be noticed. 

The sequence, of which it is supposed to be an unit, may be found described 
by Passavant, vol. ii. p. 73, as the work of "Le Maitre aux cartes a jouer," who 
is presumed to have belonged to the school of the Master of 1446. 

In the work of the Bibliophiles Francais, forty pieces of the sequence are re- 
presented by lithographic facsimiles. We believe that twenty-nine of the cards in 
the Paris Cabinet were procured at the sale of Mr. Wilson's collection, and are 
described by the latter writer in his " Catalogue Raisonne of the Select Collection 
of Engravings of an Amateur," London, 1828, p. 87. 

In Mr. Wilson's cabinet and in the Dresden Collection were several pieces of 
separate figures of the suit marks to which the present specimen belongs. Mr. 
Wilson remarks in connection with these pieces: "All these plates are of an 
irregular form, several of them the exact shapes of the figures which they contain ; 
those indicating the suits on the court-cards are all impressed in spaces curiously 
left for the purpose in the work of the larger plates." 

Bartsch alludes in vol. x. p. 80, et seq. to some pieces of this series. 
[l£ X 2f in.] [Back plain.] 

G. 149. 


SINGLE piece from a numeral series, the mark of one of the suits of 
which was deer. 

The example present is the three of deer. 

To the right is a stag, full horned, raising his right fore and hind 
rs; a fawn is grazing in the foreground, and behind and above, on a gentle 
elevation, is a doe looking towards the left. Large plantain-like herbs are on the 

The impression is from a copper plate, and the technic that of the goldsmith 
engraver. It is described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 103, n. 6. 

[3i X 2 y in -] [Back plain.] 



G. 150. 


SINGLE card -piece from a numeral series of which dogs formed the 
mark of one of the suits. 

The example present is the four of dogs. 

The animals are placed two above and two below. The left 
lower one sits on his hind quarters and looks towards the right. The right 
lower dog lies and licks himself. The upper left animal turns towards the right 
upper one, who rears on his hind legs and regards his neighbour. 

The engraving is from a copper-plate, and evidently the work of a firm and 
practised hand. It is described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 1 06, n. 1 5 ; Pass. vol. 2, p. 
249, n. 4. 

Accompanying this card are two photographs of a five of dogs and an eight of 
the same suit, contained in the Douce Collection, now at Oxford. These pieces 
are evidently by the same able hand, whether as respects design or technic, as 
the four of dogs here described ; but they are not of the same dimensions as the 
latter, nor as regards each other. The five of dogs is 4§- X 3f- in., the eight of dogs 
Sw X 3f in- The originals are described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 106, n. 16 ; 108, 
n. 20. 

X 3f in.] [Back plain] 


G. 151. 


SINGLE card from a numeral series having a suit of birds. 

The example present is a three of birds, two of which are chimeric 
cocks opposed to each other on a hillock. The other is a large crow 
flying above towards the left. The cock on the right hand has the 
crest erected, and elevates his right leg as if in anger ; the one opposite regards 
him with disdainful astonishment. 

From a copper- plate coarsely engraved in the style of a goldsmith engraver. 

Described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 112, No. IO. 

[3 f X 2 J in.] [Back plain.] 

G. 152. 


SINGLE card-piece of a numeral series of which one of the suits was 

The example present is the three of birds. 

In the upper part of the field is a parroquet, perched on an orna- 
mental scroll-like branch, seizing one end of it by the mouth. Below, to the 
left, a sort of eagle bites his own right wing ; while at the base, towards the right 
hand, another eagle -like bird seizes by the beak an ornamental branch. 

From a copper-plate, heavily and coarsely engraved in the goldsmith style. 

Described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 11 2, n. 9. 

[3t X 2| in.] [Back plain.] 



G. 153. 


SINGLE card-piece from a numeral series having a suit of birds. 

The example present is a three of birds, or chimeric eagles, 
of the latter flies off above with a small ornamental branch in 
claws ; below, at the left hand, a long-necked chimeric raptor 
scratches his raised right leg with his beak, while to the right hand another bii 
raises his right leg and looks upwards. 

From a copper-plate which, though heavily and stiffly engraved, has bee 
rather more carefully worked than the preceding. 
Described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 1 11, n. 7. 
[37 X 2f- in.] [Back plain.] 

G. 154. 


SINGLE card-piece from a numeral series, having birds for one of its 

The example present is a four of birds, from a different series to 

any of the preceding. 

At the upper part of the field two parrot-like birds fly, the bird on the left 

hand downwards, that on the right upwards. Below, on the right, is a chimeric 

cock, strutting towards the left hand. On the left is a fanciful, peacock-like bird 

walking towards the left, but looks back at his neighbour the cock. 

From a copper-plate engraving, the technic of which is more delicate and re- 
fined than that of any of the previous bird-pieces. The plate appears to have been 
very irregularly cut in a circular form by the artist, previous to having it more 
carefully trimmed by the coppersmith. 
Described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 90. 
[3 2 in. longest diameter.] [Back plain.] 

G. 155- 


SINGLE card-piece from a numeral series, one of the suits of which 
is birds. 

The example present is the eight of birds. 

At the upper part of the piece are three parrots ; one has a long 
tail, another scratches his head with the right claw, and at the extreme right is a 
pelican (?). In the centre is a parrot with a long tail extended horizontally. 
At the lower part is a heron-like bird on the left, and to the right are two non- 
descript birds, one of which has a long tail extended horizontally. 

The design and technic of this piece are evidently from the same hands to 
which we owe the suit of dogs, G. 150. 

Described by Bartsch, vol. x. p. 1 16, No. 20. Pass. v. 2, p. 250, n. 8. 

[3* X 4f m.] 

[Back plain.] 


G. 156. 



(Cards by Virgll Solis.) 

IFTY-ONE card-pieces from a numeral series of fifty-two, the suits of 
which are lions (for schelleii), monkeys (for eicheln), peacocks (for 
griiri), and parrots (for herzen). 

The suits of lions, monkeys, and parrots are complete ; the suit of 
peacocks wants one coate-card, viz., the queen. 

Certain pieces of the sequence under consideration are original impressions, 
others are copies only. All the members of the suit of lions here present are 
genuine, as are likewise those of the suits of peacocks and monkeys. In parrots, 
all the pieces are copies, except the nine and king of the suit. 

This is an important and interesting series of card-pieces. It forms one of the 
better examples of card -engraving produced during the sixteenth century, and one 
of the chief efforts of the well-known designer and engraver, Vergilius (or Virgil) 
Solis, who was born at Nurnberg hi 15 14, and died in 1562. Though not at the 
summit of his art, V. Solis, like Jobst Amman, his follower, produced among the 
almost innumerable prints which bear his mark, some very good engravings, both 
on wood and copper. His engravings on metal as designs for gold and silversmiths, 
and his friezes and scrolls are very beautiful, and probably represent the master 
at his best. Impressions from many of these plates have now become scarce in 
good states and condition, and command high prices. The set of cards under 
notice is extremely rare as a complete sequence, and when of fine impression is of 
proportionate price. In the Weigel cabinet was a choice set in admirable condition. 
The possessor of it observed : 

" This series belongs to the more interesting and beautiful German playing- 
cards of the sixteenth century. It includes four suits and fifty-two pieces, but these 
are not expressed by schellen, eicheln, grii?i, and roth, but by animals ; by lions, 
monkeys, peacocks, and parrots. There is another peculiarity to be noticed : 
instead of upper and inferior knaves, queen and valet appear. This departure 
from the usual custom appears to show that this ' tarocks pack ' was not intended 
for the commonalty, but for the higher classes of the community at the time of its 

" Since but a small part of that mannered and marked handicraft style which 
pervaded his [V. Solis] later productions appears in these cards, and as they bear 
the impress of a fresh and youthful spirit, they must have been produced at his 
earlier and better period, a time when he was more sensibly affected by the influence 
which Durer and his pupils produced on German art. The drawing, making 
allowance for some hardness of line, is in general sure and masterly, and recalls to 
mind, in the figures particularly of the soldiers, the manner of Aldegrever. The 
technic is careful and clean, the composition full of taste and rigidly symmetric, the 
actions of the animals natural, and often not without humour ; and moreover there 
is less of that vulgarity and grossness which the master afterwards introduced often 
in his playing-cards. 

" In R. Eitelberger's ' Memoir on Playing-Cards, with special reference to some 
examples of old packs existing at Vienna' (Wien, 1 860), may be seen a faithful copy 
in wood of the ace of lions." (" Anfange," &c. vol. ii. p. 207.) 

The pip -cards in the various suits have their values in Roman numerals marked 
at the tops ; the figure-cards are devoid of marks and inscriptions. On the aces 
of the four suits, the titles of the suits and the cipher of the master are placed. 

2i8 GERMAN. 

The symbols of a suit are symmetrically and harmoniously connected by 
variety of arabesque and ornamental work. On the ace of lions the upper half i 
the piece is occupied by a lion seated on his hind quarters. He holds in his ex- 
tended fore paws an ornamental bar, to which is suspended a shield, on which is 
inscribed the word, " Schelen," below which is the master's cipher. The lower 
third of the piece is filled up with arabesques, and the number I. is above the hea 
of the lion. 

The queen of lions (schelleri) exhibits a richly costumed, coronetted lady on 
horseback. She holds in her left hand a long sceptre, and the horse, riclily 
caparisoned, curvets and directs his steps towards the left. On a fallen tree 
the right hand behind the horse is a lion gazing at the lady. 

The upper third of the ace of monkeys is occupied by an ape seated on an 
ornamental frame between two baskets of fruit. Above is the number I. Below 
the monkey, and in the centre of the card on a shield, is the word aicheln, having 
under it the cipher of the master. Three ornamental human masks disposed 
triangularly occupy the lower part of the card. The knave of monkeys repre- 
sents a soldier in a landscape and walking towards the right. He carries an ape 
astride on his right shoulder, who bears a musket on his left shoulder, the stock 
of which is supported by the left hand of the man. The queen of monkeys is a 
lady mounted on a richly caparisoned horse advancing to the right hand. She is 
crowned, bears a sceptre in her left hand, and has her back turned towards the 
spectator. Behind her on the hind quarters of the horse stands an ape extending 
his right arm to the lady's shoulder, and micturating on her dress. The king of 
monkeys is mounted on a decorated charger, advancing to the right. A plume of 
feathers is on the forehead of the horse. The king has on a crown, over which 
falls the tasselled end of a cap. He carries a sceptre in his right hand. On 
the horse's hind quarters stands an ape, leaning with the right arm on the king's 
left shoulder. The ape holds a whip in his left hand and raises his left leg to- 
wards the king. 

On the ace of peacocks, the sign bird stands with outspread tail on some 
ornamental foliage which is at the centre of the piece. Below is a shield, on 
which is the word gruen, having under it the cipher of the master. Vine-leaves 
and grapes are on each side of the shield. 

On the ace of parrots the bird stands with outspread wings on some flower- 
stalks at the upper part of the piece. The tail of the parrot descends to the 
beginning of the upper third of the card, where is a shield having inscribed on it 
B.OT, and below the cipher of the master. 

All the pieces of the suit of parrots are but copies, it should be remembered, 
except the nine and king. The knave is a soldier advancing towards the left, where 
may be seen the symbolical bird perched on a branch, and stretching towards the 
man. The latter carries a halberd on his left shoulder and a long, straight sword 
at his left side. The cipher of the master has been added at the lower left-hand 
corner. The queen is mounted and turned towards the spectator ; the horse 
advances towards the left, she carries a sceptre in her left hand, at the upper right- 
hand corner is the bird of the suit, perched on a slender branch. The cipher of 
the master has been added at the left-hand lower corner. The king of parrots is 
mounted on a charger and trots towards the left. He carries a sceptre in his 
right hand, and from his left side hangs a sword, at the upper right-hand corner 
is the bird of the suit. 

The impressions, both originals and copies, are from metal and are uncoloured. 

This series of playing-cards is described by Bartsch, vol. ix. p. 282, No. 300- 
351 ; is alluded to by Chatto, p. 238 ; and by Taylor, p. 124. 

Why Weigel should term this sequence a " Tarocks-Spiel " is not apparent. 

[3f X 2|in.] [Backs plain.] 


G. 157. 



'WENTY-FOUR card-pieces from a numeral series of fifty-two, the 
suits of which are lions, monkeys, parrots, and peacocks. 

These examples are from the sequence designed and engraved by 
Virgil Solis, before described (G. 156). 
The cards present are the three, eight, nine, and ten of lions, the entire suit 
of monkeys, the one, two, three, six, and ten of peacocks, and the nine and king of 

The members of the suit of lions are all genuine, those of monkeys are copies, 
the pieces of the suit of peacocks are from the original plates, and those of parrots 
are copies. 

The impressions in the suit of peacocks have, it must be admitted, a somewhat 
suspicious look ; but this is explained by their having been taken after the original 
plates had been re-worked and rather heavily inked. 

[3f X 2fin.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 158. 



(OUR card-pieces from the numeral series, designed and engraved by 
Virgil Solis (G. 156). 

The examples present are the two, three, andjfour of monkeys, and 
the nine of lions. 
The pieces of the suit of monkeys are genuine, the nine of lions is a copy. 
[3f X 2J- in.] [Backs plain.] 


G. 159. 




SEQUENCE of fifty-two numerals, the suits of which are spades* 
clubs, hearts, and diamonds. 

The honours are konig, dame, and k?iecht, indicated by these titles 

This series is intended to be subservient to the purpose of instruction in geo- 

Each piece, with the exception of an upper margin rather more than an inch 
wide, is occupied by a map or chart of a particular country or sea-board. 

220 GERMAN. 

Above it, in the upper margin, is the name of the place represented, and gene- 
rally a scale of miles. Above these are the name and mark of the suit in the 
" honours," and in the pip-cards the particular number of marks placed in a single 
horizontal line, with their value in Arabic numerals at the left-hand corner. 

The ace of spades has on it " Typus Orbis Terrarum," with the address : 
H. Seyfrid delineavit. Wilhelm Pfaun Sculpsit." 

The suits of spades and hearts are occupied with the various regions and dis 
tricts of Germany, Austria, and Prussia, as formerly recognized. 

On the suit of diamonds are maps of Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, Flanders, 
Spain, and other places ; while the king of clubs shows Anglia, the dame Scotia, 
and the knave Hibernia. 

Norway, Poland, Italy, &c. &c. are likewise in the suit. 

A volume of more than 230 pages, bound in vellum, gilt edged, and illus- 
trated with maps, accompanies this set of cards. The whole is enclosed in 
an old-fashioned leathern slip-case, above five inches high and more than three 
inches in width. This case is probably two hundred years old. The volume in 
question has the following title: — "Europaeisch-Geographische Spiel-Charte/ 
Darinnen Vermittels lii Sonderbarer Blatlein alle in Europa befindliche Konig- 
reiche und Lander, samt deren Vornemsten Stadten, zu des curiosen Lesers 
Sonderbarer Belustigung und anmuthigen ZeitkUrtzung in moglichster Nettig- 
keit praesentiret werden ; worzu noch iiber das V absonderliche Land-Chart- 
lein gefuget worden welche Solche Oerter vorstellig machen die nicht 
fdglich unter die andern haben konnen gebracht werden. Samt einer Kurtze 
Beschreibung aller vorneemsten und notablesten Sachen so in denen beriihmtesten 
Landern und Stadten theils zu sehen sind ; theils sich vor langer und kurzer 
Zeit ereignet und zugetragen. Niirnberg. In Verlegung Johann Hoffmann Buch 
und Kiinsthandlers. Anno 167 8." 

In a " Kurtze Voransprache an den Hochgeneigten Leser " we are informed 
that the credit of the invention is due to the learned and well-known author 
" Herrn M. Johann Pretorio," to whom, as likewise to his associated and able 
representative Hn. I. H. Seyfrieden, not a small amount of thanks is due. To 
Franciscus Nigrinus the reader is indebted for the geographic descriptions which 

An engraved and coloured frontispiece precedes the title page. It represents 
eight persons seated at a long table covered with green cloth, playing with the 
geographic cards. At the top of the print is the following title on a scroll, borne 
by a figure of Mercury, descending wi£h a pack of -cards in his right hand: — 
" Europaisch Geographische Spiel-Charte." At the bottom is the couplet — 

" Durch Spielen das Land 
Wird werden bekannt." 


This series of cards was known to Mr. Taylor, who writes : — " Mr. Quaritch 
has a German geographical pack, in which the marks of the suits are arranged in 
the same way as the above, in a row at the top, but of the French order and pattern 
— konig, dame, knecht, and Asz, and the full number of pips. The ace of spades is 
entitled " Typus Orbis Terrarum," and contains a map on Mercator's projection, 
the longitude calculated from Ferrol. It bears the designer's and engraver's 
name, I. H. Seyfrid and Wilhelm Pfaun. Each card has a coloured map of one of 
the countries of Europe, without apparent preference, except that the ace of 
hearts is Europe and the king Germania. The cards are of larger size than the 
ordinary sort, their backs marbled, and the edges gilt. As Livonia is not included in 
* Muscovia,' and St. Petersburg not mentioned, they are probably of the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, and anterior to Peter the Great." (Bibl. 9, p. 213.) 

[4f X 2i in.] [Backs marbled.] 


G. 160. 


IlX cards from a numeral series, the marks of the suits of which are 
clubs, diamonds, spades, and hearts. 

The cards present are the two, four, and seven of clubs, the seven 

of diamonds, and the seven and ten of spades. 

The whole field of each piece is occupied by representations of animals of 

various kinds, in a landscape. The designs, which are from engraved metal 

plates, are coloured, and over these the marks of the suits are stamped in the 

ordinary way. 

The secondary intention of these cards is to afford instruction in natural 

On the two of clubs is a stag in the foreground ; in the distance a stag hunt is 
represented. On the four of clubs is a mountain huntsman, accompanied by his 
dog. On the seven of the same suit are two rabbits, each animal showing different 
aspects. Two dogs of different kinds are on the seven of diamonds, as is the case 
also with the seven of spades. On the ten of the last suit is a dog jumping 
towards a monkey with whip in hand on horseback. 

[3f X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 161. 

{Printed Books Department, 554, b. 38.) 
(Cards by Jobst Amman.) 

BOUND small quarto volume of sixty-four leaves, containing a 
sequence of fifty-two card-pieces of a numeral series, along with 
dedicatory, poetic, and other printed matter. 

The marks of the suits are printers' ink-balls, books, wine-cups of 
metal (•*. e. formed by the skill of the goldsmith), and vases or goblets studded 
with large bosses. 

The figure -cards or honours are kings, upper and inferior valets. 
The page, or each card-piece is 7|- in. high by 5-| in. wide. The central 
portion, to the extent of 4 in. and 2|- in., is occupied by the card design itself, 
above which are four lines of Latin verse, and below from four to eight lines of 
German verse, which are generally a free translation of the Latin superscription, 
explanatory of the design. 

The suit marks are large in size, and occupy the upper portion of the 
card-space ; below are figure compositions, representing nobles, burghers, and 
artisans at various occupations, either of duty or amusement. 

The value of the ten of each suit is indicated by the Roman numeral X on a 
small scroll at one of the upper corners ; the mark of the suit (one in number 
only), is held by a female (whole-length figure) in rich costume. 

222 • GERMAN. 

All the kings are mounted. On the three and five of books, the eight and 
nine of cups, animals form the subjects of the compositions, and play parts like- 
wise in some of the other pieces. The designs on the six of printers' balls, the 
five of books, and the ace of goblets, have incidents of a vulgar, gross, or eve 
obscene character. 

On the aces of printers' balls and of books are shields of armorial beari 
below the marks of the suits. On the nine of cups are the letters i a (I<>l>,<t 
Amman), on an ornamental tablet in the centre of the field, between the two rows 
of suit marks. On the ace of printers' balls are represented the arms of " Sig- 
mundt Feyrabend — weit gepreist." 

The title-page of the volume bears the inscription printed in black and red 
ink : — Iodoci Ammanni, Civis Noribergensis Charta Lvsoria Tetrastichis 
illustrata per Ianum Heinricum Scroterum de Gustrou Megapolitanum, Equitem & 

p, L, Caesarem £mijllicl)e vfi wolfleriflene $t#ur<n in dmien ftarteii 

spiel durch den Kunstreichen und Weitberiimteu Jost Amman, Burger in Nurn- 
berg, — Allen vnd jeden der Kunst liebhabenden / zu besonderm nutz / liest und 
wolgefallen jetzund erst new an tag geben. Und mit Kurtzen latienischen und 
teeutschen Verslein illustrirt. Durch Ianum Heinricum Schrbterum von Giist- 
row/ Kayserlichen Coronirten Poeten. Gedruckt zu Nurnberg/ durch Leonhardt 
Heusler. Anno m.d.lxxxviii." 

Then follows a dedicatory address in Latin poetry — " Vere nobilibus magni- 
fies etq. clarissimis viris ac Dominis D. Hilario Rulando — D. Gerhardo Rulando — 
D. Oswaldo Rulando — Fratribus Germanis, Dominis et Patronis suis perpetua ob- 
servantia reverenter colendis. — Sigmund." 

This is succeeded by laudatory verses to the same. 

After the dedicatory and laudatory addresses, we have the following from the 
"Liber de Leipso:" — 

" Charta mihi titulum tribuit Lijsoria ; lusus 

Et Chartse in pretio munera vulgus habet 
Sed nee ego laudes moror aut convicia vulgi 

Sit mihi sat claris posse placere viris 
IIos rogo, ut a rerum quandam graviore vacantes 

Cura, si chartis ludere forte velint 
Colludant nostris : sine rixis vulnere morte 

Ludenti quoniam lucra benigna dabunt." 

Then follow the fifty- two card -pieces. After which come two compositions : 
the first representing a lady and gentleman, seated on a garden seat, embracing 
each other ; the second, a whole-length figure of a richly dressed female playing 
on a guitar. On the first piece is the following inscription : " Duas sequentes 
Tabellas addimus ne vacarent chartse," with six lines of Latin verse referring to 
the design. On the second piece are eight lines of Latin verse. 

Finally comes " Eiusdem Scroteri Carmen in landem jodoci Ammanni hujus 
Chartse inventoris ad Candidum Lectorem." 

The short colophon runs thus : " Noriberg^e Excudebat Leonhardus Heus- 

As an example of the character of the pages of the volume we may instance 
the three of printers' inking-balls. Below the marks of the suit a gentleman and 
his wife are represented as seated at a table, on which is a lighted candle and a 
pack of cards. A large dog is by the side of the lady. The latter holds a goblet 
in her right hand, and a card in the left, which she appears to be showing to her 
husband, who, while regarding it, seems about to play his card with the right hand, 
as he holds some pieces in the left. Above the composition are the following 
lines: — 



" Sum tua, vicisti, vitae o mihi dulce levamen 
Sit tibi cura mei, sit mihi cura tui 
O suave imperium, vel nectare dulcius unum 
In geminis ubi cor, mens amor et studhmi." 

Below are these lines in German : — 

" Du hast gewonnen edler Hort 
Ich will nun dein sein hie et dort 
Da lebet Gott wo Mann und Weib 
Zwey menschen sein, ein Seel, ein Leib." 

This rare and choice volume (formerly in the Praun collection) is a good 
example of design and wood- engraving. The artist, Jobst Amman, was born at 
Zurich in 1539, and died at Nurnberg in 1591. He was one of the most prolific 
designers of his time for engraving, both in wood and metal. 

The rarest of all the works of this master is the present book of cards. 
Becker (" Jobst Amman Zeichner und Formschneider Kupferatzer und Stecher von 
C. Becker nebst Zusatzen von R. Weigel mit 1 7 Holzschnitten und Register," 
Leipzig, 1854) remarks: "Although it is probable that an average number of 
impressions was printed, few examples are known. Among them, however, is a 
very well-coloured copy. The separate woodcuts are not to be met with in other 
books, the opposite of which occurrence mostly happens in the case of the other 
works of Amman. One or two copies only are known in which the wood-blocks 
have been worked off on sheets to the number of six on each sheet. The technic 
of these highly humorous woodcuts is so peculiar and masterly that one cannot 
help believing the engraving itself must have been executed by the hand of Amman, 
a belief supported by the circumstance that the mark of a formschneider is not to 
be found on any of the blocks, while it is usually to be met with in most of the 
woodcut books of the master." (p. 140.) 

Becker concludes by stating that "this rare work has not been described by 
any writer on art." Becker is wrong in this statement. The book was fully 
described nearly half-a-century before Becker himself did it. It is true that the 
work escaped Bartsch's notice, nor is it alluded to by Nagler in his " Kunstler- 
Lexicon ;" but Singer in his well-known work devotes nearly twenty pages to its 
consideration, and gives facsimiles of eight entire card-pieces and groups from five 
others. (Bibl. 8 pp. 180- 197.) 

From Singer's commentary on Amman's book the following is extracted. 

" The beautiful pack of cards engraved by Jost Ammon, of which the suc- 
ceeding pages afford specimens, is accompanied by moral distichs in Latin and 
German, and were published in the form of a small volume in 4to. as well as for 
the purpose of playing-cards. Their moral intention was apparently to inculcate 
the advantages of industry and learning over idleness and drunkenness. The 
subjects are for the most part treated humorously ; the four suits are books, 
printers' balls, wine-pots, and drinking- cups. We shall give a brief description of 
the subject on each card, and proceed to present the reader with facsimiles of 
some of the most interesting cards of each suit, beginning with that of books, 
emblematical of learning, the deuce of which suit contains the following spirited 
representation of the ancient bookbinder, accompanied by Latin and German 
verses by H. S. de Gustrou. 

" De Murr in his ' Bibliotheque de Peinture, de Sculpture, et de Gra- 

vure,' Francfort, 1770, 12mo. v. 2, p. 470, mentions them among the works of 
Jost Ammon, thus : ' Charta Lusoria tetrastichis illustrata per Janum Heinricum 
Scroterum de Gustrou JSToribergas,' 1588, 4to. It seems, however, probable that 
they had been some time used as playing-cards before they were thus collected 
together in a volume and accompanied by metrical inscriptions, and Sigismund 
Feyrabend's name occurs in the German verses under the ace of printers' balls, so 

224 GERMAN. 

that he was most probably the publisher. It has been already mentioned that 
Jost Ammon was principally employed in decorating books printed by him. . . . 
We had omitted to notice that the set of these cards which we here describe 
have been formed from the little book before mentioned ; the accompanying verses 
are pasted on the backs of the cards. Notwithstanding the numerous impressions 
which it is most likely were taken off, copies of this little book or complete packs of 
the cards are at the present day of the utmost rarity, even in Germany. We were 
assured by the parties from whom the present set were obtained that another 
complete copy would with difficulty be found, even in the most celebrated col- 
lections in that country. Single cards of various packs are to be found in the 
cabinets of some curious collectors, but we know not of any other complete set of 
these decorated cards in this country." {Op. cit.) 

Though it is possible that these cards may have been used for the purposes of 
ordinary play, as suggested by Singer, yet we think it not very probable, and should 
accord with Chatto's opinion, that judging from the verses, " Liber de Leipso " 
previously quoted, they were not originally designed with that intention. 

[4 X 2|- in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 162. 


SERIES of fifty-two numerals, the suits of which are clubs, spades, 
hearts, and diamonds. The figure-cards or honours are, roi, dame, 
valet. Each piece is occupied by a composition, over which are placed 
the marks of the suit in the usual form. The designs are of very 
varied character; instructive, amusing, laughable, &c. 

This series is interesting, as being the first which appeared of Cotta's " Karten 
Almanach" at Tubingen in 1806. The latter continued to be published for 
several years " as a small pocket volume of a square form, and the illustrations 
consisted entirely of fanciful cards, the mark of the suit being always introduced 
into each subject either by hook or by crook. The designs for the cards in the 
first four volumes, from 1806 to 1809 inclusive, are said to have been made by a 
lady." (Chatto, p. 259.) 

In the present sequence the roi de trefles represents Pirrhus, the dame, Ester, 
the valet, Areas. In piques the roi is Assuerus, the dame, Andromaque, the valet, 
Burrhus. In carreaux the roi is Agamemnon, the dame, Agripine, the valet, 
Oreste. In carnrs the roi is Ulisse, the dame, Iphigenie, the valet, Mardochee. 
The words roi, dame, valet are engraved above the whole-length figure on each 
coate-card, the symbol of the suit being at one of the upper corners, and the title 
at the bottom of the piece. 

The ace of trefles bears the address : " A Tubinge chez T. G. Cotta, Libraire." 
On the six of carreaux is a representation of the ponte rotto, formerly the 
pons palatinus or senatorius, the first stone bridge built at Rome, and half of 
which was destroyed by an inundation of the Tiber in 1 598. Some of the cards, 
e. g. the five and seven of trefles and of piques, the three and eight of piques have 
on them designs of a religious character. On others are domestic scenes ; the ten 
of carreaux exhibits a Christmas tree with children amusing themselves. On the 
seven of camrs is a family tea-party. Several of the pip-cards of the suit coeurs 
have purely fanciful or ideal subjects, in which Cupids play an important part. 
The design on the nine of piques is comic in character, and includes two boys 
playing at cards. 


The members of this series have been executed in the " stipple " manner by 
means of the roulette on copper, and afterwards coloured carefully and delicately. 

A11 explanatory little book accompanies the set, having as title, " Karten 
Almanach, Tubingen, in der J. G. Cotta' schen Buchhandlung, 1806." 

An ingenious conversation is represented as being carried on between several 
male and female persons, which serves to elucidate the subjects treated on the 
cards of the various suits. The researches of Breitkopf are specially alluded to, 
and the theory maintained that playing-cards owe their origin to chess. 

" The knight, however, was suppressed, and the gallant French people changed 
the commander, a second Tiresias, into a lady." (Explanatory Book.) 

[3f X2[ in.] [Backs plain.] 

G. 163. 

(Print Room,, Library, German Books, No. 7.) 

SMALL octavo volume, bound, and lettered "Schopferi I1ANO- 
IIAIA 1568." 

The title-page bears the following inscription: — " nANOHAIA 
Omnium illiberalium mechanicarum aut sedentiarum artium genera 

continens " " accesserunt etiam venustissimse Imagines omnes omnium arti- 

ficura negociationes ad vivum Lectori representantes ante hac nee visa?, nee 
unquam edita3 : per Hartman Schopperum Novoforens, Noricum. Francofurti ad 
Mamum cum Privilegio Ca3sareo mdlxviii." 

This work is generally known as " Iobst Amman's Book of Trades." The cuts 
in it were designed by the artist, and the descriptions in Latin verse were by 
Hartman Schopper. It issued from the press of " Sigismundus Feyrabend civis 
et Typographies Francfurdianius. Calend. Januarii Anno mdlxviii." 

The volume contains cuts of a Formschneider and a Briefmaler. The first 
appears to be engraving on wood, and the second to be colouring certain figures 
by means of a stencil. Up to the latter end of the fifteenth century a distinction 
was preserved between the calling of a kartenmaler, and that of a form- 
schneider, though persons following either belonged to the same guild. A few 
years subsequent to the formschneider, the briefmaler occurs in the civic books 
of various German towns, but though his designation has the same literal meaning as 
that of the kartenmaler, his business seems to have been more general, including 
that of the card-painter, and of the wood-engraver. 

" About 1470, we find the briefmalers not only employed in executing figures, 
but also in engraving the text of block books; and about the end of the fifteenth 
century, the term seems to have been generally synonymous with that of form- 
schneider. Subsequently, the latter term prevailed as the proper designation of a 
wood-engraver, while that of briefmaler was more especially applied, like that of 
the original kartenmaler, to designate a person who coloured cards and other 

" Though we have positive evidence that about the year 1470, the briefmaler 
was a wood-engraver as well as a colourer of cards, and though it be highly 
probable that the outlines on the figures on cards were then engraved on wood, 
and that from this circumstance the briefmaler became also a wood-engraver, yet 
we have no proof that the earliest wood-engravers in Europe were the card- 
makers." (Chatto, p. 84.) 

Notwithstanding that at the time when the work now under notice was pub- 
lished, the business of a briefmaler was considered as distinct from that of a 


2 26 GERMAN. 

fbtttuchteider, there is reason to believe that the old briefmalers continued both 
to engrave and to print wood-cuts. On several large cuts, bearing the dates 
1553.1554, may be read: " Gedruckt zu Niirnberg durch Hanns Glaser Brieff- 

The following illustrations in the ITANOriAIA should be referred to: — 

Adumbrator — Der Reisser, folio C. 

Sculptor — Der Formschneider, folio C. 2. 

Illuminator imaginum — Brieffmalcr, folio C. 6." 

G. 164. 


POLITICAL broad-side sheet, having on the upper half a represen- 
tation of a party seated at a round table playing at cards (hombre), 
in a drawing-room of the "Frau Germanin." On the lower half is a 
descriptive account in sixteen verses, of the sentiments supposed to 
be expressed by the various persons engaged at the game. 

On an ornamental scroll at the bottom of the engraving is the inscription : 
" Abbildung des Jetzigen Politischen L'Ombre Spiels in Hause der Frau Ger- 
manin. 1757." 

Six persons are seated, playing, viz. a Prussian officer, who holds up the ace 
of spades, an English nobleman, a French marquis, a son of the Frau Gcrmcmin, 
an Hungarian magnate, and a Swedish baron. Standing by, or sitting and over- 
looking the players, are a Danish cavalier, the Frau Germanin herself, a Saxon 
officer, and a Russian tourist. Behind, and away from the table, are a Dutch 
sea-captain, a Swiss proprietor, a Polish woywod, an Italian nobleman, and a 
grandee of Spain. Through an open window a Turkish night patrol looks into 
the room. 

A number is affixed to each member of the group, which corresponds to a 
verse below — the supposed sentiments of the person indicated. 

Heaps of money and bags are on the table. A chandelier with eight lighted 
candles illuminates the scene, while three other lights project from the ornamental 
scroll-work frame with which the engraving is bordered. Mirrors and a sword 
hang up against the walls of the room. 

The Frau Germanin (No. 15), is represented as coming forward and ad- 
dressing the players at the table in the following words : — 

" Ich bitt die Herren doch dem Spiel ein end zu machen 
Es ist doch an der Zeit ; statt schlafen muss ich wachen 
Sie seyn mir Hebe Giist ; wenn sie mir las sen Ruh 
Und wenn sie einmal fort, mach ich die Thiire zu." 

The Turkish patrol calls out (No. 16) : 

"Ihr Herren machts sein End, und geht einmal nach Hans 
Wo nicht, so komme ich, und losch die Lichter aus." 

An engraved ornamental frame borders the letter-press. 

[18 X 13111.] [Back plain.] 



G. 165. 

Engravings by early German Masters, vol. vi. 


HE rare engraving known as "Le grand bal," by the Master MZ, 
described at page 16 of General History, and in Bartsch, vol. vi. p. 
377, No. 13.) 

The Grand Duke and Duchess of Bavaria are represented playing 
at cards, and keeping their scores marked upon the table. A five of hearts is 
exposed. The date 1 500 is on the engraving. 
Singer, page 274, may be referred to. 

G. 166. 


*N engraving by Israhel Van Meckenen, representing a lady and gentle- 
man playing at cards. The three of glands is exposed on the table, 
and a figure-card is in the lady's hand. 

This piece has been described previously — General History, p. 16. 
See the frontispiece to Singer's " Researches," also Bartsch, vol. vi. p. 302, 
n. 114.) 


E. 167. 

(MS. Department, Sloane Collection, 1044, fol. 93 verso, art. 421.) 


SHEET of ten unseparated card-pieces, in two rows of five 
pieces each row. 

The cards present are king, queen, knave, king, and queen in 
the first row; and king, queen, knave, king, and queen in the 
second row. 

Not any marks of suits are present, but the examples may 
be assumed to belong to a numeral series of fifty-two, of the suits spades, clubs, 
hearts, and diamonds. 

On a tablet between the feet of the knave in the upper series is the address : 
" C. Hewson." 

The designs are of the conventional character ; the queens bear flowers in 
their hands. 

The impressions are from wood-blocks, and are entirely uncoloured. 

[3f X 2 i m [Backs plain.] 

E. 168. 

(MS. Department, Harleian Collection, 5947, fol. 2 verso, fol. 3.) 



WO sheets of card-pieces, each sheet containing nine cards arranged in 
three rows. 

The pieces present are all figure-cards, a king, queen, and knave 
being in each row. Not any suit marks are present. 
The designs are of the conventional character, and the impressions remain 
entirely uncoloured. 


These examples closely approach the scries before mentioned, E. 167 
the address of C. Ilewson is not present, however, and the engraving of the 
wood-blocks has been somewhat coarser and the printing less careful than in E. 

[3t X 2 i in J [Hacks plain.] 

E. 169. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals, the suit-marks of which are in reality 
spear-heads, diamonds, trefoils, and cups, though intended to imply 
spades, diamonds, clubs, and hearts. 

The series is interesting from the attempt shown in it to make the 
card-emblems and the names piques, trefies, cceurs, and carreaux more consistent 
with each other than is usually the case. 

On the ace of spades or spear-heads is the duty stamp of the reign of " G. III. 
Rex." The piece is marked No. l o, and bears the address of " Rowley and Co." 

On the ace of diamonds is the design of a precious stone cut in facets. It is 
enclosed within an ornamental oval frame-work of oak-leaves, surmounted by 
the winged cap of Mercury, supported by a trident and caduceus. 

In the centre of the ace of trefoils is the temate leaf of a trifolium, surrounded 
by an ornamental frame, above which appear the heads of a scythe, rake, pitch- 
fork, and reaping-hook. The marks of this suit are printed of a green colour. 

The ace of cups or hearts has a sacramental -like chalice in the middle of the 
card, having within it a heart. An ornamental frame-work, into which olive-leaves 
and fruit enter, surround the emblem ; above which is a bishop's mitre, a 
pastoral staff, and a cross. The figure-cards — king, queen, and knave — are 
three-quarter figures contained in ovals, and having flat ruled backgrounds. 

The king of spades wears a crown, carries a sceptre in his right hand, and his 
mantle is marked with fleurs -de- lys. The queen of this suit wears a crown, and 
fleurs-de-lys are on her dress. The knave is a soldier, with wig and pig-tail, and 
carrying a lance. He looks towards the right. 

The king of diamonds is dressed like one of the German monarchs, wears a 
crown, carries a sceptre erect, and looks towards the left, The queen is crowned, 
and her dress adorned with ermine ; the knave is a soldier in cloak and circular- 
frilled collar, conical hat and feather, and carrying a partizan in his right hand. 

The king of trefoils is dressed in a mantle adorned with crowns ; the queen 
has a veil, descending from the back of the head over her right shoulder ; while 
the knave is a soldier, having a double-headed black eagle on the front of his tall 
cap, and carrying a spear in his right hand. 

The king of the suit of chalices or hearts evidently implies England, from the 
mantle and order which he wears. The queen intends the same, and the knave 
is meant for one of the well-known Tower " Beef-eaters." On his chest below 
a crown is the letter G. 

All the figure-cards are printed in bluish-black ink. Throughout the series 
the ace of spades alone is in pure black. 

The impressions are from engravings on copper, done in a neat but formal 

This series was known to Taylor, who observes : — "We have already noticed 
an attempt (p. 1 83) to make our card emblems and their names more consistent 



with each other, but an earlier and more complete essay in the same direction 
occurs in a pack, date l 790, by Rowley and Co. Here again the spade is a kind 
of dagger, of a clumsy and inconvenient form, the ace of the suit being, however, 
a regular duty-card. The ace of clubs is a clover leaf in an oval, surmounted by 
agricultural implements. ' Diamonds ' clearly points to the original conventional 
form of representing this gem, being a veritable diamond, lozenge-shaped, with 
the facets of the cutting shown in relief. This idea of a quadrangular shape is 
involved in all the names of the diamond suit, whether it be panes of glass (rau- 
ten, ruyten, &c.), or paving-tiles (Spanish, ladrillos), a sense also given to car- 
reaux by Menestrier. The ace of hearts in the same pack is represented by a 
chalice, with a heart engraved on the front, an irreverent introduction charac- 
teristic of that epoch, for we are left in no doubt as to what is meant, for the 
oval in which it is contained is surmounted by a mitre, cross, and crozier. The 
court-cards appear to be portraits, and the costumes are of the period." (Taylor, 
p. 232.) 

The intention of the cup or chalice in this suit was, we assume, to link the 
suit with the coppe or cups of the early Italian numerals, which were believed 
to have originally symbolized the clergy, the coppe themselves descending from 
an emblem symbolizing the ancient Egyptian hierarchy. In the same way swords, 
piques, spades, symbolized the military class ; money, deniers, carreanx, diamonds, 
the mercantile ; and bastoni, trefles, clubs, the agricultural communities. 

[3i X 2\ in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 170. 



PACK of fifty-two numerals of the suits spear-heads (spades), dia- 
monds, trefoils (clubs), and cups (hearts). 

This series is a duplicate of the one last described, G. 1 69. 
The duty-card — the ace of spades — bears the number 16, with 
the address of Rowley and Co. 

[3 J- X 2£ in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 171. 



PACK of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits, spades, diamonds, 
hearts, and clubs. 

The designs on the figure cards are of the old conventional character, 
but there are certain variations in those of each suit. 
The king of spades has a three-quarter face turned towards the right ; the 
kings of clubs and of hearts have three- quarter faces turned towards the left. 
The kings of spades and of clubs hold swords erect in their left hands, the king of 
hearts holds a sword in guard across the head, while the king of diamonds carries 
a partizan. 

All the queens have three-quarter faces ; those of spades and hearts are turned 
towards the left, those of diamonds and clubs to the right hand. Each queen 
holds a rose (?) in her left hand. 


The knaves of spades and of hearts have profile faces to the right, those 
diamonds and clubs have three-quarter faces, one to the right, the other to tin 
left hand. The knave of spades holds a spear in his left hand, the other knaves 
have spears in their right hands. The knave of spades has a curved sword, the 
knaves of diamonds and of hearts straight weapons. The knave of clubs is with- 
out a sword. 

The decorations of the dresses differ somewhat in each figure. 

The ace of spades is the " duty-card." 

The mark of the suit on the latter is on a large oval shield, surmounted 
a crown, having below the motto, " Dieu et mon Droit." Around the shield is 
the motto of the Order of the Garter, " Iloni soit qui mal y pense." The card 
bears the inscription : " G. m Rex. No. 6. Exportation 1. Hardy." 

[3f X 2iin.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 172. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits. 

The coate-cards have figures on them, nearly similar to those 
the cards last described (E. 171), but they are not from the same 
blocks, and may be perhaps of a somewhat earlier date than E. 1 7 
The ace of spades is the " duty-card," of the same character as that of E. 
171. The inscriptions are " Sixpence additional Duty " above the crown and 
at the sides of the shield. Below is the address, " Gibson." The number of 
the pack is l $0. 

[3|- X 2~ in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 173. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

The figure-cards are king, queen, and knave, represented in busts 
printed double and in reverse. 

Accompanying the pack are two wrappers, an outer and inner 
one. The last is of bright green glazed paper, having on it a bust of the " Great 
Mogul," printed in gold ; below which is the inscription, " International Playing- 
Cards. Ent. Sta. Hall." At the right-hand margin is " Designed by Reuben 
Townroe for Felix Summerly's Art Manufactures." On the left margin is the 
address, " De La Rue and C° 1 1 Bunhill Row London." The outer envelope 
is the stamp or duty cover, ornamentally engraved, and printed in light blue. 
On the central fold may be read, " De La Rue & C°. 110 Bunhill Row London. 
The seller is to cancel the Stamp by writing in Ink or printing his name upon 
it. Penalty for omission £5." Below this is elaborately engraved, by machine, 
the stamp of four circles, having at the top " Card-Stamp," at the bottom 
" Three pence," and the letters "V R " in large open capitals at the sides. 

On the left lateral fold is engraved, in open letters, the following caution : 
" On opening a pack of cards, the wrapper is to be destroyed. Penalty £20, if 
retained for use again." 


A notice of these cards reprinted from the " Times " of December 3rd, 
1874, accompanies the pack, from it the following extracts are taken : 

"The well-worn adage as to the non-existence of novelty under the sun 
does not altogether apply to the international cards, since we find that although 
national, political, and educational cards have been produced, the notion is 
original of making international cards. In giving effect to this idea it is 
satisfactory that the general appearance of the cards is not sacrificed to the 
temptation of rendering them confusingly picturesque. The leading conventional 
features of ordinary playing-cards are retained, while an interesting cachet of the 
period of production is given to the international cards which will not, as might 
be apprehended, distract the most solemn of whist players. . . . The idea of 
international playing-cards, as now carried out in this production, was recently 
originated by Mr. Felix Summerly, with the aid of Mr. Reuben Townroe, an 
artist whose originality in design and its varied forms of treatment is testified 
to by the ornamental terra- cotta work on the centre of the Royal Albert Hall, 
and many decorative works at the South Kensington Museum. 

" At first glance, if we overlook the aces the cards have the appearance of 
the modern stereotyped form of cards, a style which we adopted from the French 
cards made at Chartres in 1 702 ; but on closer inspection we find his Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales doing duty as the king of diamonds, the King of 
the Belgians as the king of hearts, the Crown Prince of Prussia as the king of 
spades, and the King of Italy as the king of clubs. The likenesses are fairly 
good, especially that of the King of Italy. 

" The aces are allotted to the greatest potentates — thus, Her Majesty, as 
Empress of India and Queen of the United Kingdom, appears as the ace of 
hearts ; the President of the United States is the ace of spades, the Emperor of 
Russia is the ace of diamonds, and the German Emperor is the ace of clubs. But 
Mr. Felix Summerly, with perhaps a pardonable penchant to pay an irreproach- 
able compliment, has allotted to her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales the 
high office of queen of hearts, while to the Crown Princess of Germany he assigns 
the dignity of the queen of clubs. The Queen of Greece appears as queen of 
diamonds, and the Empress of Austria as queen of spades. The four knaves 
have a more original character about them than the other court-cards. The 
square and blocky conventionality is maintained, although the actual details are 
totally different from what are used in ordinary playing-cards. A Scotch piper 
with distended cheeks vigorously blowing his pipe, the utmost determination 
of purpose shown in his features, appears as knave of hearts. An officious and 
splendid functionary, obviously a gendarme, is the knave of spades. A yellow- 
bearded Swiss guide with his rope on his shoulder, and clenching a spiked staff, 
is the knave of clubs ; while Spain is represented by a keen-eyed and carefully 
coifed matador as knave of diamonds. As a number of portraits some of the 
cards are less successful than others. Looking, however, to the restrictions as 
respects attitude and form which were imposed on the designer, Mr. Reuben 
Townroe, we must congratulate him upon the success he has obtained in his 
portraits of Her Majesty the Queen, the Emperors of Austria and Russia, the 
Princess of Wales, King Victor Emmanuel, the King of the Belgians, and the 
Crown Prince of Germany." 

The backs of these cards are of a deep blue colour of extreme lissage, having 
on them printed in gold the royal arms of England, with those of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha on a shield of pretence. Below is the double-headed eagle of Prussia, 
with the George and Dragon on a shield of pretence. The whole is surrounded 
with an ornamental design composed of oak-leaves, acorns, thistles, shamrocks, 
and roses. 

It is right to observe that as far as the idea simply of international playing- 
cards is concerned, it had been previously illustrated by the French. See F. 58. 

[3f X 2 i m -l [Backs decorated.] 

234 - ENGLISH. 


E. 174. 




SET of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits and honours. 

The marks of the suits are relatively large, and placed at the 
upper left-hand corner of each piece. The values of the pip-cards ar 
indicated by large Roman numbers at the upper right-hand corners. 
On the honours are busts of king, queen, and valet, mostly of different designs h 
each suit, they are from engraved wood-blocks, are of inferior character in 
respects, and remain uncoloured. 

This series is intended to serve the purpose of teaching the rules of grammar, 
as comprised in the four principal parts of " Lillie's Grammar." All the rules 
and instructions are in the Latin language, and occupy in print of different sizes 
the greater portion of each card. 

Ten pages of descriptive matter and address in English precede the cards. 
On the title-page is the inscription : " Grammatical Cards. Imprimatur. June 
1, 1676. J. Jane. London. Printed for S. Mearn and A. Clark, and are to be 
sold by J. Seller, at the Hermitage Stairs in Wapping, and J. Hill, in Exchange 
Alley, 1677." 

Then follows the dedication and address : " To all ingenious gentlemen, the 
perusers of these Sciential cards." The gentlemen have advice addressed them, 
based on the following quotation from Plutarch: "Proinde recte monebat Plato 
ut neque corpus exerceremus sine animo neque animum sine corpore, sed veluti 
conjugii cujusdam Eequilibrium teneremus corpori." This address is signed 
" yours, T. B." Next comes " A short tract tauching (sic) the use of these 
Grammatical cards," in which the reader is assured that " All games may be 
played thereon with witty jests, sweet flowing Latine and great understanding." 
" In fine and to conclude all briefly, the use and practise of them shall perform 
more than I will or can speak in praise of them." 

The suit of spades teaches " Orthographia," that of clubs " Etyinologia," 
hearts " Syntaxis," and diamonds " Prosodia." Below the bust of the smiling 
knave of spades is inscribed, " Mel in ore, Orthographia. Cavendum est ab iis 
vitiis quae vulgo propria videntur, viz : 

Iocatisimus. Lit. 1. nimia extensio. 

Lambdacismus. Lit l. nimis operosonus. 

Ischnotes. Loquendi exilitas. 

Traulismus. Oris hesitantia. 

Plateasimus. Vocis crassa et rustica expressio. 

Below the knave of clubs is " Omnium horarum homo, Etymologia," &c. &c. 
On the knave of hearts is " Syntaxis," " Grata Novitas," and the names of the 
" Dictionis sex " and " Constructions 8," the " figura novata arte aliqua dicendi 
forma." The knave of diamonds bears " Prosodia. Palinodiam Canit," &c. 

Of- X 2f- in.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 175. 




ORTY cards from a numeral series of fifty-two pieces of the usual suits 
and honours. 

The cards wanting are the four of spades, king and five of hearts, 
the king, three, four, six, seven, eight of clubs, and the king, ace, and 
ten of diamonds. 

This imperfect sequence is a duplicate of the set last described, E. 1 74, 
wanting the introductory descriptive pages. In place of the latter is a supple- 
mentary card, having on it the following inscription : — 

" These cards are ingeniously contrived for the comprising the general rules 
of Lillie's Grammar, in the four principal parts thereof, viz. Orthographia, 
Prosodia, Etymologia, and Syntaxis, thereby rendering it very useful to all Per- 
sons that have already the Latine Tongue, for the recollecting their memories, and 
also for the better Improvement of such as have made some beginnings in the 
study thereof, besides the Divertisements they afford in all our English games as 
other common cards. 

" Advertisement. 

" These grammatical, as also the geographical cards so ingeniously contrived for 
improvement of Geography, with any sorts of maps both great and small, and 
Atlas's both for sea and land, and all the Maps, Charts, Books, and Atlas's made 
by John Seller, the king's Hydrographer, are sold by John Hills, Stationer, in 
Exchange Alley, near the Royal Exchange in London." 

[3f X 2 i in -] [Backs plain.] 

E. 176. 




PACK of fifty-two numeral card-pieces of the ordinary suits. 
This series is made subservient to arithmetical instruction. 
In the upper right-hand corner of each piece is a reduced repre- 
sentation of a particular card of the usual design. On the remaining 
portion of the piece an arithmetical question is proposed and the sum worked out 
in detail. The whole is enclosed in a frame-like border. 

The ace of diamonds, which commences the series, has on it the " numeration 
table," and a " duty stamp (?) " in red. Below is the inscription, " This table shows 
how to express properly the true value of any number whatsoever whether it be 
written or named." 

The ace of hearts illustrates the " Substraction of Cloth Measure," the ace of 
spades the " Reduction of Money," and the ace of clubs the " Reduction of Cloth 
Measure." The knave of clubs, the last card of the series, works out " Question 5 " in 
" Practice." The whole sequence is thus made to include the arithmetic of addition, 
subtraction, multiplication, division, reduction, the rule of three, and practice. 

These cards are, as respects both designs and text, impressions from neatly 
engraved copper-plates. 

[3 1 X 2 J- in.] [Backs plain.] 



E. 177. 



SERIES of thirty-one card-pieces from a numeral set of fifty-two 
the ordinary suits. 

This sequence is more like a shopkeeper's illustrated catalogue 
mathematical instruments than anything else." More than 2i inches 
of eiach piece is occupied by a neat engraving from copper of persons engaged in 
the use of various astronomic, mathematic, and other scientific appliances. At 
the upper right-hand corner of each piece is the diminutive representation of ai 
ordinary playing-card, similar to E. 176. On a shield to the left of the small 
card is the name of the instrument represented in use below. At the lower 
portion is a description of the design above. Thus on the six of clubs is " baro- 
meter," on a shield above four standard barometers, backed by numerous 
enquiring personages. Below is inscribed : " An instrument shewing the gravito 
tion of y e Air (invented by Torricellus) being altered by the different compres- 
sions of y e Atmosphere it foretells ( $ riseing) Fair or Frost ( § falling) 
Snow, Wind, or Storms." 

The first card of the series is the king of clubs, which bears the following : 

" These cards, globes, spheres, mathematical Books, and instruments for Sea 
and Land, with many other curiositys in Gold, Silver, Steell, Brass, Ivory, and 
Wood, and the best Charts, Maps, and Prints at y e King's Amies and Globes at 
Charing Cross, and against the Royal Exchange in Cornhill, by Tho. Tuttell, 
Mathematical Instrument maker to the King's most excellent Majesty, where are 
taught all parts of the Mathematics." 

Above this account are the arms of England with the motto, " Je maintien- 
dray ;" from which it may be concluded that the series was published during the 
reign of William III. 

On the ace of spades is a list of " Books and Instruments for Navigation." 

Chattohas the following remarks : — : " In the reign of Charles II. or James II. 
was published a pack of mathematical cards by Thomas Tuttell, ' Mathematical 
instrument maker to the king's most excellent Majesty.' These cards were 
designed by Boitard, and engraved by J. Savage, they represent various kinds 
of mathematical instruments, together with the trades and professions in which 
they are used. They were evidently * got up ' as an advertisement. A few 
years afterwards Moxon, also a mathematical instrument maker, followed suit." 
(Bibl. 4,p. 155.) 

These cards are neatly designed and executed. See postea, E. 222. MS. 
Depart. Harleian MSS. No. 5947, fol. 6. 

[3t X 2 f in -] [Backs plain.] 

E. 178. 



SERIES of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. These cards 
are intended to convey geographical information. The greater portion 
of each piece is occupied by a geographical account of various 
countries, a systematic classification of which is given in a tabular 
form on the ace of each suit. At the left-hand upper corner of each card is the 


mark of the suit, and at the right-hand upper corner is the valne of the card in 
Roman numerals, while a small Arabic number is below the mark itself. Each 
coate-card has a bust within a circle at its upper portion. In the case of the 
kings there is a crown on the right of the circle, the mark of the suit being on 
the left. The king of clubs represents John IV. of Portugal for Brazil, the 
queen Elizabeth for English Plantations, the knave a cannibal for Caribee 
Islands. The king of diamonds is Vanlie for China; the queen Statira for 
Persia, the knave a janissary for Turkey in Asia. The king of hearts is Charles 
II. for the British Isles, the queen Rhea Silvia for Spain and Portugal, the 
knave a Greek for Turkey in Europe. The king of spades is Zaga Chris for 
Ethiopia, the queen Candace for Nubia, the knave is a Negro for " the country 
of the Negros or Blacks." 

The ace of clubs is the first piece of the series, and has on it a table of the 
divisions and subdivisions of Septentrional and Meridional America. Above the 
table is marked Lat. N. 80, below Lat. S. 54, Long. W. 235, Long. E. 350. 

This sequence was known to Taylor, who notices it at page 195 (Bibl. 9.) He 
gives the following note in reference to the king of spades, Zaga Chris. "See 
' Une Relation Veritable de Zaga-Christ, Prince d'Ethiope,' in a curiously illus- 
trated work called ' La Terre Sainte, 4to., Paris, 1 664.' " 

The medallion busts on the figure-cards are coloured. 

[3 1 x 2 J- in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 179. 



(Geographic, &c.) 

^ORTY-ONE card-pieces from a series of fifty-two numerals of the 
usual suits. The ace, two, and ten of spades, the two, three, seven, 
and king of diamonds, the six, seven, and queen of clubs, and the 
ten of hearts are wanting. 

This set is intended to afford instruction in geography and ethnology. Each 
cai'd-piece has a descriptive account of one of the states of the four quarters of 
the globe. On the upper part of the card is the symbol and value of it, or the 
name of the honour, supported by two figures representing the inhabitants of a 
particular portion of the world. Between these figures and as a background is a 
landscape or view of some town. The lower half of each piece is occupied with 
a general account of the place and persons represented above. 

The ace of hearts appears to have been intended as the first piece of the set, 
since it has the address of " H. Winstanley, at Littlebury, Fecit " on it, below the 
descriptive account of Europe, which is as follows: 

" Europe is the least of the four parts of the world, and yet it is not much 
inferior to any at this present, for containing many nations, most polished and 
ingenious where arts and sciences flourish and are cherished, trading abounding 
and conversation without danger." Shee may boast her riches, fruitfulness, and 
stately towns and palaces, but above all in that the Christian religion is wholly 
professed in her bounds, whereas the rest of the world is for the most part 
ignorant of a true Deity, but what they learn of Christian colonies that have 
seated themselves amongst them, to force as it were a tribute of the best of all 
that Europe can be sayd to want ; of which nations the situation, the chief citys 
and habits, and religions, and fruitfulness, &c. see the following cards for all the 
world. Europe is distinguished with roses, Asia with suns, Africa with moons, 
and America with stars." 




The king of hearts represents London and the English, and bears the dut 
stamp in red. On the king of spades are "Tangier and the Tingitanians," ontl 
king of clubs "James Town and the Verginians," while on the knave of hearts 
are " Rome and the Italians," and on the knave of diamonds "Babylon and the 
Babylonians." .These card-pieces are from neatly engraved copper-plates, ar 
are uncoloured. 

X 2i in.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 180. 


SERIES of fifty-two card-pieces of the usual suits. A preliminary 
card of information accompanies the set, which is composed, we are 
informed, of " Instructive Playing-cards. The object of these cards is 
to convey instruction while seeking amusement. To play the game 
of stops, &c. The cards may also be used for any other game known." 

In the game of stops a pool with counters is necessary, and " whoever holds 
the ace of diamonds and plays it, wins the pool." 

Each card has its mark and value printed double and in reverse, as also an 
account of the object under description. Thus "Ace of diamonds" is printed in red 
at the upper part of the card, below which may be read : " Diamonds were formerly 
called adamant." On the same card in reverse are the words, " Ace of diamonds ; " 
diamonds are the most costly of gems." Below the nine of diamonds are the 
words " The nine of diamonds is called the ' Curse of Scotland ; ' " l in reverse, 
" There are thirty-three counties in Scotland." On the seven of spades is printed 
" Side-saddles were first used in England in 1 380," and in reverse, " Saltpetre 
was first made in England in 1625." On the three of hearts may be read "Hans 
Holbein, historical and portrait painter, died in 1 554," in reverse, " Hogarth, 
the painter and engraver, died in 1 7 64." 

It may be observed that the information intended to be conveyed is of the most 
opposite and varied kind. The coate-cards are without designs, the titles king, 
queen, and Jack being used instead. 

The title of the wrapper accompanies the set, the following inscription being 
printed in black and red on a rose-coloured ground : " Moral and Instructive 
Playing-cards. Amusement and information combined. London : Dean and 
Son, Ludgate Hill." At each corner of the title is a mark of one of the four suits. 

[2} X 2f in.] 

[Backs plain.] 

E. 181. 


^ORTY-NINE card-pieces from a series of fifty-two numerals of the 
ordinary suits. 

The cards absent are the seven of diamonds, the king of spades, 
and the nine of clubs. At the upper part of each card is the mark of 
the suit, and the value in Roman numbers of the particular piece. Below, and 
occupying generally more than half of the card, is a whole-length allegorical 
figure, with emblems in a circle, followed by a description of the symbolical de- 

See Chatto, p. 266. 


sign. The honours are not otherwise distinguished than by having the words 
king, queen, knave at the upper left-hand corner of the card. 

The ace of hearts has on it, within the circle, an emblematic figure of Religion ; 
below which is the following account : — 

" Religion. 

" A woman veiled, a Book in her right, and a flaming fire in her left hand. 
The Veil informs us that Religion has its mysteries. The Book expresses the 
Divine Law, and the flaming Fire the utmost ardency of Devotion." 

On the knave of clubs is an emblem of Deceit, described as " a monstrous old 
man, with tails of serpents twining instead of legs ; three hooks in one hand, a bag 
of flowers with a snake issuing from it ; and behind him, a panther hiding his 
head, and shewing his beautiful back. 

"His Humane shape and Flowers denote his specious pretences; the Serpents' 
tails, the Hooks, and the Snake, his villanous intentions ; the Panther hiding his 
ugly head, his Subtelty." 

The figure designs are from engravings on wood ; some of those in the suits 
of hearts and diamonds being of a superior character. Both text and designs in 
these suits are printed in red. 

[3f X 2 i in -] [Backs plain.] 

E. 182. 


'WO large sheets of card-pieces, each slieet containing twenty-six 
pieces. Of the latter there are four rows, of six in each'row, and two 
in a middle row. The lower row in each sheet is appropriated to the 
honours, the other rows to the point numerals. 
There are not any marks of suits present. The impressions are from neatly 
engraved wood-blocks, scarcely more than in outline, and are uncoloured. 

The series is intended to serve the purposes of instruction, but the designer 
does not seem to have been overburdened himself with that which he desired to 
bestow on others : for example, on a three pip-card in the central row of sheet l, 
is inscribed within an oval in the centre : 

" These cards was truely well designed 
To ground all Letters in youths minde." 

On the adjacent four pip-card may be read: 

" Both youth and age may learne hereby 
All sorts of Letters speedily." 

On an ace in the central row of sheet 2 is : 

" These cards are good, well understood ;" 

while on the adjacent two we are told : 

" Her's Criscross Row for thee to know 
Thy Letters all both greate and small." 

Below on a ten is : 

" These cards may be a Scoole to thee 
If you deserne what you may Lerne." 


The subjects intended to be taught are the letters of the alphabet, in their 
black-letter, Roman, and italic forms, a few words of one syllable, and some moral 
axioms worthy of remembrance by the card-player. 

Each point numeral has a large central oval, surrounded by ornamental wc 
generally of a floral character, but occasionally birds and butterflies are intro- 
duced. On the third row of the second sheet human figures, of a fanciful or poetic 
kind, may be seen. 

In the central ovoid spaces are upper and lower-case examples of the hit 
of the alphabet in three forms, viz. S£s, Aa, Aa. 

Above the oval is a square space, at the left-hand corner of which the yj 
of the piece is indicated in Roman figures, room being reserved towards the right 
for the mark of the suit, here absent. 

On four pieces of the fourth row of sheet l are the words: Ab, eb, ib, ob, ub, 
and so on, there being five words of one syllable in each oval. 

The ovals on the honours contain moral axioms, like the following on 
sheet 2 : — 

Knave. — " A gamester that doth play for game, 

Is but a knave and that is plaine." 
King. — " Play faire Do not sweare, 

From Oaths forbeare." 
Queen. — " Cards may be used but not abused 

And they used well all games exell." 
Knave. — " Play not for Coine in these regards, 

Men loose and then they curs the Cards." 

On a king on sheet 1 may be read : 

" When these cards are understood, 
You'l say that my design is good." 

In the lower rows, or coate-cards, the Roman numbers in the square spaces 
above the ovals are displaced by half-length figures of king, queen, and knave, the 
titles of which are given below. • 

[3f X 2i in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 183. 



(Baker's Eclectic Cards.) 

PACK of fifty-two numerals, having as marks of suits swords {spata), 

hearts, glands (acorns), and diamonds. 

The figure cards are king, queen, and knight, and represent 

historic personages in assumed costumes of their times, the marks of 
their suits being distinctly indicated at one of the upper corners of the cards. 
The marks of the suits are large and plain in all the pip-pieces, but particularly 
so in the aces and lower cards. 

The sword or spata is a broad, double-edged one. The heart is larger on its 
left than on its right side, which is under-cut towards the apex, and is pierced 
longitudinally by an arrow in the ace. The diamond is a lozenge divided into 


four smaller lozenges, while the gland is an acorn) in the ace pedieled, and having 
diminutive acorns and oak-leaves bi-laterally. All the pip-cards have the margins 
ornamented with floral designs, those on the right-hand side of the piece being 
emblematic of the country which the suit is intended to represent. On the suit 
of swords, which represents Wales, there is a leek on the right and mistletoe on 
the lower edge of the card. On diamonds, typifying Scotland, is a thistle. On 
hearts, implying Ireland, a shamrock ; and on glands (acorns), by which England 
is represented, there are oak-leaves and roses. On each ace are the letters " B. 
& C°." 

A supplementary card introduces the series. On it is inscribed — " Baker & 
Co' 8 . Eclectic Cards. In England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Sold Wholesale 
and Retail at their Manufactory, No. 2. King Arthur or New Card Court, York 
Street, Black Friars Road, London. N.B. To be had of all Respectable 
Stationers in the United Kingdom." 

Above this inscription is a whole-length figure of Sir John Falstaff, con- 
tained in an octangular frame, within the angles of which, at the upper and lower 
portions, are the marks of the four suits. 

Accompanying this series is a pamphlet of twelve pages, the title page of 
which bears the following : — " A short account of Baker and Co.'s Complete, 
Grand, Historical, Eclectic Cards, for England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, 
being a selection or an Eclectic Company of Twelve of the most eminent per- 
sonages that ever distinguished themselves in those respective Countries for 
Heroic Deeds, Wisdom, &c." ; and the other forty cards descriptive of the local 
and national emblems of the four nations. 

" Historian, Poet, Painter, all combine 

To charm the eye, the taste and mind refine ; 

Fancy and sentiment their aid impart 

To raise the genius and to mend the heart." 

" Price, third class, 1 5& ; second class, 1 *]s. 6d. ; first class, 20*. London. 
Printed by Theodore Page, Blackfriars Road. 1 8 1 3." 

Then follows the dedication : — " With most humble submission to every re- 
spectable person in the British Empire." After which is the description of 
" Baker's and Co.'s complete, grand, Imperial, historical, eclectic cards for Eng- 
land, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, which are designed, drawn, engraved, and now 
finished at a very great expense by some of the most eminent artists in England, 
being copper-plate engravings, beautifully executed, and pencil-coloured, upon 
an entire new and elegant plan, especially intended for the circles of taste and 
fashion, and peculiarly calculated for the encouragement of youth to study the 
interesting history of their native country. 

" In the selection which we have made to form our set of court-cards, we 
have, as we before observed, chosen them from among those characters who have 
rendered themselves most conspicuous in the history of the United Kingdom. In 
this particular we have had recourse not only to historical truth, which we have 
rigidly observed, but we have taken care to fix upon personages who lived at 
different periods, and which are calculated in colour, variety of dress, and 
characteristic features, to form an agreeable and elegant contrast, and to avoid 
that unpleasant monotony which must have taken place if they had all been se- 
lected from the same period of time, and it will be a peculiar gratification to us 
in our attempts to form a set of cards should we contribute in the smallest degree 
to augment the elegant and rational amusement of taste and fashion. 

" Nor have we been inattentive to minor objects in our anxiety to complete the 
plan. We believe it has never been attempted to be explained why the coarse 
and vulgar appellation of knave was originally given to the card next in degree 
to the queen. Perhaps the following demonstration is the most plausible way in 



which it can be accounted for. It was usual with kings in ancient times to choose 
some ludicrous person, with whose ridiculous and comical tricks they might be 
diverted in their hours of relaxation from the cares and formalities of royally. 
Tin's person was generally chosen from among men of low condition, but n< 
wholly destitute of talent, particularly in that species of low cunning and humour 
calculated to excite mirth and laughter, and the tricks of knavery (in which he 
was allowed free indulgence in the presence of the king) gave him the appellatic 
of the king's fool or knave. 

" Whether this explanation be really the origin from whence the knave in tl 
old cards is derived may still remain undetermined, but it appears to us the m< 
rational way of accounting for it. Nor is it, indeed, essential to our pi 
purpose. The name of knave, in our opinion, is vulgar, unmeaning, and raccn 
sistent, and being, moreover, absolutely incompatible with the dignity of 01 
characters and the uniformity of our plan, we have entirely rejected it and sul 
stituted a knight in its stead, this being a title of honour not only in immediate 
succession to that of king and queen, but is ever considered as an honourabl 
appendage to royalty itself. 

"And as we have now restored that most ancient and most honourable order 
of the Knights of the Round Table, under its great patron and founder Prince 
Arthur of immortal memory, the great champion for chivalry, religion, and liberty, 
the Briton's king and emperor, we here insert a list of this our first installation, 
with a brief account of their history, and cause of selection. 

" Persons, or the Eclectic Company of Knights. 

" For England. 

" King of clubs (glands) — Arthur, the great and victorious hero, king of 

11 Queen of clubs — Elizabeth, the wise and virtuous queen of England. 

" Knight of clubs — Sir John FalstafF, the facetious knight, and companion of 
Henry V., knight of England. 

" For Ireland. 

" King of hearts — Gathelus, the Grecian prince, king of Ireland. 
" Queen of hearts — Scotia, his wife, the Egyptian princess, queen of Ireland. 
" Knight of hearts — Ossian, the warrior and poet, son of Fingal, knight of 

" For Scotland. 

" King of diamonds — Achajus, the fortunate contemporary and in alliance with 
Charlemagne, king of Scots. 

" Queen of diamonds — Mary Stuart, the unfortunate dowager-queen of 
France, and queen of Scots. 

" Knight of diamonds — Merlin, the magic prophet, cabinet counsellor to 
Vortigern, Aurelius Ambrosius, Uter Pendragon, the father of King Arthur, 
and to King Arthur who was his pupil, knight of Scotland. 

u For Wales. 

" King of spata — Camber, the third son of Brute, king of Cambria. 

" Queen of spata — Elfrida, the beautiful queen of Mona and of the moun- 

" Knight of spata — Thaliesson, the Welsh bard and poet, dressed like a 
herald or king-at-arms of the divine and ancient Druids, as he sung to King 
Henry II. of the great deeds of Arthur, the justly-termed hero of the British 
Isle, knight of Cambria. 

" A description of these twelve plates and the history of them ; also an 
account of the emblems and wreaths of the numerical cards, with our reasons for 


appropriating the different suits to the different nations, and for altering the pip 
or numerical cards by substituting the acorn, which is the offspring and seed of 
our invulnerable oak, for the black mark denominated club in the old cards. 
Also for producing the true representation of the real spata, which is not a coal- 
heaver's spade, but a two-edged heavy sword without a point, as used by the 
ancient Britons to fight with, cut, hew, and slash down either enemy or tree. 
So says our ancient history. 

" The alterations in the hearts and diamonds are equally beautiful, both in 
form and colour. To the history is added a new and most interesting game, 
called ' Courtship and Wedding,' in which is shown the absurdity of many of the 
words and terms now used at cards which ought not to be heard in genteel 

Chatto had cognizance of this series, of which he observes (p. 261) : — 

" These cards, which are considerably larger than those in common use, 
display considerable skill and fancy in the designs, and are beautifully coloured." 

These card-pieces are of a very stiff and stout character. 

[4^ X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 184. 

Manuscript Department, Harleian MSS. No. 5947 (5 1 . F.) 

Bagford Collection. 

'HIS volume of the Harleian MSS., forming part of the "Bagford 
Collection," contains some curious and interesting " cuttings " and 
advertisements connected with playing-cards. Among the adver- 
tisements is one having immediate reference to the particular class 
of playing-cards to come under immediate notice. 

On the verso of folio five is " An advertisement concerning a new Pack of 
Cards," which would seem to have appeared in more than one newspaper of the 
latter part of the year 1679. 

From which paper John Bagford's example was cut we do not know. Taylor 
refers (p. 168) to the first number of " Mercurius Domesticus " for December 
19th, 1679, as containing a modified form of the advertisement. We have met 
with it, however — as will be shown presently — as early as October 21st, 1679, 
in the thirty-first number of the " Domestic Intelligence." Bagford's copy runs 
as follows : — 

" There is newly published a Pack of cards, containing a History of all the 
Popish Plots that have been in England, beginning with those in Queen Eliza- 
beth's time, and ending with this last damnable plot against his. sacred majesty, 
King Charles the Second, whom God long preserve ; wherein are an exact 
account of the Spanish Invasion of 1588, the manner of their attempting Eng- 
land, and their being almost all burnt and taken by Sir Francis Drake. The 
conspiracy of Dr. Parry to kill Queen Elizabeth, his confessing the design upon 
his Tryal, and his Papist-like denying it at his Execution. The History of the 
horrid Gunpowder plot to blow up the King, Lords and Commons, when they 
were all sitting in the Parliament House ; the manner of its discovery by a letter 



sent to the Lord Monteagle, the Papists rebelling upon it, their being routed, 
and the Tryals and Executions of the several accomplices. And lastly, a true 
account of this present hellish plot against the life of his Present Majesty, the 
murdering of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, the several meetings, Tryals and Execu- 
tions of the Traytors, with all other material passages relating thereto. All of 
them so contrived that a child that can but read English will be acquainted with 
a chronicle for above loo years past of all the bloody purposes and devilish 
designs of the Papists against the Protestant Religion and the true Professors of 
it, all excellently engraved on copper-plates, with very large descriptions under 
each card. The like not extant. 

" Some persons that care not what they say so they can get by it, lying being 
as essential to them as eating, for they can as soon live without the last as tin; 
first, have endeavoured to asperse this Pack by a malicious libel intimating that 
it did not answer what is proposed : the contrary is evident to any person that 
shall peruse them, there being not one material passage in any of the above 
mentioned plots, but is neatly engraven and exactly described in writing to the 
great satisfaction of all who have seen them. But malice must shew itself most 
where the least reason, the aspersors of this Pack do plainly show themselves 
Popishly Affected in that they would not have the English World know that the 
Papists have been always as well as now ennemies to the Protestant Religion. 

" They are to be Sold by Randal Taylor near Stationer's Hall and at the Harrow 
in Fleet Street, at the Three Bibles on London Bridge, at the Feathers at Pope's 
Head Alley, and in Cornhill at the Ship in S'. Pauls churchyard, at the Three 
Flower-de-Luces in Little Brittain and at the Bell in Duck Lane and by most 
other Booksellers. The price of each Pack is one Shilling." 

During the year 1679, there was published in London among other news- 
papers the " Domestick Intelligence or News both from City and Country. Pub- 
lished to prevent False Reports," and also " The True Domestick Intelligence 
or News both from City and Country. Published to prevent False Reports." 
In one or other, and sometimes in both of these papers, during the months of 
November and December, some advertisements connected with the subject of 
politico-historical cards occur, and which merit particular notice here. 

The first advertisement we have met with — as before remarked — is in No. 
31 of the "Domestick Intelligence" for Tuesday, October 21st, 1679. This is 
frequently repeated, and does not need repetition here. 

In No. 35 of the " True Domestick Intelligence" for November 4th, 1679, 
is the following : — 

" The Horrid Popish Plot lively represented in a Pack of Cards Printed for 
Jonathan Wilkins and Jacob Sampson." 

In No. 50 of the " True Domestick Intelligence" for December 26, 1679, 
occurs this advertisement : — 

" There is lately published a new Pack of Cards neatly cut in copper, in 
which are represented to the life the several consults for killing the King and 
extirpating the Protestant Religion, the manner of the murthering Sir Edmond- 
bury Godfrey, the Tryals and Executions of the Conspirators, and all other 
material designs relating to the contrivance and management of the said horrid 
Popish Plot, with their attempt to throw it on the Protestants. These have 
something more than the first have, and yet nothing left out that was in them nor 
any old impertinent things added. Printed and sold by Robert Walton at the 
Globe, on the north side of St. Paul's Churchyard, near the West end, where you 
may have a pack for eightpence of the very best, you may have them in sheets 
fit to adorn studies and houses. There is likewise a broadside with an almanack, 
and some of the aforesaid pictures about it, which may not unfitly be called the 
Christian Almanack fit for Shops, Houses and Studies. Sold as above said, the 
price Sixpence." 

This was repeated in No. 53 for January 6th. 1680: — 


Mr. Chatto, who was acquainted with the copy of the advertisement pre- 
served by Bagford, and before given, thus comments on it (p. 1 53) : — 

" In a ' puff collusive,' l forming a kind of postscript to this announcement, 
approbation of these cards is thus indirectly made a test of staunch Pro- 

" Such a pack of cards as that announced in the advertisement referred to — 
containing an history of all the popish plots that have been in England, begin- 
ning with those in Queen Elizabeth's time — I have never seen, and from the 
objection which was made to it at the time, namely, 'that it did not answer what 
was proposed, I am inclined to think that it was the same pack as that which 
relates entirely to the pretended Popish Plot of 1678s, and the murder of Sir 
Edmondbury Godfrey." 

Certainly the British Museum collection of playing-cards does not contain 
any single pack illustrating all the events and plots above mentioned, but it has 
several distinct series of cards referring to many of them. Thus, it has a pack 
relating to the Spanish Armada, one in connection with the " Popish Plot," and 
other sequences illustrative of the " Rye House Plot," the victories of Marl- 
borough, and events of the Reign of James II., with the arrival in England of 
the Prince of Orange. The Rebellion of 1698, and the story of Dr. Sacheverel 
are likewise portrayed. 

In order that those persons who may refer to these politico-historical cards 
in the national collection, may have at hand a ready key in the catalogue to their 
descriptions and devices, it has been deemed advisable to supply here a succinct 
account of the various events and plots which the series of cards in question 
illustrate. As Locke elegantly expresses it : " The pictures drawn in our minds 
are laid in fading colours, and if not sometimes refreshed, vanish and disappear." 
("On Human Understanding," b. ii. ch. 10.) 


URING the Parliamentary Session of 1584-5 a stringent 
law was passed relative to Catholics. All Jesuits and 
secular priests were ordered to quit the kingdom 
within forty days ; those remaining after that time were 
to be held guilty of treason, and such as harboured or relieved them 
guilty of felony. All students at foreign Catholic seminaries were 
to return home within six months, or be considered treasonable if 
not doing so, and those who supplied them with money were to be 
liable to a prcemunire. This bill was strongly opposed by one 
William Parry, a Doctor of Civil Law, who declared " the bill 
savoured of treason, was full of blood and danger, of despair and 
terror to the English subjects of this realm, and spoke with so much 
passion and vehemence that he was committed to custody/'' (Old- 

1 " The puff collusive is the newest of any, for it acts in the disguise of de- 
termined hostility. It is much used by bold booksellers and enterprising poets." 
" The Critic," act i. 

The "puff collusive" was not an invention of Sheridan's time, but merely the 
revival of an old trick. 


mixon, vol. i. p. 520.) Being commanded to give his reasons foi 
what ho said, he obstinately refused, unless before the Privy Coun- 
cil. Upon his submission after a few days' time he was re-admitted 
to the House of Commons. Scarcely at liberty, however, than Ed- 
mund Nevil (who claimed the inheritance of the fugitive Earl 
Westmoreland, lately dead in Flanders) accused him of conspirii 
against the Queen, and upon this ho was committed to the Tower. 
Parry's confession was in substance as follows. We follow 
Keightley, " History of England/' v. ii. p. 220. 

He was in the Queen's service from 1570 to 1580, when having 
attempted to kill a man to whom he was in debt, and having ob- 
tained a pardon, he went to Paris, where he was reconciled to the 
Church of Rome. At Venice, some time after, he hinted to a Jesuit 
named Palmio, that he had found a way to relieve the English Ca- 
tholics if the Pope, or any learned Divines, would justify it as law- 
ful. Palmio extolled the project (which was to kill the Queen) as 
a pious design, and recommended him to the Nuncio. Letters of 
safe conduct for Parry to go to Rome were sent by Cardinal Como. 
Parry returned, however, to Paris, and there conversing with his 
countryman Morgan, the agent of the Queen of Scots, he declared 
himself ready to kill the greatest subject in England in the cause of 
the Church. 

" Why not the Queen herself?" said Morgan. But of this Parry 
now had doubts, as Watts, an English priest, and Creighton, the 
Scottish Jesuit, had assured him it was not lawful. The Nuncio 
Raggazzoni, however, confirmed him in his design, and he received, 
after his return to England, a letter from Cardinal Como, in the 
Pope's name, recommending his project and giving him absolution. 
He had communicated this letter to some at Court, and though he 
had had several interviews with the Queen, he went on such occasions 
always unarmed, lest he might be tempted to injure her, for such 
was the force of his natural feelings. 

A book which had been written recently by Dr. Allen, however, 
had again confirmed him in his earlier resolution. He had hence 
communicated it to Neville, and they had arranged their plans, but 
Lord Westmoreland dying at the time, Neville, in hopes of obtaining 
the family estates, had betrayed him. 

Without/ stopping to inquire how far this confession was true or 
false, " we will only observe," writes Keightley, " that the world had 
just had a convincing proof that the Catholic party scrupled not at 
assassination. On the 10th of July, 1584, the Great Prince of 
Orange was shot by a man named Balthazar Gerard, who confessed 
that he had been kept for some time in the Jesuits' College at 
Treves by one of the brotherhood, who approved of his design and 
instructed him how to proceed. Philip II. had set a large reward 


on the Prince's head, and his great general the Prince of Parma 
sullied his fame by personally examining the qualifications of the as- 
sassins who presented themselves." (Keightley, v. ii. p. 221.) 

Oldmixon tells us that " Parry was condemned, as a traitor, to 
be hanged, drawn, and quartered, and a gallows was put up in the 
Palace yard at Westminster, near the Parliament House, to which 
he was drawn through the City of London from the Tower, and 
there executed on the 2nd of March."" 

Spanish Invasion in 1588. — The execution of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, in 1587, formed an excuse for the Catholic powers, under the 
pretence of avenging her treatment, to attempt the overthrow and 
destruction of Elizabeth and the Protestant faith. But it happened 
that Philip II. of Spain was the only Prince who could, at the time, 
venture openly to turn any true force against the Queen and her 
kingdom. That designs against the latter were being made by 
Spain was soon known, for, says Welwood, " Walsingham had in- 
telligence from Madrid that Philip had told his council he had des- 
patched an express to Rome with a letter in his own hand to the 
Pope, acquainting him with the true design of his preparations, and 
asking his blessing upon it, which, for some reasons, he would not 
yet disclose to them till the return of the courier. The secret being 
thus lodged with the Pope, Walsingham, by means of a Venetian 
priest retained at Rome as his spy, got a copy of the original letter, 
which was stolen from the Pope's cabinet by a gentleman who took 
the keys out of the Pope's pocket while he slept." 

On this becoming known in England, Sir Francis Drake went 
out to Cadiz and other places and inflicted such damage on the 
Spaniards that they postponed their intended invasion for a year. 
Consequently, in 1588 was fitted out what was termed the " Invin- 
cible Armada." " This boasted fleet," writes Oldmixon (v. i. p. 584), 
"consisted of 150 sail, great and small, containing near 60,000 tons of 
shipping, and had on board about 20,000 soldiers, 8,450 marines, 2,088 
slaves, 2,630 great brass guns, &c. Farnese had ready to join them 
13,000 foot, and 4,000 horse soldiers." Thus the Spanish army 
when united would have consisted of about 37,000 men, horse and 
foot. The Duke de Guise, to encourage the Spaniards, had brought 
12,000 men to the coast of Normandy. These forces belonged to 
the League, who could very ill spare them out of France. The 
command of the Spanish fleet was designed for the Marquis of Santa 
Cruz, but he dying soon after he had been punished the previous 
year by Sir Francis Drake, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, a fresh- 
water admiral, was appointed in his place. 

Besides Philip's whimsical pretensions to the crown of England 
he made use of another thing not more rational and solid than that, 
to support him in his undertaking. This was a Bull of Pope Sixtus. 


V., which he thundered against Queen Elizabeth, absolving her 
subjects from their oaths of allegiance, and giving her kingdoms to 
the first who should seize them. The Bull of Pope Gregory XIII. 
was renewed also by William Allen, priest, to whom the Pope had 
given a cardinal's cap, and sent him into Flanders to be nearer at 
hand to England, and to stir up the Catholics there to rebellion by his 
missionaries. Allen brought the Bull of Sixtus with him into tin 
Netherlands, and wrote an admonition to the English to adhere 
the Pope and the Spaniards. Upon York and Stanley's betrayin 
their garrisons in the Low Countries to the Spaniards, Allen wrote 
libel entitled, " Epistolse de Daventriae Ditione," wherein he highl 
commended their treason, exciting others to do likewise, as the 
were not bound to serve or obey the Queen, she being under ex 
communication. Allen despatched several priests to Rowland York, 
whose regiment of 13,000 men, English and Irish, needed them as 
chaplains and confessors. He published his admonition under the 
protection of Alexander Farnese, Prince of Parma, governor of the 
Spanish Netherlands. To the latter Queen Elizabeth sent Dr. 
Valentine Dale mildly to expostulate against the treasonable attempts 
of Allen. Farnese pretended that he knew nothing of them, dis- 
missing Dale without any satisfactory reply. 

Nevertheless, while all these preparations were going on, the 
Prince of Parma endeavoured to amuse and beguile Elizabeth with 
negotiations for an amicable settlement of all difficulties between 
England and Spain. But neither England nor her sovereign were 
to be entrapped. At the beginning of November, 1587, orders had 
been given to prepare resistance. 

" All the men from sixteen to sixty were enrolled and trained by 
the Lords Lieutenant of counties, who were directed to appoint 
officers and provide arms. One army of 36,000 men under Lord 
Huntsdon was to be assembled for the guard of the royal person ; 
another of 30,000 men, under Leicester, was to be stationed at 
Tilbury to protect the city. The seaports were required to supply 
shipping according to their means. On this occasion the city of Lon- 
don set a noble example ; being called upon to furnish 5,000 men and 
fifteen ships, the citizens voluntarily pledged themselves to send 
double the number of each. The royal navy consisted of but thirty- 
four ships, but many noblemen fitted out vessels at their own 
expense, and the whole fleet numbered 181 ships of all kinds, 
manned by 17,472 seamen. The chief command was entrusted to 
Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral of England; the three 
distinguished seamen, Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher, held com- 
mands under him. The main fleet was stationed at Plymouth ; a 
squadron of forty ships under Lord Henry Seymour lay off Dunkirk, 
to watch the motions of the Prince of Parma." (Keightley, vol. ii. 
p. 241.) 


After some hindrances to its progress, the Armada was seen on 
the 19th of July, 1588, off the Lizard Point at Cornwall, by one 
Fleming — a sort of Scottish pirate — who quickly conveyed the 
news to Plymouth. 

"The admiral got his fleet out to sea, though with great difficulty, 
as the wind blew strong into the port. The instructions of the 
Spanish admiral were to avoid hostilities till he had seen the army 
of the Prince of Parma safely landed in England ; he therefore 
rejected the advice of his captains to attack the English fleet, and 
the Armada proceeded up the Channel in the form of a crescent, of 
which the horns were seven miles asunder. The motion of the 
fleet, the greatest that had ever ploughed the ocean, was slow, 
though every sail was spread. 'The winds/ says Camden, 'being 
as it were tired with carrying them, and the ocean groaning under 
their weight/ 

11 The plan adopted by the English admiral was to follow the 
Armada and harass it, and cut off stragglers. During six days, which 
it took the Spaniards to reach Calais, the annoyance was incessant, 
and several of their ships were taken or disabled, the superior sea- 
manship of the English, and the agility and low build of their ships 
giving them great advantage over the unwieldy galleons and galle- 
asses. At length (27th) the Armada cast anchor near Calais, and the 
admiral sent off to the Prince of Parma, requiring him to embark his 
troops without delay. But this it was not in his power now to do ; 
his stores were not yet prepared, his sailors had run away, and the 
Dutch blockaded the harbours of Dunkirk and Newport. The 
Armada itself narrowly escaped destruction. On the night of the 
29th the English sent eight fire-ships into it; the Spaniards in 
terror cut their cables, the English fell on them in the morning 
when they were dispersed, and took two galleons, and the following 
day (31st), a storm came on and drove them among the shoals and 
sands of Zealand. Here, in a council of war, it was decided, as the 
navy was now in too shattered a condition to effect anything, to 
return to Spain without delay. But the passage down the Channel 
was so full of hazard that it was resolved in preference to sail round 
Scotland and Ireland, dangerous as that course appeared. The 
Armada set sail, the English pursued as far as Flamborough Head, 
where want of ammunition forced them to give over the chase. 
Storms assailed the Armada in its progress, several ships were cast 
away on the west and south coasts of Ireland, where the crews were 
butchered by the barbarous natives, or put to the sword by orders of 
the Lord Deputy. The total loss was thirty large ships and about 10,000 
men." — "The Queen of England had shown throughout the spirit of a 
heroine. She visited the camp at Tilbury (Aug. 9) , rode along the 
lines on a white palfrey with a truncheon in her hand, and animated 

250 • ENGLISH. 

the soldiers by her inspiriting language. When the danger was 
over, she went in state to St. Paul's to return thanks to Heaven. 
She then granted pensions to the disabled seamen. She bestowed 
her favours on the admiral and his officers, and she had actually 
caused a warrant to be prepared, appointing Leicester to the office 
of Lord Lieutenant of England and Ireland, but the influence of 
Burleigh and Walsingham prevented her from signing it, and as 
Leicester was on his way to Kenilworth after disbanding his 
army he fell sick and died at Cornbury Park, in Oxfordshire 
(Sept. 4) . The Queen lamented him, but she caused his goods to 
be seized for payment of his debts to the Crown." (Op. cit. v. ii. 
p. 243.) 

The Gunpowder Plot. — In 1605, at the end of October, the 
Lords of the Council became suspicious of a plot, which on the 4th 
of November following was completely discovered by the Lord 
Chamberlain, Lord Monteagle, and others, on examining the cellars 
under the Parliament-house. These they found stuffed with billets, 
fagots, and coal, from under which was finally brought to light thirty- 
six barrels of gunpowder, and Guy, or Guido Fawkes was seized as 
he was slipping out at the door of the cellar with a dark lanthorn, 
tinder-box, and matches in his possession. By these and a slow 
match he was soon to have fired the mine, to have escaped by a 
small vessel then lying in the river, and have carried the news over 
to Flanders. 

Many of the conspirators in this plot, originally concocted by 
Eobert Catesby, known to and agreeable to the Jesuit party, but 
not, it is probable, to the Catholics generally, nor to the secular 
priesthood, were convicted and condemned, and others were shot 
while being arrested. Fawkes avowed and gloried in the design 
contemplated, that, viz., of blowing up the Parliament-house with 
all assembled in it. 

The Great Plague and Fire in London. — In 1665 (5th year of the 
reign of Charles II.) , during a period of great and long summer heat, 
the plague ravaged London. About this time some " sham plots," 
as they have been termed, were supposed to have been discovered. 
They were thought to have for their object the overthrow of the 
Government in England, through means of the discontented Pres- 
byterians and Republicans exiled in the Dutch States, and of others 
secretly abiding at home. De Witt entered into correspondence 
with Ludlow, Sidney, and other exiles for this purpose, Lord Say 
and others forming a council at the Hague to correspond with 
their associates in England. The result was that when Parliament 
met at Oxford at the end of the year (1665) to grant supplies, an 
Act was passed for attainting all British subjects who should con- 
tinue in the service of the States. 


During the next year — 1666 — the " Great Fire" took place, 
destroying 13,000 houses, 89 churches, and necessitating 20,000 
persons to lie in huts or in the open air in the fields between 
Islington and Highgate. 

" It is not to be supposed that the real simple cause would 
be assigned for this calamity. Incendiaries, it was averred, were 
seen firing the city in various parts. Some laid it on the French, 
some on the Republicans, but it was finally fixed on the general 
scapegoat, the Papists, and the beautiful column raised by authority 
on the spot where the fire commenced long 

1 Like a tall bully lifted its head and lied ' 

in the inscription which it bore." (Keightley, Op. cit. vol. iii. 
p. 125.) 

The Popish Plot. — In 1678, while the kingdom was at peace, 
what is known as the " Popish Plot " was discovered during 
the recess of Parliament. As King Charles II. was walking in 
the Park on the 12th of August, a person named Kirby, who was 
accustomed to assist the King in his laboratory, approached him, 
and said, " Sire, keep within the company, your enemies have a 
design upon your life ; you may be shot within this very walk." 
Kirby was placed under examination, the result being the arrest 
of Dr. Tonge, or Tongue, the Rector of St. Michael's, Wood-street, 
and the coming forward of Titus Oates, who had taken orders at 
Cambridge, been indicted for perjury, had been a chaplain in the 
Navy, charged with sodomy, and obliged to quit his ship. He 
was appointed, nevertheless, one of the chaplains of the Duke of 
Norfolk, became a real or pretended convert to the Catholic faith, 
went over to St. Omer, thence to Spain, and had returned to 
England just at this period. Previously to having Oates examined 
before the Council, he was sent before a magistrate (Sept. 6th) 
named Sir Edmond Berry (Edmondbury is wrong) Godfrey, when 
he made oath to the truth of a narrative extending to eighty-one 
articles. Before the Council, Oates (dressed in a clergyman's 
gown) deposed to the following effect : — 

1 { The Jesuits " (we quote from Keightley) ' ' had resolved by 
all means to re-establish the Catholic religion in the British 
dominions. They were organising a rebellion and massacre in 
Ireland ; in Scotland, disguised s as Presbyterian ministers, they 
were opposing episcopacy ; here they proposed to assassinate the 
King, and then to offer the crown to the duke, provided he would 
consent to hold it of the Pope, and aid in extirpating Protestantism ; 
if not, ' to pot James must go/ was their expression. They had 
abundant funds, having £100,000 in bank, £60,000 a-year in rents, 
&c. Father Leshee (La Chaise), the French king's confessor, had 


given them £10,000, and they were promised an equal sum from 

" In March last, two men named Honest William (Grove) and 
Pickering (the last a lay-brother of the Order), were often directed 
to shoot the King with silver bullets at Windsor, for which the 
former was to have £1,500, the latter 30,000 masses, and on their 
neglecting to do so William had been reprimanded, and Pickering 
had received twenty lashes on his bare back. 

" On the 24th of April there had been a great meeting of th( 
Jesuits at the White Horse Tavern, by St. Clement's in the Stranc 
to deliberate on the assassination of the King and two Benedictines 
named Coniers and Anderton, and four Irishmen, whose names h( 
knew not, were added to the former two. £10,000, and afterwards 
£15,000, had been offered to Wakeman, the queen's physician, 
to poison the King, and he had reason to believe he had undertaken 
it. He had also learned since his return that the Jesuits had caused 
the fire in 1666, on which occasion they had expended 700 fire-balls ; 
and they would then have murdered the King, but they relented 
when they witnessed his zeal and humanity. They had secured 
amidst the conflagration diamonds to the value of £14,000; ten years 
afterwards they had made £2,000 by setting fire to South wark ; and 
they had now a plan for burning Westminster, Wapping, and the 
shipping. Finally, the Pope had lately issued a Bull, appointing to 
all the dignities in the Church of England, as the Catholic religion 
was sure to triumph as soon as the King was taken out of the 

Oldmixon, in his "History of England during the Reigns of 
the Royal House of Stuart," observes, vol. i. p. 612 : — 

li The Pope, in a congregation de 'propaganda fide, consisting of 
about 300 persons, held about December, 1677, declared the King of 
England's dominions to be part of St. Peter's patrimony, as forfeited 
to the Holy See for heresy, and to be disposed of as he should think 
fit. Cardinal Howard, nominal Archbishop of Canterbury, was 
accordingly appointed Legate of England, to take possession of it in 
the Pope's name; he was also to have 40,000 crowns a year augmen- 
tation for the maintenance of his legatine authority. 

' f Perrot was made Archbishop of York ; Corker, Bishop of London ; 
Whitebread, Bishop of Winchester ; Strange, Bishop of Durham ; 
Godden, Bishop of Salisbury ; Napper, Bishop of Norwich ; Lord 
Arundel of Warder, Lord Chancellor of England ; Lord Powis, 
Lord Treasurer; Sir William Godolphin, Lord Privy Seal; Edward 
Coleman, Esq., Secretary of State ; Lord Bellasis, General of the 
Army; John Lambert, Esq., Adjutant- General; Richard Langhorne, 

" The lay officers had all commissions sent them ready sealed by 


Joannes Paulus de Oliva, Father-General of the Jesuits' Society, 
residing at Rome, who was to give directions to the Provincial of 
the Jesuits residing at London how to proceed in this affair. Pedro 
de Jeronimo de Corduba, Provincial of the Jesuits in Spain, was to 
assist with counsel and money, and misrepresent the actions of his 
Britannic majesty to the Spanish court, which likewise was to be 
done by a Jesuit confessor to the Emperor in relation to England 
and that court. The correspondence for France was carried on 
between Coleman and Father Terriers first, and afterwards Father 
La Chaise, confessor to the French king/' 

To revert to Keightley's history, it may be remarked that, though 
Oates by his own account had feigned to be a convert, with the sole 
purpose of discovering the secrets of the Jesuits, and betraying 
fchem, though, as he said, he was so highly in their confidence that 
numerous documents had been in his hands, he had not retained a 
single one of them, and there was nothing but his bare assertion for 
the truth of the almost incredible circumstances which he related. 
His only chance, therefore, was that something of a confirmatory 
character might be found among the papers of those persons who 
were committed on his information. And here fortune stood his 
friend. Notwithstanding that little trust can be attached to Oates' 
assertions, the following passage in Burnet (vol. ii. p. 159) is worthy 
of attention: — 

" Tillotson told me that Langhorn's wife, who was still as zealous 
a Protestant as he was a Papist, came off to him, and gave him notice 
of everything she could discover among them, though she continued 
a faithful and dutiful wife to the last minute of her husband's life. 
Upon the first breaking out of the plot, before Oates had spoken a 
word of commissions, or had accused Langhorn, she engaged her 
son in some discourse upon those matters, who was a hot, indiscreet 
Papist. He said their designs were so well laid that it was impos- 
sible they should miscarry, and that his father would be one of the 
greatest men in England, for he had seen a commission from the 
Pope constituting him Advocate-General. This he told me in 
Stillingfleet's hearing." 

Among the persons accused by Oates was Coleman, the Duchess 
of York's secretary. Though the son of a Protestant clergyman, he 
had become a Catholic, and exerted himself greatly for the propaga- 
tion of his faith. In connection with this endeavour he was in 
correspondence with La Chaise, and his successor in office, St. Ger- 
main. Hearing of the danger which threatened him from the state- 
ments of Oates, he hid his papers, but forgot a drawer which contained 
some correspondence carried on during 1674 and the following two 
years. In one of the letters therein deposited he had written, " We 
have here a mighty work upon our hands, no less than the conversion 


of three kingdoms, and by that, perhaps, the utter subduing of a per- 
sistent herosy which has a long time domineered over a great pai 
of this northern world. There were never such hopes of succes 
since the days of our Queen Mary as now in our days," &c. 

In other correspondence Coleman alluded to the interests of tl 
crown of England being inseparable from those of France and tl 
Catholic religion, and describes the king as inclined to favour the 
Catholics, but at the same time as being thoroughly venial. 
Keightley observes, when we consider the language of Coleman, anc 
add to it the other evidence we possess, we may venture to say that 
the following assertion of Hallam is probably correct : " There was 
really and truly a popish plot in being, though not that which Titus 
Oates and his associates pretended to reveal ; but one alert, enter- 
prising, effective, in direct operation against the established Protes- 
tant religion in England. In this plot the King, the Duke of Yorl 
and the King of France were chief conspirators ; the Romish priests, 
and especially the Jesuits, were eager co-operators. " (" Constitu- 
tional History," vol. ii. p. 570.) 

It has been stated that Titus Oates made his first averments before 
the magistrate, Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey. Though the latter was 
a zealous Protestant he kept on good terms with the Catholics, and 
warned Coleman of his danger. Nevertheless, he appears to have 
become impressed with the belief that some trouble would befall him 
on account of the matter in hand, telling Dr. Lloyd (the rector of 
his parish) and Dr. Burnet that he had been informed he would "be 
knocked on the head." To a person who inquired of him if he had 
had any hand in taking the informations concerning the plot, he re- 
plied in the affirmative, adding, " I know not what will be the con- 
sequence of them, but I believe I shall be the first martyr." 

On the 12th of October — a Saturday morning — not a month after 
the interview with Oates, Sir E. Godfrey left his home, going to 
various parts of the town. He was met in St. Martin's Lane by 
persons of whom he inquired the way to Paddington Woods, and 
was seen by others in Marylebone Fields and Soho. At one o'clock 
he was seen in the Strand, was afterwards recognised in Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, and a person supposed to be he was seen in Red Lion 
Fields on the way to Primrose Hill, and finally in a field near the 
latter eminence. He continued absent from home, however, which 
" caused great uneasiness to his family and friends, and various 
conjectures were made to account for it. Some thought he was 
gone out of the way from his creditors, others gave out that he was 
married, and 'that not very decently,' or that he was run away 
with a harlot, but the more prevalent report was that he was 
murdered by the papists. For some .days no account could be got 
of him, but on Thursday evening (the 17th), as two men were 


going towards the White House at Primrose Hill, they saw a cane 
and a pair of gloves lying on a bank by a ditch, and on searching 
further they found in the ditch the dead body of a man, with a 
sword run through him. His rings were on his fingers, and his 
money was in his pocket. There was a double crease round his 
neck, which was so limber that the face might be turned round to 
the shoulder. The body was at once recognised to be that of the 
missing Justice. A coroner's jury, swayed by the opinions of two 
ignorant surgeons, brought in a verdict that he had been strangled, 
and it was supposed that the assassins had run his own sword 
through him that he might be supposed to have killed himself. 
That the papists had done the deed was a point about which few 
had any doubt, and those who had, thought it most prudent to con- 
fine their suspicions to their own bosoms." (Keightley, Op. cit. 
vol. iii.p. 170.) 

According to Oldmixon (vol. ii. p. 614), the body was seen by 
Drs. Lloyd and Burnet, the late Bishops of Salisbury and Worcester, 
and their evidence tended to more than a suspicion that priests 
were concerned in the murder, for "there were many drops of 
white wax-lights on his breeches, which he never used in his house, 
and since only persons of quality or priests use these lights, this 
made all people conclude in whose hands he must have been. ; Twas 
visible he was first strangled and then carried to that place." 

A reward of £500 having been offered for the arrest of the 
murderer of Sir E. Godfrey, a letter dated from Newbury was re- 
ceived by the Secretary of State the day after the funeral, request- 
ing that the writer of it — William Bedloe — might be arrested at 
Bristol and conveyed to London. This was accordingly done, and 
Bedloe examined on November the 7th in the presence of the King. 
Bedloe said that he had seen the body of Godfrey at Somerset 
House (the residence of the Queen) , where he had been smothered 
between pillows by two Jesuits, and that he had been offered two 
thousand guineas to help remove it. At a subsequent examination 
he said that Godfrey had been inveigled into Somerset House 
about five in the evening, and there strangled with a linen cravat. 
But it happened that at that very hour the King was visiting the 
Queen, that the place was full of guards, and the room in which he 
said he saw the body was one appropriated to the Queen's footmen, 
who were always in it. At first, too, he knew nothing of the plot, 
but having read (Dates' narrative, his memory brightened, and he 
called to mind many circumstances learned from English regulars 
and other religious persons he had met on the Continent. 

The fact is, Bedloe was, if possible, a greater liar than Oates. 
Originally a servant of Lord Bellasis, he had travelled chiefly as a 
courier over much of the Continent, had been guilty of many acts of 


robbery and swindling, had been often the inmate of a prison, an( 
had but recently come out of Newgate. 

" The plain truth, however, appears to be that in this instance 
the unfortunate Papists were perfectly innocent, and that Godfrey 
died by his own hand. There was an hereditary melancholy in his 
family, and for some days before his disappearance a strangeness 
in his manner and behaviour had been observed. The apprehension 
of being brought into some trouble on account of having taken the 
deposition of Oates, probably led to the catastrophe. As by the 
law the property of a felo de so was forfeit to the Crown, it was 
the interest of his brothers to have it believed that he had been 
murdered. The report, laying the guilt on the Papists, was traced 
to them ; they kept back important evidence, and they dealt with 
the coroner and the surgeons." 

However, the result was that Lord Danby was impeached, Cole- 
man, Grove, Pickering, and Ireland a Jesuit, were brought to tris 
along with Hill, Green, and Berry, and all, with the exception 
Lord Danby, were condemned upon the evidence of Oates, Bedloe 
Prance, and Carstairs, and executed, though protesting their inne 
cence, whether in the general plot or Godfrey's murder, to the last 
Some time after, five Jesuits, Whitebread (Provincial) , Fenwick,Gavai 
Turner, and Harcourt were condemned and executed ; then followe 
Langhorne to share their fate. Sir George Wakeman, Croker, 
Marshall, and three Benedictine monks were next tried, but were 
acquitted by the jury, when the two chief and now baffled informers, 
Oates and Bedloe, had the audacity to declare " that they would 
never more give evidence in a Court where Scroggs presided/' and 
actually exhibited articles against him to the Council (Keightley, 
Op. cit.) The writer here referred to observes with justice that when 
we consider how universal and strong was the belief in the plot, 
and how artful the modes adopted by some profligate politicians to 
exaggerate its activity, we shall find here as in the civil war grounds 
for admiring the freedom from bloodthirsty characteristics of the 
English people. Respecting the execution of the Catholic priests, for 
instance, Sir William Temple has informed us that " upon this point 
Lord Halifax and I had so sharp a debate that he told me if I 
would not concur in points that were so necessary for the people's satis- 
faction he would tell every body I was a Papist, affirming that the 
plot must be handled as if it were true, whether it were so or no." 

On the accession of James II. (1685) the tide turned completely 
against Oates. He was indicted for perjury, thrown into prison, 
convicted, sentenced to stand in the pillory five times a year during 
his life, and to be whipped from Aldgate to Newgate, and thence to 
Tyburn. Though he suffered considerably from the latter part of 
his punishment, which was severely carried out, he recovered, re- 


gained his liberty, and found confiders, if not in his veracity, at least 
in his services to faction, who procured him in the reign of William 
III. a pension of £400 a-year for his life. T. Oates died in 1705. 

Meal-Tub Plot.- — Dangerfield and Madame Cellier. — 1679-1680. — 
While the various political intrigues connected with the Popish plot 
and Titus Oates's affairs were going on, a man named Dangerfield 
and a Madame Cellier, a midwife, started the idea of fabricating a 
plot of the Presbyterians against the Government. 

Madame Cellier introduced Dangerfield to Lady Powis, who pro- 
cured him interviews with Lord Peterborough, and finally obtained 
him communication with the Duke of York. The latter gave Dan- 
gerfield twenty guineas, and secured for him an interview with 
King Charles, from whom Dangerfield received forty guineas for the 
information he had offered. 

Dangerfield advised that revenue officers should be sent to the 
lodgings of a certain Colonel Mansel, the intended quarter-master 
of the future Presbyterian army, to search for smuggled lace. On 
search being made treasonable documents were found concealed 
behind his bed. But these turning out to have been only forgeries, 
Dangerfield was committed to Newgate. While in prison he averred 
that he had been bribed by the Catholics to invent the plot to 
assassinate the King and Lord Shaftesbury. To confirm the truth 
of his statements Dangerfield requested that Madame Cellier' s rooms 
should be searched, where in a meal-tub might be found documents 
which would prove the truth of his story. In such a place were 
discovered papers seemingly confirmatory of Dangerfield' s state- 
ments. Nevertheless, on the trials both of Madame Cellier and of 
Lord Castlemain the juries declined to give credit to his assertions. 

" The whole affair is as usual involved in mystery ; the Catholics 
may have endeavoured to get up a counterplot, the Monmouth 
party may have sought by means of a sham plot to cast odium on the 
Duke of York. All parties at this time, in their anxiety about ends, 
were but too indifferent as to means." (Keightley, vol. iii. p. 191.) 

The Rye House Plot, 1683. — After the dissolution by King Charles 
of the Parliament which had met at Oxford in 1681, the leaders of 
the popular party began to confer seriously among themselves as 
to what should be done in opposing the Government, should it 
appear to aim at a despotic authority. 

Shaftesbury was impetuous, and advised instant action, but this 
was deemed inadvisable by the rest of the party, which resolved to 
proceed with caution, and only after further deliberation. 

Shaftesbury dying at the Hague in 1683, his old associates felt now 
at liberty to proceed from words to action. A council, composed 
of the Lords Monmouth, Essex, and Russell, of Howard, Algernon 
Sydney, and John Hampden (grandson of the " great Hampden ") , 

25 8 ENGLISH. 

was formed, for the purpose of arranging matters for a general rising. 
But it would seem after all, that when the plot was discovered in the 
summer of 1683, not anything very determinate or practical had been 

The discovery of this conspiracy, known as the " Rye House 
Plot," was made as follows : — 

u Rumsey, West, and other satellites of Shaftesbury used to hole 
meetings of their own, in which there was frequent talk of ' lopping 
the two sparks/ as West expressed it, that is, killing the King and 
Duke. West spoke of doing it as they were going to or from the 
play-house, then he said ' they would die in their calling/ There 
was one Rumbold, an old officer of Cromweirs army, who had 
married a maltster's widow, and thus become master of a house 
called the Rye, near Hoddesden in Herts, close by which the Kin/ 
used to pass on his way to Newmarket. He happened to say how 
easy it would be for a man to shoot the King at that place. West 
caught at the idea, and hence the plot was named the ' Rye-house plot/ 

" In this case, also, although there was a real conspiracy, nothing 
would seem to have been actually determined on, and things re- 
mained in this state till the month of June, when on the very day 
(12th) that judgment was given against the city, one Josiah Keeling, 
a sinking merchant, who was one of the confederates, resolved to 
turn informer. He went to Legge (now Lord Dartmouth), who 
sent him to secretary Jenkins, and on the information which he gave, 
rewards were offered for nine of the conspirators, but they had been 
forewarned by Keeling's brother, and had concealed themselves. 
Two days after West and Rumsey came in and surrendered, and on 
their information, together with that of one Shephard, a wine mer- 
chant, Russell and Sidney were arrested and sent to the tower. 
Lord Grey was arrested, but he contrived to escape from the mes- 
sengers, the Duke of Monmouth also escaped, but Howard was 
taken concealed in a chimney in his own house. To save his life 
he discovered all that he said he knew, and on his information Lord 
Essex and Hampden were arrested." (Keightley, op. cit. vol. iii. 
p. 209.) Essex committed suicide, Russell suffered decapitation, 
as did Sidney. Monmouth was pardoned on condition that he ac- 
knowledged in a letter to the King the truth of the conspiracy. 
King Charles II. died on February the 6th, 1684-85. 

The Committal of the Seven Bishops, 1685-1688. — On the death 
of Charles II. his brother James ascended the throne without oppo- 
sition; but, soon after his accession, the Duke of Monmouth (na- 
tural son of Charles by Lucy Waters) who had been banished the 
kingdom on account of his connection with the Rye-house plot, 
landed in England with 100 men, had himself proclaimed king at 
Taunton, and set a price on the head of King James. He was soon 


defeated at the battle of Sedgemoor, when finding himself abandoned 
he knelt to the King for mercy, but in vain. He was beheaded a 
few days after on Tower-hill. 

James having caused his ' ' Declaration for liberty of conscience n 
to be republished with additions, he, by the advice, it is said, of 
Father Petrie, made an order in council (May 4th) , that it should be 
read out in the churches during the time of Divine Service, and the 
bishops were required to distribute it for that purpose. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Sancroft) and the bishops of 
Asaph, Ely, Bath and Wells, Peterborough, Chichester, and Bristol 
declined to carry out this order, affirming, writes Burnett, that 
" they could not in prudence, honour, and conscience make them- 
selves so far parties to it as the publication once and again in God's 
house and in the time of Divine Service must amount to." 

The bishops were at length cited to appear before the council, 
and were afterwards committed to the tower for their contumacy. 

" A week after their commitment they were brought upon a 
habeas corpus to the King's Bench, where their counsel offered to 
make it appear to be an illegal commitment, but the court allowed 
it in good law. They were required to enter into bonds for small 
sums to answer to the information that day fortnight. When the 
day fixed for their trial came on, there was a vast concourse — the 
trial did last long, above ten hours — the court sat again next 
day, and the jury came in with their verdict (acquittal) , upon which 
there were such shoutings, so long continued, and as it were echoed 
in the city, that all people were struck with it, every man seemed 
transported with joy." (Burnet's " History of his own Times," 
vol. iii. p. 225.) 

As the result of this trial, which was considered all over Europe, 
according to Burnet, to determine whether the King or the Church 
were more likely to prevail, the King was defeated. 

The birth of a son, however, might appear to have been a suffi- 
cient consolation under his disappointment ; but here, too, the King's 
usual misfortune attended him, for both his own paternity and the 
origin of the child were among certain parties equally disputed. 
Yet if ever there was a prince about whose birth there should seem 
to have been not a shadow of doubt, it was this particular Prince of 

The Warming-pan Plot, 1688. — King James was twice married, 
his first wife was the daughter of the Earl of Clarendon, and died 
in 1671. His second wife was Mary Beatrice, Princess of Modena, 
daughter of the Duke Alphonse d'Este. Mary of Modena had 
several children, but they died soon after birth. In 1687 it was 
reported that the Queen was again pregnant ; this was news much 
astonishing the people. Extraordinary surmises were slowly mooted 



about, but which led generally to the opinion that the Catholic 
party, prompted by the Jesuits, was determined to have by some 
means or other an heir to the throne, trained up in their own doc- 

On the birth of the child, James Francis Edward Stuart (June 10, 
1688), it was asserted by some that he was really the son of a 
miller's wife, the child having been procured by Father Petre, who 
had him brought to the Queen's bed in a warming-pan, and then 
passed off as an actual child of King James and Mary of Modena. 

According to a ballad of the time {" Roxburghe Ballads," vol. iii. 
p. 724— B. M. C 20 f) :— 


since it was determined an heir mnst be got, 
No matter from Kettle from Pan or from Pot, 
In mettles fertile the old Jesuit's clan 
Produced a brave boy from a brass Warming-pan. 

Derry-down," &c. &c. 

Another party had not any hesitation in awarding the Church a 
still more direct hand in the production of the young prince, whom 
they called the " spawn of a Fryer/' describing his origin in a series 
of obscene and blasphemous jokes, inexcusable even in an age of free 
thought and very open expression. 

Father Petre, whose name so frequently recurs in connection 
with the Warming-pan Plot, was a Jesuit of noble family, and had 
been long in the confidence of the king. Shortly before the preg- 
nancy of the Queen he had been made a privy-councillor. The 
following is from Burnet's " History of his own Times," vol. iii. 
pp. 236-246 ; Clarendon Press edition. 

" The Queen had been for six or seven years in such an ill state 
of health, that every winter brought her very near death. Those 
about her seemed well assured that she who had buried all her 
children soon after they were born, and had now for several years 
ceased bearing, would have no more children. Her own priests 

apprehended it, and seemed to wish for her death." " In 

September (1687) the queen went to Bath, where as was already 
told, the king came and saw her, and stayed a few days with her ; 
it was said that at the time of her coming to the King, her mother, 
the Duchess of Modena, made a vow to the Lady Loretto that her 
daughter might by her means have a son, and it went current that 
the Queen believed herself to be with child in that very instant in 
which her mother made her vow. A conception said to be thus 
begun looked suspicious. It was soon observed that all things 


about her person were managed with a mysterious secrecy, into 
which none were admitted but a few Papists. She was not dressed 
nor undressed with the usual ceremony. The thing upon this 
began to be suspected, and some libels were writ treating the 
whole as an imposture. Those about the Queen did all of the 
sudden change her reckoning, and began it from the King's being 
with her at Bath. It was given out by all her train that she was 
going to be delivered. Some said it would be next morning, and 
the priests said very confidently it would be a boy. The next 
morning, about nine o'clock, she sent word to the King that she was 
in labour. The queen-dowager was next sent to ; but no ladies 
were sent for, so that no women were in the room but two dressers 
and one under-dresser, and the midwife. The King brought over 
with him from Whitehall a great many peers and privy- councillors, 
and of these eighteen were let into the bed-chamber, but they stood 
at the furthest end of the room. The ladies stood within the alcove. 
The curtains of the bed were drawn close, and none came within 
them but the midwife and an under-dresser. The Queen lay all the 
while a-bed, and in order to the warming one side of it a warming- 
pan was brought. But it was not opened that it might be seen 
that there was fire and nothing else in it. So there was matter for 
suspicion with which all people were filled. A little before ten the 
Queen cried out as in a strong pain, and immediately after the mid- 
wife said, aloud, she was happily brought to bed. . . No cries were 
heard from the child, nor was it shown to those in the room ; it was 
not known whether the child was alive or dead, it looked like the 
giving time for some mismanagement; all that concerned the milk 
or the Queen's purgations was managed still in the dark. This 
made all people inclined more and more that there was a base 
imposture now put on the nation." [It was soon reported that the 
infant prince was dead,] "and it looked as if all was ordered 
to be kept shut up close till another child was found. One that 
saw the child two days after, said to me that he looked strong, and 
not like a child so newly born. It was said that the child was 
strongly revived of a sudden. Some of the physicians told Lloyd, 
Bishop of St. Asaph, that it was not possible for them to think 
it was the same child. They looked on one another, but durst 
not speak what they thought. What truth soever may be in these 
[reports], this is certain, that the method in which this matter was 
conducted from the first to last was very unaccountable, if an 
imposture had been intended it could not have been otherwise 
managed." {Op. cit.) 

The note in the Clarendon Press edition referring to the preced- 
ing account is in part as follows : — " So here are three children " 
[Swift], (< first the Queen is surmised not to have been with child ; 


secondly, to have miscarried ; thirdly, a child in a warming-pan is 
supposed to have been conveyed into the bed-chamber; fourthly, 
perhaps no child to have been carried into the next room ; fifthly, 
the child seen by all in the room to have died ; sixthly, a substituted 
child to have died. Thus, as Swift observes, we have three children, 
the new-born infant, seen by all, the substituted child, and the 
Prince of Wales. It is lamentable that such a man as Burnet 
should have disgraced himself by the recital of these stupid an 
inconsistent falsehoods." (Op. cit. p. 245.) 

Descriptions of several satirical prints referring to the u Warm- 
ing-pan Plot V may be found in the first volume of the " Catalogue 
of Prints of Political and Personal Satires," Nos. 1156-1166, and 
1177, 1211, page 710 et seq. 

Marlborough. The Might of James. The Prince of Orange. — 
the accession of King James II. (1685), Lieutenant- Colonel Churchill 
had been sent to France to announce the occurrence. On his re- 
turn from this duty he was raised to the English Peerage, with the 
title of Baron Churchill of Sundridge. By his vigilance and skill 
he contributed greatly to the suppression of the insurrection of 
Monmouth, which occurred shortly. 

As the behaviour of the King, on the suggestions of the Earl of 
Sunderland, and of others of the Catholic party, had soon rendered 
James unpopular with the Protestants, overtures were made by in- 
fluential members of the latter to William Prince of Orange, that he 
should rid them of a sovereign so inclined towards Rome, and if all 
went satisfactorily, take the vacant office on himself. The Dutch fleet, 
with the prince on board, anchored at Torbay on the 5th of Novem- 
ber, 1688. On landing, the prince and his retinue proceeded to- 
wards London. The success of the Dutch invasion was such as to 
lead King James to mistrust the fidelity of his army, to fly from 
England, and seek an asylum at St. Germain from the King of 

The Prince of Orange then issued writs for the election of mem- 
bers to a national convention, and on the 13th of February, 1689, 
he, along with the Princess of Orange, received the two Houses of 
Parliament at Whitehall, by which was made, through Lord Halifax, 
a solemn tender of the Crown of England. The same day the 
prince and princess were proclaimed as King William III. and 
Queen Mary II. 

During the revolution of 1688, which banished James and secured 
the Prince of Orange, Churchill behaved towards the former with a 
duplicity and treachery deserving severe condemnation. While 
professing to support James he entered the service of his rival. 

On the coronation of the latter, Churchill assisted at the cere- 
mony, and was created afterwards Earl of Marlborough and a Privy 



Councillor. In 1689 he received the command of the English 
forces in the Netherlands. He next served in Ireland, but was re- 
called to Flanders. Being suspected of a traitorous correspondence 
with the exiled King (James II.), he was deprived of his command 
and imprisoned in the Tower. He was soon released, however, but 
did not regain the favour of William until 1697. 

On the outbreak of the war connected with the Spanish succes- 
sion, Marlborough received the chief command of the forces of the 
United Provinces, and was named Ambassador to France. He be- 
came master of several places in the Netherlands by 1702, gained 
(under Prince Eugene) the battle of Blenheim in 1704, defeated 
Villeroy at Ramillies in 1706, was victorious at Oudenard in 1708, 
and at Malplaquet in 1709. By 1712 Marlborough's fortune had 
changed, and he was dismissed from all his offices at the beginning 
of this year. 

To escape the charges of having prolonged the war, of peculation, 
and the disquietudes of home, he went abroad with the duchess, 
who also had been displaced at Court. In 1714, Marlborough re- 
turned to England, and was restored by King George I. to office; 
but an attack of apoplexy soon compelled him to retire once more, 
and he died at Windsor Lodge in 1722. 

" The character of Marlborough presents a perplexing combina- 
tion of noble and base qualities, which have served as the ground- 
work of extravagant eulogy and fierce invective. His rare ability 
as a general, his skill and success as a diplomatist, are unquestion- 
able. No less so are his vast ambition, his avarice, and his 
treachery/' (" Dictionary of General Biography/' Coates.) 

Dr. Sacheverell, 1709-1710. — Henry Sacheverell, an English 
divine, was educated at Oxford, where in 1708 he obtained the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity. In 1709 he was appointed preacher 
at St. Saviour's, Southwark. On the 5th of November of that year, 
having become a willing tool of the party then opposing the adminis- 
tration of Marlborough and Godolphin, he preached a violent sermon 
at St. Paul's before the lord mayor and aldermen, on " The Perils of 
false Brethren both in Church and State," and " Perfidious Prelates 
and false Sons of the Church." He assailed the Government, 
declaring it tended both in ecclesiastical and civil affairs to the 
destruction of the constitution ; called Godolphin Volpone, asserted 
that the toleration grantedbylaw to the Protestant dissenters was both 
unreasonable and unwarrantable, maintained the doctrine of "passive 
obedience," and called on the people to stand firm in the defence of 
principles which the crown and its advisers tended to overthrow and 
destroy. Forty thousand copies of the printed sermon are stated to 
have been circulated by the political party of its author. 

Godolphin resolved on Sacheverell's impeachment, and the Ser- 


jeant of the House of Commons delivered him to the custody of the 
Deputy Usher of the Black Rod on the ensuing January 14th, 1710. 
Sacheverell was admitted to bail. On the 27th of February he was 
brought to trial at Westminster Hall, Queen Anne being then and 
every day of the trial present — incognita. As she approached the 
hall in her sedan chair the people crowded around it, exclaiming, 
" God bless your Majesty and the Church, we hope your Majesty is 
for Dr. Sacheverell ." As the latter descended from the coach in 
which he was brought daily from the Temple, the persons near him 
tried to kiss his hands. 

The trial continued for three weeks, being prosecuted by Si 
Joseph Jekyl, General Stanhope, Walpole, King, and othei 
Sacheverell was defended by Sir Simon Harcourt and Phipps, 
assisted by Drs. Atterbury, Smallbridge and Friend. He was 
declared guilty by sixty- nine lords against fifty -two, who pronounced 
him not guilty. 

" Accordingly sentence passed upon him — that Henry Sacheverell, 
Doctor in Divinity, shall be and is hereby enjoined not to preach 
during the term of three years next ensuing. That Dr. Henry 
Sachever ell's two printed sermons, referred to by the impeachment 
of the House of Commons, shall be burnt before the Royal Exchange 
in London, between the hours of twelve and one on Monday, the 
27th of this instant March by the hands of the common hangman, in 
the presence of the lord mayor of the city of London, and the two 
sheriffs of London and Middlesex." (Oldmixon, vol. iii. p. 438.) 

" This gentle sentence," writes Keightley, " was regarded by the 
Tory party as a triumph, and such in fact it was. Bonfires and 
illuminations in London and all over the kingdom testified to their 
joy, and addresses in favour of non-resistance poured in from all 
quarters. But the other side was greatly annoyed." 

" 'Twill be astonishing to posterity," writes Oldmixon, " that so 
many noblemen and gentlemen should countenance such an insigni- 
ficant tool in his seditious and insolent behaviour, or endeavour to 
screen him from punishment — the merciful sentence past upon him 
for which the Whigs have paid dearly from that time to this." 
{Op. cit. vol. iii. p. 442.) 


E. 185. 



(Spanish Armada.) 

PACK of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits and honours. This 
series illustrates the chief events connected with the history of the 
Spanish Armada, of the English Fleet engaged in its overthrow, of the 
Acts and Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, of the Earls of Oxford, 
Northumberland, and Cumberland, of the Lord High Admiral Howard, and of 

The greater portion of each card-piece is occupied by a design illustrating 
some of the events mentioned. Above the pictorial composition a broad margin 
is left clear, at the right-hand corner of which is the mark of the suit, and at the 
left-hand is indicated in Roman numbers the value of the particular number of 
the series. The coate-cards or honours have busts in circles at the left-hand 
upper corners in place of the Roman numerals. The title of the honour is 
engraved between the bust and the mark of the suit. Below the design is a de- 
scription of the events therein represented. The events are not recorded in the 
perfectly systematic order of their actual occurrence, but are variously placed 
through the different suits. 

On the knave of hearts is shown " the Pope consulting with his Cardinalls, and 
contributing a million of gold towards the charge of the Armada." 

The Holy Father is seated with four cardinals at a table on which are several 
bags of money. An attendant is approaching with more bags. A mitred bishop 
forms the bust in the medallion above. 

On the nine of hearts are represented " the twelve Spanish Shipps caled the 
12 Apostles." 

The ten of hearts exhibits " The Spanish Armada consisting of 1 30 Shipps 
where of 72 were Galleasses and Galeons, in wh ch were 19290 soulders 8359 
marriners, 2080 gaily slaves, and 2630 great ordinance, y e Navy was 3 whole 
yeares preparing." 

On the eight of hearts may be seen " The Spanish Fleete weighing Ancor 
from the River Tagus the 20 th of May, 1588." 

The king of clubs presents us with " The English Fleet whereof the L d Charles 
Howard was L d Admirall and Sir Fran. Drake vice-admirall." 

The five of clubs represents " The Earle of Oxford, Northumberland, Cum- 
berland, with many more of the nobility and gentry going to visit the English Fleet." 

On the queen of hearts is shown " Queen Eliz : visiting her Camp at Tilbury, 
being mounted on Horseback with a truncheon of an ordinary Captain in her hand." 

The queen of clubs represents " Queen Eliz : walking up and downe y e Camp 
at Tilbury, and encouraging the Captaines and Souldiers." 

In both these compositions the queen wears her crown. 

On the ace of clubs we see how " The Admirall y e L d Sheffield S Tho : 
Howard and others joyn with Drake and Fenez ag' y e Spanish Fleet & worst them." 

On the three of clubs are shown the " 8 Fireships sent by y e English Admirall 
towards y e Spanish Fleet in y e middle of y e night under the conduct of Young 
and Prowse." 

The two of clubs exhibits " The Spaniards on right of the Fireships weighing 
Ancors, cutting cables, and betakeing themselves to flight with a hideouse noise, 
& in great confusion." 

On the eight of clubs is represented "The third fight between y e Eng h and 
Spanish Fleetes, being the 25 th of June, 1588, where in the English had again y e 


The ten of spades describes " The Spaniards consulting and at last resolving 
to return into Spain by the North Ocean, many of their Ships being disabled." 

On the eight of spades are shown " The Spanish Ships lost on the coast of 
Scotland, and 700 souldiers and marriners cast ashore." 

The seven of spades shows the " Spanish ships castaway on the Irish Shoare 
with marriners and seamen." 

The nine of spades exhibits the " Spanish Commanders taken prisoners an 
brought into England." 

The knave of diamonds tells how " The Spanish fleet that remained returned 
home disabled or with much dishonour." 

A monk forms the bust in the medallion above. 

On the two of spades we have " The Spaniards bewailing y e misfortune of 
their friends." 

The scene now changes on the three of spades, for here is " Queene Eliz 
with Nobles and Gentry and a great number of people giving God humble thanks 
in S l . Pauls church and having set upp the Ensignes taken from the Spaniards." 

On the four of spades is " Queene Eliz : Riding in Triumph through London 
in a chariot drawn by two Horses, and all y e companies attending her with their 

The sequence of events may be said to conclude on the knave of spades, on 
which are exhibited " Severall Jesuits hang'd for Treason against the Queene, 
and for having a hand in the Invasion." 

The bust of the knave in the medallion is that of a Jesuit. 

According to Taylor (p. 409) these cards were issued as " quiet reproofs to 
the mendicant priests who haunted England previous to the abdication of the 
King, to whom his brother, himself a King of England, said, ' Never mind York, 
they will never shoot me to make a way for you.' When said York was perhaps 
anxious to make an illicit way to the throne, please the Pope, satisfy the 
Presbyters and otherwise cool down the Nonconformists to a reasonably tepid 
point. No, no, Vagabond Charles was perhaps not the most moral, but incon- 
futably the best of the later Stuarts, and he saw through York's ' diminutive game.' " 

It has been stated that this series of cards was formerly exhibited by Sir 
Joseph Banks before the Society of Antiquaries. 

These card-pieces are from neatly engraved copper-plates, and are un- 

The backs are marked by an hexagonal network in pale black ink, a St. 
Andrew's cross within a circle forming the centre of the several hexagonal meshes. 

In connection with the Spanish Armada Series, the prints and medals num- 
bered from forty-one to fifty-four inclusive, described in the first volume of the 
Catalogue of Prints relating to ' Political and Personal Satires,' may be consulted 
with advantage. 

[3t x 2 f * n -] [Backs decorated.] 

E. 186. 


LONDON (1679?). 

(Popish Plot, &c.) 

PACK of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary suits. 

This series illustrates the events which took place, or were assumed 

to have taken place, in connection with what are known as the Popish 

Plot, the Titus Oates and Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey's Affairs. 

Each card-piece is occupied in its greater portion by a design illustrating an 

occurrence of the before -mentioned narratives. Above it, in a reserved and broad 

margin, are the mark of the suit at the left-hand corner, and the value of the piece 




in Roman numerals at the right-hand corner. In the-" honours " a title displaces 
the numerical value. 

Below the pictorial design is engraved a description of it. The ace of hearts 
may be said to begin the drama, and represents " The plot first hatcht at Rome 
by the Pope and Cardinalls, &c." 

The holy father, three cardinals, and a bishop, are seated at a table, beneath 
which the devil is crouching and grinning. 

On the nine of clubs a monk is declaiming from a pulpit to a mixed audience ; 
from his mouth proceeds a scroll on which is inscribed " Extirpate Heriticks root 
and branch." 

Below the composition may be read, " Father Connyers preaching against y e 
Oathes of Alejance and Supremacy." 

On the five of hearts, " Dr. Oates receives letters from y e Fathers to carry 
beyound Sea." 

Two Jesuits and two conspirators are shown, the latter handing despatches to 
Oates, while the Jesuit fathers look on. 

On the eight of clubs may be seen " The conspirators Signeing ye Resolve for 
Killing the King." 

The knave of diamonds shows how " Pickerin attempts to kill y e K. in S' 
James Park." 

Pickering is crouching gun in hand behind a tree while the king passes with 
his attendants. His majesty has on his hat, the attendants wear large wigs. 

The three of this suit tells how " Ashly received instructions of White- 
bread for the Society to offer Sir George Wakeman <£ 1 o OOO " [to poison the 

A Jesuit is seated at a table listening to the arguments of Ashby and point- 
ing his finger at a document. 

On the king of hearts, " Dr. Oates discovereth y e Plot to ye King and Cown- 
cell," while the two of this suit represents " Sr E B Godfree takeing D r . Oates his 

The queen of spades exhibits " The Club at y e Plow Ale house for the 
murther of S. E B Godfree" ; and the nine of the same suit represents " Sir E B 
Godfree strangled — Girald going to Stab him." 

On the three of spades may be seen " The execution of the Murtherers of Sir 
E B Godfree." The criminals are hanging on the gallows, and the cart in which 
they are standing is in the act of being drawn away. 

The ace of clubs exhibits " The Consult of Benedictine Monks and Fryers 
in the Savoy." 

On the six, " Capt e Berry and Alderman Brooks are offered 500 £ to cast the 
Plot on the Protestants." 

On the nine of hearts we have, " The seizing severall conspirators." 

On the four of the clubs comes " The tryall of Sir G Wakeman and 3 
Benedictine Monks." 

And on the five of clubs is " The Execution of the 5 Jesuitts." 

On the six of hearts is " Coleman drawn to his Execution." 

On the two of diamonds may be seen " Ireland and Grove drawn to their 

And on the knave of clubs is " Reddin standing in y e Pillory." 

The six of diamonds exhibits " Pickerin Executed." His body is on the 
ground and about to be " quartered " by the executioner. 

The events now change to the Great Fire of London. 

On the three of clubs is shown that " Gifford and Stubbs give money to a 
made to fire her master's house," while on the two of the same suit, London is re- 
presented in flames, beneath which design is inscribed — 
" London remember 

The 2 nd of September,) ! 6 * 


This interesting series has been noticed more or less in detail by various 
writers, and the cards have been exhibited before several antiquarian societies. 

Mr. Chatto refers, at p. 154 (Bibl. 4), and Mr. Taylor at p. 169 (Bibl. 9' 
to the present sequence. In the first volume of the " Catalogue of Prints relatii 
to Political and Personal Satires," descriptions of several prints and broadsidi 
relative to the events illustrated by these cards may be found, from Nos. 1,057- 
1,068, 1,073-1,078, 1, 135-1,142, pp. 601-702. 

A detailed list of the various subjects treated of in the order of the suits, be- 
ginning with the ace of hearts and ending with the king of spades, together with 
copies of eight of the cards, may be found in the " Gentleman's Magazine " fo 
September, 1849, vol. xxxii. New Series, p. 265. In this article reference 
made to a pocket volume published in 1681, bearing the title, "The Plot in a 
Dream ; or, the Discoverer in Masquerade, in a succinct discourse, and narra- 
tive of the late and present designs of the Papists against the King and Govern- 
ment. By Philo-patris." In the course of this work are several copper-plate 
engravings, the designs of which, in some cases, closely follow those of the present 
series of cards, though on the whole, they are much inferior to them. The 
writer in the " Gentleman's Magazine " instances the " attempted assassination of 
the King in St. James's Park ; the carrying of Sir E. B. Godfrey's body to Prim- 
rose Hill ; Reading's standing in the Pillory ; and the Papists hiring servants to 
fire houses," as examples of such imitation. 

In the " Catalogue of a Collection of Printed Broadsides in the Possession of 
the Society of Antiquaries of London" (Printed Books Department, B. M. 1,190, 
2. h. [academies]), are the following records : — 

" 1679, June. 581. — A true Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish-plot. 
To the Tune of Packington's Pound. The second part. 

" Describing in Verse, and in a series of twelve coloured engravings, the prin- 
cipal points of the Jesuits' or Oates's Plot. Thomas Whitbread, the Provincial of 
the Jesuits in England, and four others of that order were executed at Tyburn on 
the 20 th June, 1679. 

" 582. — Specimens of a part of a series of Historical cards, some of the sub- 
jects and costumes being evidently taken from the above broadside. They were 
published in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' in 1 849, and are inserted in this collec- 
tion in illustration of the preceding article. The idea of making playing-cards a 
vehicle of amusement, instruction, or political satire, has been a favourite one at 
all times. In 1812 the late Queen Charlotte, for her own amusement, had a 
private printing press at Frogmore Lodge, and one of its productions was a series 
of five sets of historical and chronological cards." {Op. cit. p. 134.) 

Mr. S. A. Hankey exhibited a pack of these cards before the Royal Archaeolo- 
gical Institute in March, 1873. In the paper read in connection with it, the 
author drew attention to the " very singular (and possibly unique) example of the 
display of popular feeling as stamped upon the ordinary appendages to mere play 
or amusement. And the publication of a series of plates so intensely partizan in 
their character, affords a remarkable testimony to the agitated state of the public 
mind while under the influence of the stirring revelations of Titus Oates, Bedloe, 
and the other informers. This pack was published in the year 1679 or 1680, 
when the excitement and apprehension of the alleged Popish plot was at its 
highest, and it contains the history of all the imputed conspiracies ' excellently 
engraved,' as the advertisement runs, ' on copper-plates, with very large descrip- 
tions under each card.' 

" This class of cards will be found to be the offspring of periods of extraor- 
dinary political or party excitement. They were the caricatures of the day, and 
it may be doubted if their publication had any other object than the expression of 
popular feeling in a form which, if convenient for general circulation, must have 
been objectionable to players, as likely to distract their attention from the game. 

" I have vainly essayed to discover a connection between the sequence of the 


cards under their respective suits and the order of the events which the several 
plates record. For the personal history of the informers is so intermingled with 
the story of the plot, that it is difficult even to set out the cards in their historical 
order, and, except in the account of Sir Edmondbury Godfrey, such an effort at 
arrangement only brings about a hopeless confusion in suits and numbers. God- 
frey's prominence in these events is, however, well sustained, for his tragic history 
occupies nearly the whole of the suit of spades, the description of which section 
may serve as a fair sample of the entire series. 

" Beginning with the queen, and following in order downward to the two of 
spades, we find pictorial representations described as follows : — 

" l. The Club at the Plow Alehouse for the murther of Sir E. B. Godfree. 

" 2. He is dogg'd by S e Clement's Church. 

" 3. He is persuaded to goe down Sommerset house yard. 

" 4. He is strangled. Girald going to stab him. 

" 5. The eight of spades missing. [Sir E B Godfree carrying up into a 

" 6. The body is shewed to Capt. Bedlow and M r Prance. 

" 7« The dead body conveyed out of Sommerset house in a Sedan. 

" 8. The body carry'd to Primrose Hill on a horse. 

" 9. The Murtherers are diverting themselves at Bow after the Murther. 

" 10. Next, but out of its historical place, comes the three of spades, showing 
the execution of the murtherers. 

"11. (And after that) The Funerall of S r E B Godfree. 

" The two of hearts actually opens this story, the description at the foot 
being, ' Sir E. B. Godfree takeing Dr. Oates his depositions,' while the king of 
spades, which in the natural order should have commenced the history, only repre- 
sents an after event, viz. • Mr. Prance discovering the Murther to the King and 
Council.' Not less than six of the cards represent capital executions, and the 
spirit of the whole series may be observed in the ace, or one of hearts, which 
represents ' The plot first hatcht at Rome by the Pope and Cardinalls, &c, in 
which his Holiness appears sitting key in hand, with three Cardinals and a Bishop, 
while the Devil is seen crouching under the Council table.' 

" Besides this there are depicted several ' Consults,' or minor plots, among 
Jesuits and others, in various localities. In one plate Father Conyers occupies 
the pulpit, preaching disloyalty, and in several others bribes are being offered or 
money distributed to forward the designs of the conspiracy. Coleman, White- 
bread, Langhorne, and Dugdale have each their respective histories, while two of 
the cards bring into the plot the guilt of the Fire of London, one of these repre- 
senting ' Giffard and Stubbs bribing a made to set fire to her Master's House,' and 
the other shewing London in flames, with the inscription at the foot — 
" London remember 
The second September (date) 
2 September, 1666.' " 

The Archceological Journal for 1873, vol. xxx. p. 185. 

The designs and inscriptions on these card-pieces are from engraved copper- 
plates. The cards are uncoloured. 

[3t x 2 i ">•] [Backs plain.] 



E. 187. 



(Popish Plot, &c.) 

SERIES of fifty- one card-pieces from a numeral set of fifty-two. 
The card wanting is the four of diamonds. 

This is a duplicate of the series last described (E. 1 86) relating 
to the Popish Plot and the murder of Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey. 
in. [Backs plain.] 

E. 188. 

{Printed Books Department, 1754. c.) 



(Popish Plot, &c.) 

SERIES of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits, but having the ace 
of spades, the ace of clubs, the queen of hearts, and the knave of clubs 
belonging to a different set. 

The present is another sequence of the cards previously described 
relating to the Popish Plot and the murder of Sir Edmond Berry Godfrey. E. 186. 
E. 187. 

The exceptional pieces, the two aces, the queen and the knave before men- 
tioned, belong to a series to be presently described, illustrating the " Rye House 

These cards are contained in a folio volume (1754. c.), in which are several 
prints and broadsides relating to persons and subjects of the time. 

There are two titles in MS. to the volume, which run thus : — " A Pack of 
cards of the reign of Charles 2 nd , Engraved by Faithorne, Illustrating the Great 
Fire of London, the horrid Popish Plot, Executions, Murder of Sir Edmondbury 
Godfrey. London : 1 684." 

Facing the first title is a portrait bust of Charles II. in a large oval. He 
looks towards the left. He wears a large wig, breastplate, slashed sleeves, collar 
and tassels. Below are the royal arms with the inscription, " Carolus secundus 
Dei Gratia MagngB Britaniae Francise et Hiberniee Rex." 

The print has been cut down, so that both painter's and engraver's names — if 
they existed — have been removed. 

Following the first title is " England's Mournful Elegy for the Dissolving 
the Parliament ; " it consists of eighty -two lines, beginning with — 

" Are all our hopes thus on a sudden dashed ? 
Our trust confounded and rejoicings quashed." 


And ends with — 

" Good counsel she doth on her sons bestow, 

Bids them be bold but not with rage to swell ; 

Petition, pray and all their griefs to tell 

To Heaven and their King, but not rebel. 

London : printed for S. N. w 
On the following page are two woodcuts. One represents the execution of 
Thomas Venner (the religious enthusiast) and his disciples, in January, 1660- 
1661 (Grainger, vol. vi. p. 9), the other an attack by armed horsemen on the 
coach of Charles II. 

On the opposite page is an impression from a copper-plate engraving of four 
card players sitting at table. Clubs are being played, the ace and four of the 
suit are out, and the five is shown in the hand of one of the party. A person is 
looking on, another is dancing and holding up a bag of money in his left hand, 
while a third person is sitting in a pensive mood at a side-table on which is a 
decanter and wineglass. Below is the couplet — 

" Who has the better Game still Fears the end, 
Who has the worst still Hopes his game will mend." 

On the page opposite the folio containing the eight, nine, ten, &c, of spades, 
is a broadside entitled " Merlin revived ; or an old prophecy, lately found in a 
manuscript in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire." 

The prophetic verses are divided into five sections, one section relating to 
a. d. 1650, another to 1660, a third to 1666, a fourth to 1680, and a fifth to 

The verses commence — 

" When M D C shall join with L, 
In England things will not go well 
A body shall without an head, 
Make all the neighbouring Nationes dread. 
The Lyon's whelps shall banished be, 
And seek their prey beyond the Sea ; " 
and end thus — 

" A triple league shall then be made 
And Rome of England be afraid ; 
And he who lives till eighty three, 
All this to come to pass shall see." 

On the verso of the folio last-mentioned is a printed sheet having the title, 
" A new Ignoramus, being the second new Song to the same old Tune, Law lyes 
a Bleeding." There are eight stanzas, of twelve lines each stanza, beginning — 

" Since Popish plotters 
Joined with Bogg- Trotters, 
Sham-plots are made as fast as pots are formed by potters," 

and concluding — 

" They sham us and flam us, 
They ram us and damn us, 
When, according to the Law, we find Ignoramus. 

London : printed for Charles Leigh, 1 68 1 ." 

On the verso of the next folio is " A Dialogue betwixt H. B.'s Ghost and his 
Dear Author R. L. S." The Ghost enters with — 

" Be not afraid, its kindness brings me here, 
And makes me leave a while the lower sphere, 
That I in time may warn thee of the wrong 
Done by thy scribbling pen and Lying tongue." 


The conclusion is by R. S. in the following words : — " So he's gon ; I hope 
he'l now be quiet : This is, I think, the nine and thirtieth warning I have had 
and to as little purpose as all the rest, and so Tie let 'urn know in my next pam- 
phlet, which shall out as soon as I can agree with a Bookseller. 'Tis good to be 
true to one's principles. 

" Let ghosts talk what they will of Hell and Pain, 
From real pleasure they shan't me restrain 
The itch of scribbling and the sweet of Gain. 

Finis. London : printed for J. M." 

The volume concludes with another copy of the broadside, " Merlin revived 
or, an old prophecy Lately found in a manuscript in Pontefract Castle in York- 

To this copy are added in MS. the names of the persons alluded to and 
satirized under fictitious titles in the prophetic verses. Thus — - 

" A man of cole shall plots design," is Coleman. 

" When Janock and the Truckle- Couch" may be read, Dr. Oates and Bedlc 

" And when the Valley of the Breast" implies Dugdale. 

" The son of Jane shall first relate," is Jannison. 
" An officer to tell his tale 
In wooden house shall hither sail," 

implies Serjeant who came from Flanders. 

" Through Loop-hole shall a Lawyer look, 
And Vulcan's son shall write a book ; 
A Willow to a Field shall change, 
And shew things dangerous and strange ; 
Then shall a Price be strongly prest 
To buy the Valley of the Breast, 
And Mother -Midnight shall declare 
She for religion will make war." 

The names to be supplied are Reading, Smith, Willoughby alias Dangerficld, 
Mrs. Price, who would suborn Dugdale, and Mrs. Celair, a midwife. 
To the following : 

" Janock shall go nigh to be slain, 

And Knockt down in a Dirty Lane ; 

But Janock shall escape at last 

And see the dangers he had past." 

the comment is, " Dr. Oates was accused of Sodomy by one Knox and Lane." 
" Superstition shall have a fall, 
Its trinkets hung out on a Wall. 
The Whore of Babylon's attire 
Shall by the Wall be burnt ith' Fire," 

refers to Sir William Waller, who " burnt Papist garments." 
In connection with — 

" Then from three there shall arise 
A flaming Meteor in the Skies, 
Which shall to England threat much Woe, 
And down the Miter overthrow," 
is the gloss, " The biggest Comett yt ever was seen on Dec : 1680. 

All the MS. annotations present refer to the lines which include the year 
"MDCLXXX.— 1680." 

In connection with Titus Oates, reference should be made to the following 
prints and to the comments upon them in the first volume of the " Catalogue of 
prints relating to Political and Personal Satires," p. 615 et seq. Nbs. 1073, 1078, 
1134-1139, and 1142. 

[Cards 3^ X 2[ in.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 189. 



(Rye House Plot.) 

SERIES of fifty -two numerals of the ordinary suits. It illustrates 
the conspiracy known as the " Rye House Plot." Each card-piece is 
occupied by a design connected with the history of the plot, and has 
below the requisite description. At the upper right-hand corner, in 
most instances, is the mark of the suit ; sometimes the latter is placed at the left- 
hand corner. At the opposite upper corner is the value of the card in Roman 
numbers. The illustrative designs extend to the upper edge of the card-pieces ; 
hence the marks and numbers are printed on the faces of the former. In the 
honours the titles are given in place of the Roman numbers. 

Allusion is made to this series by Chatto, who observes : " Another pack of 
historical cards, apparently published in the same reign, but of inferior execution 
to the former (E. 1 86), appears to have related to the Rye House Plot. As these 
cards are even of greater rarity than those relating to the Popish Plot, the follow- 
ing description of four of them is here given as a stimulus to collectors." (p. 

On account of the rareness of this sequence, a list of all the subjects illustrated 
in the order of the suits will be given here, premising that a consecutive historic 
order in the occurrence of the events has not been followed by the designer. 

Diamonds. — Ace. Lord Shaftsbury going for Holland. Ferguson taking 

2. Walcot coming from Ireland. 

3. Walcot and Ferguson coming from Holland. 

4. The Counsell of Six sitting. 

5. Colliford standing in the Pillory. 

6. Rump Officers ready to take command on them. 

7. Blunderbusses sent downe to Rumbold's House. 

8. Walcot, Hone, and Rouse executed. 

9. Walcot and other conspirators ready to charge y e King's Guards. 
l o. The designe of shooting the K 8 Postilian. 

Knave. Rumbold the Malster [who is exclaiming, " They shall dye "]. 

Queen. The designe of shooting into the K s Coach. 

King. The places mentioned for killing y e King [one conspirator names " Bed- 
ford Wall," a second " from Newmarket," a third " bull feast," and a fourth 
" downe y e river "]. 

Hearts. — Ace. The King's declaration read in churches, 9 th of Sept br . 

2. Goodenough and Nelthrop flying away in disguise. 

3. Conspirators viewing the city and deviding it into 20 pr 8 [one of the per- 
sons exclaims, " Wapping, &c, is ours "]. 

4. Dr. Smith sent into Scotland to invite comissinors [he exclaims, " I question 
not a Scott"]. 

5. Mon, Arms, and Grey viewing the Guards [one of them observes, " They 
may be seized"]. 

6. Lord Russell beheaded in Lincolne Inn Fields. 

7. Hone and Rouse going to be executed. 

8. Walcot going to be executed. 

9. Rumbolds Houss. 



lO. Conspirators waiting for y e K. coming by Rumbole**' House [one con- 
spirator says to the other, " Faile not"]. 

Knave. Nelthrop [who exclaims, "here's a modell"]. 

Queen. Thompson, one of y e Conspirators, taken at Hamersmith. 

King. E. of Essex cutting his throat in y e Tower. 

Clubs. — Ace. Keeling troubled in mind [he utters, " King killing is Dt 
nable "]. 

2. West going downe to White hall. 

3. Keeling going to the L d Dart. 

4. Keeling examined by S r L. Jenkins. 

5. C Rumsey delivering himself [he exclaims, "I beg the King's mercy "]. 

6. Rumsey examined by the King and Councell. 

7. West writing a Letter to S r G. J. [he mutters, " I must discover all"]. 

8. Lord Grey apprehended. 

9. Lord Grey making his escape. 
1 0. Lord Grey sent Prisoner to the Tower. 

Knave. Ferguson, the Independent Parson [who declaims, " Fight the Laird's 

Queen. A conspirator overturning a cart to stop the King's coach. 
King. The Lord Shaftsbury [he says, " Assist me freind "]. 
Spades. — Ace. Hone taken prisoner at Cambridge. 

2. Hone and Rouse sent Prisoners to Newgate. 

3. The fire at New-Market. 

4. Walcot taken in Southwarke. 

5. Walcot sending a letter to S r L. I. 

6. Rumsey sent by Shaftsbury to the Consult at Sheaphard. 

7. Lord Russell apprehended. 

8. L' 1 Howard Writing an account of the Plot. 

9. Walcot and Hone tryed at the Old Bayly. 
1 0. Lord Russell tried at the Old Bayly. 

Knave. Goodenough [he exclaims, " The Jury is ours"]. 

Queen. West bying of Armes. 

King. Ferguson paying West £lOO. 

The designs and technical execution of these cards are inferior in all respects 
to those of both E. 185 and E. 186. The impressions are from engraved metal 
plates, and are uncoloured. 

The ace of spades, ace of clubs, queen of hearts, and knave of clubs of this set 
may be found making up deficiencies in the previous sequence of the Popish Plot, 
E. 188 (P. B. Dep. 1754 c.) 

Reference may be made to No. 1 1 29, in the first vol. of the " Catalogue of 
Prints relating to Political and Personal Satires." 

[3ir X 2\ in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 190. 



(Reign or James II.) 

'WENTY-EIGHT cards from a numeral series of fifty-two of the 
ordinary suits. 

The two and three of clubs, four, eight, nine, ten, and king of 
hearts, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and knave of spades, 
and the two, three, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and king of diamonds are 


This sequence is intended to illustrate events during the reign of King James 
II. (1685-1688). 

Each piece is occupied for the greater portion by an illustrative design, be- 
neath which is its description. Above in a broad margin is the mark of the suit 
at the right-hand corner, and at the left the value of the piece is indicated in 
Roman numbers. The suit marks in hearts and diamonds are in simple outline, 
on the coate-cards the titles in large letters displace the Roman numbers. 

The twenty-eight pieces here preserved relate to the following circum- 
stances : — 

Clubs. — Ace. A new comishond Court for the inquier into the Ecclesias- 
ticall Afairs. 

4. About 200 ministers suspended in y e countey of Duram for not reading 
the Kings Declaration. 

5. The Archbishop of Canterberey with 6 more Bishops Deliver a petishon 
to the King. 

6. The Bishops are sent to the Tower by Watter. 

7. The Bishops are cleared at their triall 2 of y e judges, were after displaced 
they giving for the Bishops. 

8. The Keys of the Tower sent to the Lord Major. 

9. Judg Harbert writing a book in Defence of the King's dispensing Power. 
1 o. Oxford and Winchester Declared to be Desolved from being a bodey politik. 
Knave. The French wayting an apertunity to Land in England, but are 

prevented by the Dutch. 

Queen. The F. King and y e K. of Spain with other Princes ingaging to root 
out y e Northern herisey. 

King. Comishoners sent into y e cuntry to perswade y e people to choose such 
men as shall take of y e pen 1 Laws. 

Hearts. — Ace. The King leaving London about three a clock in the morn- 
ing in his barge. 

2. The King and with 2 more are stoped by rude Seamen being in an 

hoy by the Isle of Shipey. 

3. The Chancellor taken in Wapping in Disguise. 

5. The Chancellor going to the Tower, and is followed by many more of y e 

6. The Prince of Orange going into Exeter. 

7. The Prince of Orange coming to St. Jameses, is received with great Joy. 
Knave. The Queen and child and father Peters going away in the night. 
Queen. A fight at Reding, wherein the Irish souldiers suffred most, the people 

firing out at window on them. 

Spades. — Ace. 500 thousand pounds sent from France yearly to Charls the 
2 to keep the sitting of the Parliament of. 

2. Severall persons sent to Newgate for murdering the E l of Essex. 

3. The Duches of Modena Presenting a wedge of gold to the Lady of 
Loreta that y e Q. might conceive a Son. 

Queen. Severall firebauls found on severall persons in Southwark yet sum 
were cleared. 

King. Strikt watch kept by the Inhabitants of London. 

Diamonds. — Ace. Many witnesses sworn before a great body of y e Peers 
that y e child was a Lawful! Prince of Wales. 

4. The Dutch flett put out to Sea, and are driven back by a Tempest. 
Knave. The King coming from Salisbury, the Annie following in hast, the 

Enemy not being near. 

Queen. The King going to Salisbury. 

These card-pieces are poor in design, and are coarsely executed. They are 
from copper-plates, and are uncoloured. 

The orthography is very bad. 

[3t X 2fin.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 191. 



(Reign of James II. Rebellion, &c.) 

>IFTY-TWO card-pieces of a numeral series of the usual suits. 

This series illustrates events of the reign of James II., more parti- 
cularly such as relate to the attempts to restore Catholicism in England, 
and to the Rebellion which followed. 

Each card is occupied in greater part by a design commemorating the events 
in question. Below is a description of the design, and above the latter in a broad 
margin is the mark of the suit at the left-hand corner, and the value of the piece 
at the right-hand corner in Roman numbers. In the coate-cards titles displace 
the value numbers at the right-hand corners. At the centre of the upper margin 
each card is marked with an Arabic numeral — the number going from one to 
fifty-two — indicating its place in the sequence of events. 

The series begins with the knave of clubs — which represents the L d Chancellor 
condeming Protestants in West. 

Clubs. — Ace (2). The Earle of Essex's throat cut. 

Two (3). The inscription taken out of y e monument. 

Three (4). Oates whipt from Algate to Tyburn. 

Four (5). Drinking the King's Health in the West, L d Ch e ', &c. 

Five (6). Hanging Protestants in y e West. 

Six (7). Two BP* and Judge Jenner speake rudely to D' Huff [one of the 
Bishops exclaims, " Fie huff y e D r Huff for all your huff"] 

Seven (9). The Tryal of the Seaven Bishops. 

Eight (8). Magdalen Colledge Scholars turned out. 

Nine (10). The Seaven Bishops going to the Tower. 

Ten (12). Refuseing to assist at y e Entrance of y e Pope's Nuncio. 

King (ll). The Earle of Castlemain sent Embassador to y e Pope. 

Queen (13). The Midwife cutting her Husband to pieces. 

Spades. Ace (14). The Popish midwife putting his quarters in y e Privy. 

Two (15). The Popish midwife burning. 

Three (16). Whiping Heresy out of Windsor chaple. 

Four (17). The Procession of y e Host through S l James's Park. 

Five (18). Doing of Penance up a high hill with Peas in his Shoos. 

Six (19). A Lady going to S Winifrids well for Penance. 

Seven (22). Praying to y e Lady of Loretto for a Prince of Wales to be bom. 

Eight (23). From Rome a consecrated smock. 

Nine (25). Prince of Wales dressing by y e Fire. 

Ten (26). P. of Wales baptizd y e Nuncio stands Godfather. for y e Pope. 

Knave (20). A Jesuit preaching against our Bible [one of the audience 
exclaims, " You lie "]. 

Queen (21). Madam W — ks at Confession. 

King (24). My Lord Chancellor at the Beds feet. 

Diamonds. — Ace (39). T. Ellis in Grocers Ally entertaining his Friends [the 
host raising a glass in his right hand exclaims " to y e P. of Orange."] 

Two (38). Lime Street Chaple pulling down and burnt. 

Three (37). Burning y e Popish Chaple in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

Four (35). Bucklers Berry Popish Chaple burnt in the Stocks Market. 


Five (34). The Prince of Orange coming to London. 

^ x (33)- Father Peters burning his papers. 

Seven (36). The Fight at Redding. 

Eight (29). Mortar peices put upon the Tower. 

Nine (30). The Prince of Orange Landing. 

Ten (28). The Mass house at St. Jones's pulling it down, &c. [one of the 
destroyers calls out, " Capt. Tom "]. 

Knave (31). Singing of Mass thinking that the French had landed. 

Queen (32). The Queen and Prince of Wales making their escape. 

King (27). Prince of Wales giving audience. 

Hearts. — Ace (52). My Lord Chancellor in the Tower. 

Two (51). L. P. taken in disguise going to Sea. 

Three (50). A Papist of quallity taken at Wapping. 

Four (49). A papist in disguise taken at y e Tower. 

Five (47). A preist marching off with bag and baggage. 

Six (46). A preist hard very hard at Work. 

Seven (45)- A preist selling of Relicks by auction [he exclaims, " Thos. a 
Becket's old stocking $s. once"]. 

Eight (42). Singing of Lilly bullero. 

Nine (4 1 ). Cry y e Prince of Orange's third Declaration. 

Ten (40). The Army going over to y e Prince of Orange. 

Knave (48). Tyrconel arming y e Papists in Ireland. 

Queen (43). Singing O brave popery, delicate Popery, oh. 

King (44). My L d Mayor & Sheriffs wait on y e Prince at Windsor. 

The designs on these card-pieces are in general good, as is also their technical 
execution. The orthography is better as a rule than in the previous series. 
The impressions are from engraved metal plates, and are uncoloured. 

[3i X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 192. 



(Marlborough and his Time.) 

SET of fifty-two numerals of the ordinary character. 

These cards illustrate the victories of Marlborough, and the 
political events of his time. Satirical designs relating to the contem- 
porary history of France and Germany are also included. 
Each piece is chiefly occupied by an illustration, having its description below. 
The suit mark is above at the right-hand corner, and the value of the piece is 
shown by Roman numbers at the left-hand upper corner. 

The marks and values have been engraved on the field of the compositions, not 
any separate margin having been retained for them. 

Some of the compositions are of a very curious character, perhaps more being 
attempted to be conveyed in them than in the designs of any of the other politico- 
historical cards. 

The following pieces may be cited as worthy of particular notice :-— 
Ace of Spades. — The French King (Louis XIV.) is in bed, three large cats 
are on the floor of the chamber. Below is the following inscription : 

" The French King's Dream. The fat cat denotes the Partisans fatten'd with 


y e substance of y* nation, y e lean cat y e People of France exhausted by heavy Im- 
positions, and y e blind cat y e K 9 Councel who are at their witts end." 

Queen of Spades. — Represents the French King and Madame de Maintenon 
driving turkeys. From the King's mouth, " How do you sell your Turkeys now " ? 
and from Madame de Maintenon, " To ye old trade again." 

Below the composition may be read — 

" At first dishonest when I Turkeys fed, 
Little I thought t' enjoy a Monarchs bed, 
But now y* dotard's glutted with a baddy reign 
I may to Turkey keeping go again." 

Two of Clubs. — Represents the siege of Dendermond, below which is : " Sept' 
y e St l 7o6i Dendermond surrenders to General Churchill his Grace y e Princt 
and D. of Marlboros Brother.'* 

Three of Clubs. — " The French abandon Ghent at the approach of Marlb'ro, 
June 2, 1706." 

Eight of Clubs. — " The Duke of Marlboro obliges Limburg to surrender at 
discretion, Sept. 28, 1705." 

Ten of Diamonds. — Here is represented " The Battle of Ramillies, where y e 
D. of Marlborough, &c. took 26 standards and 63 ensigns, the French loosing 
20,000 men, all their Baggage, Ammunition, &c." 

Eight of Diamonds. — " The Burgomasters and Magistrates of Brussells present 
the D. of Marlborough with y e Keys of y e City in a Gold Bason, Oct. 27, 1706." 

Ace of Hearts. — Exhibits Queen Anne in a triumphal chariot, the horses of 
which are trampling on the arms, crown, and insignia of the King of France and 
the Pope. Below are the lines — 

" As y e bright chariot of the quickening Sun 
Dos over noisome Clouds and Vapours run, 
So mighty Anne on Victory dos ride, 
And tramples down y e Pope's and tyrant's Pride." 

On the ace of clubs is an equestrian portrait of "Joseph, Emperour of 
Germany, born July 16, 167 8." 

On the ten of clubs is a portrait bust of " Prince Eugene of Savoy, born 
October 18, 1663." 

The queen of clubs presents a large portrait bust of " Anne by y e Grace of 
God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Queen Defender of y e Faith." 

On the king of clubs is the companion portrait of " Charles III. King of 
Spain, born October l 8 , 1685." 

While the queen of diamonds presents us with "The Princess Roy 1 of 

The last cards of the sequence are the king and queen of hearts. On the first 
piece is a portrait bust of " His Royal Highness, George, Prince of Denmark," 
born 1 653. On the second, one of " The most Illustrious Anna Sophia of 
Hannover, born 1630." 

The impressions are from engraved metal plates, the technic of which, is 
laboured, and heavy, and but of mediocre character. The cards are uncoloured. 

[3f X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 



E. 193. 



(Marlborough and his Time.) 

SERIES of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits. These cards illus- 
trate the victories of Marlborough, and the events — both domestic and 
foreign — of his time. 

This set is a duplicate of that last described (E. I92). 
2f in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 194. 

{Prints relating to Political and Personal Sati?'es, No. 1 546.) 


LONDON, 1710. 

SERIES of twenty-six card-pieces of the suits of hearts and diamonds, 
engraved on a single sheet, 17^- in. wide by 14 in. high. 

The greater portion of each piece is occupied by a design illus- 
trating some event in the career of Dr. SacheverelL Below is a 
couplet referring to the design above. At the upper right-hand corner of each 
piece is the representation of a diminutive playing-card of the ordinary kind. 

On the two of diamonds Dr. Sacheverell is shown in his coach, attended by 
a crowd which cheers him ; below is the verse — 

" Others would swell with pride if thus cares'd, 
But he bears humble thoughts within his breast." 

The ace of hearts exhibits Dr. Sacheverell walking towards a pulpit, and below 
the lines — 

" From hence the Church's restoration rose, 
And made Discovery of her secret Foes." 

The knave of hearts represents Mr. Dolben, son of a former Archbishop of 
York, presenting the Articles of Impeachment against Dr. Sacheverell to the House 
of Lords. Below may be read — 

" Here an Archbishop's son y e Church impeaches, 
Whose sire, if living, would abhor such speeches." 

A detailed account of each of these twenty-six card-pieces may be found in the 
second volume of the "Catalogue of Prints relating to Political and Personal 
Satires," p. 332, No. 1546. The impressions are from copper-plates. The 
designs and technic are of mediocre character. The card-pieces are uncoloured. 

[3§- X 2fin.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 195. 



(Rump Parliament.) 

SET of photographs from a numeral series of fifty -two card-pieces of 
the ordinary character. 

The rare originals from which these photographs were taken were 
presented by Thaddeus Hyatt, Esq., of Gloucester Gardens, Hyde 
the late Hon. Charles Sumner, of Boston, U.S., in the possession of 
whose executors these cards now are, it is believed. Before they left Englanc 
these photographs were allowed to be executed, as records for the National Col- 
lection by permission of Mr. T. Hyatt. 

A pack of the original cards was exhibited before the Archaeological Associa- 
tion by Mr. S. L. Tucker in 1854, on which a paper was read by Mr. Pettigrew, to 
be found in the " Journal of the British Archaeological Association," vol. ix. pp. 121, 
308, 1854. Mr. Pettigrew remarked on the originals before the Association, that 
" These cards are to be considered as belonging to a political game, and are es- 
pecially illustrative of the Rump Parliament and the private actions and conduct 
of several of the individuals most conspicuous during the Commonwealth. The 
nature of the subject clearly fixes the period to which they belong. They must be 
assigned to the time of Charles II., and it may be presumed that they were executed 
in Holland, and that they formed a source of amusement to the royalists at the 
Hague during that sovereign's residence in that country, on the captivity and 
execution of his father. The history of them, as far as I have been able to obtain 
it, is but meagre. They were purchased by the late — Prest, Esq., of Conn aught 
Place. He obtained them at the Hague, for the sum of thirty-five guineas, of a 
gentleman who stated that they had descended in his family from the time of their 
fabrication, and they have been in Mr. Prest's family for upwards of thirty years. 
It is not a little singular that no other copy is known, and that hitherto no notice 
of such a pack has appeared. As an addition, therefore, to the materials of the 
history of playing-cards, a description of these, illustrated by historical notes and 
references, may not be inappropriate in the pages of oiu* Journal, and useful to 
future labourers in this branch of inquiry. 

" The pack consists of fifty-two cards, measuring 3^ in. in length by 2 in. 
in breadth. They are engraved on copper, and their execution exhibits no 
deficiency of talent on the part of the artists employed. The suits are marked, 
and the number of the suit on the upper corners of the cards, and the description 
of the subject, occupying the body of the card is engraved at the bottom." 

Mr. Pettigrew's paper is accompanied by copies of eight of the original cards. 
On the first sheet is given the eight of diamonds, which represents " Don Haselrig 
K* of y e coddled braine ; " the nine of diamonds, showing how " Lenthall runs away 
with his Mace to the Army ; " the queen of diamonds illustrating " the takeing of 
the Holy League and Covenant ; " and the five of hearts, portraying " The E. of 
Pem. in y e H. of Com. thanks y e Speaker for his admission." 

On the second sheet are the seven of hearts, representing " Nathaniel Fines, 
whereby hangs a tale ; " the eight of hearts, having a full-length figure of " Lam- 
bert, K* of y e Golden Tulip ; " the knave of the same suit, whereon " Hugh Peters 
shews the bodkins and thimbles given by the wives of Wappin for the good old 
cause ; " and the five of spades, where stand figured " Nye and Godwin, Oliver's 

[3f X 2 in.] [Backs plain ?] 


E. 196. 



SMALL sheet, 8^- x 9f in. wide, having engraved on it a knave and 
a king, between which is an ordinary figure in Oriental costume, kneeling 
on one leg, and holding a diamond (card suit mark) up in each hand 
towards the figure on each side of him. 
The king is in profile and in the usual conventional card-costume of the time, 
but the face is intended to be a portrait of George III. The knave has a three- 
quarter face — a portrait of Lord Chancellor Thurlow — looking towards the king 
and the diamond held by the central figure. The knave wears a large wig and 
broad hat. Below the coate-card, the king, is engraved " Geo. III.," below the 
knaA r e, " Thurlow," while beneath the central figure may be read " Hastings." 

At the base of the sheet is the inscription, " Court cards the best to deal 
with." At the right-hand corner is the address, " Boyne. Price 3 s . the P r . col d ." 

The impressions are from aquatinta plates, and are strongly marked and 
coloured. On the verso of the sheet is written in MS. "Pub d . Feb. 8 th . 1788, 
for S. Doughty and Co. No. 19 Holborn, London." 
See Taylor Bibl. 9, pp. 433, 520. 
[3|- X 2g in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 197. 



SERIES of thirty- four cards from a numeral set of fifty-two pieces 
of the usual character. The cards wanting are the four, five, six, 
seven, eight, nine, ten, knave, queen, and king of spades, and the ace, 
two, three, four, five, six, seven, and eight of diamonds. This se- 
quence is of a satirical character. Each of its members is occupied by a figure 
subject, having its explanation in verse below the design. Above at the left- 
hand corner is a representation of a small playing card of the ordinary kind. 
The small coate-cards are of the conventional forms. 

On the nine of diamonds five ladies are represented in a saloon seated at a 
card-table. Two cards are displaved, one is an ace. Below is the couplet — 

" Whilst fields of blood y Heroes do delight, 
The Fair at Oumber wast y e tedious night." 

On the ten of diamonds the interior of a shop is exhibited ; articles of plate 
are on the shelves, and a dice-box and dice are on the counter, by which stand 
two ladies and a gentleman. Below may be read — 

" At Epsom oft these Rafflings I have seen 
But assignation's w e they cheifly mean." 



On the knave of the same suit a quack, standing on a platform, is exhibiting 
and praising his nostrum before a crowd. The accompanying lines are — 

" Give me the gold cryes quack heres my Pills, 
You think for cure, no, to increase your Ills." 

On the four of clubs a ruined gambler is returning in despair from a club- 
house. He has thrown down on the ground cards, dice-box, and dice. A jeering 
companion is holding a money-bag towards him and exclaiming — 

" You seem to be craisy at y e loss of your coin, 
If you want money take some of mine." 

On the king of clubs are shown a man and his wife dancing together ; a 
fiddler is playing to them ; on a table is an overturned empty wine-jug, by which 
stands a large glass. Below is the couplet — 

** A well matched pair they'l never freet, 

For a pound of greif woint pay an ounce Debt." 

On the four of hearts is a lady petting a parrot, and the lines — 

" Phillis thy lovers I'm affraid have left you, 
That Poll's so much in favour to divert thee." 

* On the five of hearts is a widow being visited by a female friend ; they are 
taking a glass of cordials together, while the latter exclaims — 

" No more w th deep Concern y e dead lament, 
A living Husband's w* we Ladys want." 

The ten of hearts shows us Jupiter descending on an eagle towards a seated 
woman ; below is the verse — 

" Jove for a mistres down to Earth does come, 
And like a london Rake leaves his poor wife alone." 

On the three of spades may be seen four billiard-players engaged at their 
amusement ; the accompanying lines are — 

" Think not a lossing gamester will be fair 
Who at y e best ne're play'd upon the square." 

Mr. Chatto alludes to these satirical pieces, observing — 

" A pack of satirical cards, belonging to W. H. Diamond, Esq. Frith 
Street, Soho, appears to have been executed about the same time (Reigns of 
Queen Anne and King George I.) All the subjects are coarsely engraved, 
though some of them display points of character very much in the style of 

11 In the ten of spades a Moorfields Quack is seen pointing to his sign, with 
the inscription — 

' To famed Moorfields I dayly do repair, 

Kill worms, cure itch, and make y e ladies fair.' 

" In the ace of diamonds a lady is seen showing her palm to a fortune-teller, 
with the inscription — 

' How can you hope this Gipsey drabb should know 
The Fates' decrees and who was made for you.' 

" In the four of diamonds a lady is seen exchanging some of her clothes for 
china ware with an itinerant dealer. The inscription is — 

" Your pockets madam surely are wondrous bare, 
To sell your very clothes for china ware.' (p. 158.) 
In the pack alluded to by Mr. Chatto there was a red duty stamp on the ace 
of spades ; it is not present here. 

[3$ X 2 i in -3 [Backs plain.] 


E. 198. 

(Prints of Political and Personal Satires, vol. i. No. 81.) 



SATIRICAL print representing James I., Henry IV. of France, 
Prince Maurice (Stadtholder) , and Christian IV. of Denmark, playing 
at cards and backgammon against the Pope and his ecclesiastical 
brethren. King Henry is playing a trump card — the ace of hearts ; 
his antagonist, a monk, having the knave only. A five of hearts is displayed upon 
the table as mark of the trump suit. 

This print bears at its upper margin the title of " The Revells of Christen- 
dome." At the lower right-hand corner is " T. Cocksonus Sculp." 

The lower portion of the sheet is occupied by forty-eight lines of verse, in 
four columns of twelve lines each. Below these is the address, " Sould by Mary 
Oliver in Westminster Hall." 

Thomas Cockson, the engraver of this print, nourished circa 1620 ; his better 
works, at least, are dated 1 620- 1 630. 

" He worked exclusively with the graver in a neat, finished, stiffmanner, and 
engraved a great variety of portraits, among them of James I. sitting in Parlia- 
ment, his daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, Charles I. in Parliament, Louis XIII., 
Mary de Medicis, also the ' Revels of Christendom,' and some pieces with 
shipping." (Redgrave "Dictionary of Artists of the English School," p. 87.) 

The "Revels of Christendome " was probably "of German origin, and pub- 
lished in 1609, when England and France were negotiating the peace between 
the United Provinces and Spain. This peace was a severe blow to the Pope, and 
Maurice was watching the game which promised so much benefit to his country. 
See 'Royal and Ecclesiastical Gamesters,' No. 101, 1626, which was imitated 
from this print." (Catalogue of Prints, &c, relating to "Political and Personal 
Satires," vol. i. p. 42, No. 8 1, where this piece is described in detail.) 

[13J. X 8$ in.] 

E. 198. 2. 


REDUCED copy with several alterations of the piece just described. 
Four verses in Dutch displace all other inscriptions. The technic is 
of an inferior character to that of E. 198. 
[lof x 7jin.] 


E. 199. 

{Prints of Political and Personal Satires, vol. i. No. 101.) 


LONDON (1626). 

SATIRICAL print, imitated and reversed from E. 198. This 

version is made to refer to the support given to the principles of the 

Reformation by resistance to the Catholic powers. The trump card 

exposed on the table is here the ten of hearts. There is an article 

on this print in the " Gentleman's Magazine " for July, 1 853. The print is also 

fully described in the first volume of the " Catalogue of Prints relating to 

Political and Personal Satires," page 61, No. IOI. 

[I4f X IO* in.] 

E. 200. 

{Prints of Political and Personal Satires, vol. i. No. 1033.) 



PRINT executed in aqua tinta, representing " Hans Buling, a mounte- 
bank of great notoriety, who frequently exhibited in Covent Garden." 
The design is copied. from a Delft dinner-plate, on the back of 
which are the initials "B. S. 17 50." The centre of the plate 
is occupied by Buling with a monkey, &c. Coming towards him, as he enters 
from the left, is a harlequin grotesquely draped. On the broad edge of the plate 
are four groups of playing-cards, two groups containing four cards each group, and 
two having five cards. Immediately below the inferior margin of the plate is 
the address : "I. R. Cruickshank fecit." 

This piece is described in the first volume of the " Catalogue of Prints re- 
lating to Political and Personal Satires," p. 584, No. 1033. 
[10 X 8f in.] 

E. 201. 

{Prints of Political and Personal Satires, vol. ii. No. 1407.) 



LARGE woodcut with letterpress, coloured in red, crimson, and blue, 
representing "A prodigal sifted and found out in his several De- 
baucheries. With a lively representation of the many inconveniences 
and trams of Evils attending Idleness, Tipling, Gaming, and Drun- 
kenness, &c." 



Tlie composition represents a room, on the walls of which hang pictures of the 
evil events in the life of the prodigal. Among these, gambling is portrayed on 
the fourth design from the left. The prodigal is being held on a large sieve by 
his father and mother, through the meshes of which his actions are being sifted. 
As the latter fall, cards and dice, among other symbols of prodigality, may be ob- 
served. The ace of hearts and the three of clubs are displayed. The kneeling 
and repentant prodigal is supposed to exclaim — 

" Pardon, dear Parents, and I'll tell the truth, 
What I have done in my debauched Youth." 

The print is stated to have been " Published in Love to those concerned, and 
recommended to them as a tender caution to avoid the same excess. London : 
Sold in Aldermary Church yard." 

This piece is described in the second volume of the " Catalogue of Prints relating 
to Political and Personal Satires," p. 1 53, No. 1407. 

[171 X 12f in.] 

E. 202. 



SHEET of eight card-pieces, representing caricatured figures of well- 
known personages. Two figures in the lower row are designed as 
knaves ; the first, directed towards the left hand, is entitled " Mons r le 
Dupe," the other, turned to the right, is " Mons r Sure Card," the name 
" Fox " being at the upper right-hand corner, and the knave's face fox-like in cha- 
racter. Above these knaves are caricature representations of Fox and Welbore 
Ellis. Fox is exclaiming, as he marches to the left, " Military Government — no 
Militia," while he holds in his left hand papers marked " Irish Reversions," " Peer- 
ages," " 1400 in Agent." Welbore Ellis, with a drum, cries out, "No, no Militia, 
by Gad." A figure of S. Anson follows ; he remarks, " Deep play this, or nothing." 
Winchelsea succeeds, muttering, " I'll walk on over to Germany." In the lower 
row are a statue of " Cumberland " beneath an architectural canopy, and a figure 
of an armed man standing on a prostrate skeleton, which points at him a dart. 
A bag, from which money has escaped, lies in the foreground of the latter compo- 

The Jleurs-de-lys on the ground of the two knaves are noteworthy. The impres- 
sions are from etched plates of a soft metallic character, and are uncoloured. 
[Knaves, 3^ X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 203. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the usual suits, the honours havii 
on them full-length costume figures. The suit marks are placed 
upon the cards in the ordinary positions, those of spades and clubs 
being engraved, those of hearts and diamonds being stamped in red 
colour. On the general face of the card various animals with landscape back- 
grounds are represented. 

Accompanying the series are two supplementary pieces, on which is engraved 
the following inscription : " The Use. These cards of all sorts of Birds and 
Beasts are very ingeniously contrived, and very diverting to young Gentlemen 
and Ladys who are Lovers of ingenuity. The suites of Harts and Diamonds con- 
tain all sorts of Birds. The Clubbs and Spades all sorts of Beasts. Sold by John 
Lenthall, stationer, at y e Talbot, ag st S'* Dunstan's church in Fleet Street, 
London. Where are sold the severall Fine Sorts of Pictured Cards following, viz : 
The Whole World described, each card being a compleat map, neatly engraved 
and corrected by y e best Geographers, &c." 

A few of these card-pieces are of a somewhat amusing character, e. g. the 
ten of spades has on it a " cat a fidling and mice a dancing." On the four of 
spades is represented " Orpheus playing to the Wild Beasts." On the two of 
clubs is an unicorn, while on other pieces bulls are fighting, bears are being 
hunted, &c. 

Lenthall, the publisher of these cards, carried on business at the before- 
mentioned address from 1665 to 1685. He professed to be related to William 
Lenthall, speaker of the House of Commons during the Long Parliament (1641- 
1 ^53)? which opposed Charles I. at the beginning of 1642. This, however, 
did not prevent him, as Taylor remarks, from figuring " one-eyed Hewson " 
as the knave of clubs, accoutred in a leather apron, in allusion to his original 
trade of a cobbler, the subject of many a satire in the songs of the Cavaliers. 

" And here are old Noll's brewing vessels, 

And here are his dray and his slings, 
Here are Hewson' s awl and his bristles, 

With diverse other odd things." 

(" The Sale of Rebellious Household Stuff," Percy's Reliques, ii. b. iii. 14.) 

See Taylor, Bibl. 9, p. 209, and " Journal of the Archaeological Association," 
vol. ix. p. 316, concerning " Huson the Cobbler." 

The duty stamp in red is placed on the ace of spades, above the head of the 
lion thereon represented. Taylor has a note to the following effect : " After the 
1 1 th of June, 1 7 1 1 , for thirty-two years, the Act directs there shall be a 
duty on each pack of cards made of sixpence, and one of the cards stamped on 
the spotted side, as the commissioner of stamp duties shall direct, under a penalty 
of £5. Lenthall's cards, however, which were certainly before 1685, bear a red 
stamp with a crown, and that sum stamped over the design on the ace of spades, 
as do also more than one other pack of that period mentioned in the course of this 

r AMUSING. 287 

history." {Op. cit. p. 225.) Though the crown can be made out on the present 
ace of spades, the inscription above it is not apparent. 
The designs on these cards are bad, and the execution of them is of a very 
inferior character. The impressions are from metal plates, and are coloured 
occasionally in a most absurd manner. Around each piece is an ornamental 
frame-like border. The names of the animals delineated are placed above the 
latter, often a very necessary procedure for their due recognition. 

[37 x 2 f m *3 [Backs plain.] 

E. 204. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the usual kind. Each card has the 
suit* mark stamped at the upper right-hand corner, of a size much 
larger than the design traced out by the engraver. The value of 
the piece is indicated by Roman numbers at the left-hand upper corner. 
On the honours the titles are engraved at the tops of the pieces in the centre. 

The greater portion of each card is occupied by an engraved design, mostly 
of a laughable or grotesque character, intended to illustrate some humorous 
proverb which is inscribed below. For example, on the five of clubs a woman 
has rushed into a house in search of her daughter, whom she discovers in a cup- 
board bed-place. In the room are a man's hat and cloak on a stool. Below the 
design is the following proverb : " The old woman had never lookd in the oven 
for her Daughter had she not been there herselfe." The five of spades illustrates 
the saying : " Every one as they like, said the old woman when she kissed her 
cow." On the nine of spades is a party drinking, fiddling, and dancing, to the 
proverb : " An ounce of mirth is worth a pound of sorrow." On the eight of 
diamonds are portrayed women and geese quarrelling, below may be read : 
" Where there are women and geese there wants noe noise." The king of 
diamonds exhibits three persons in doctors' robes at a table, above which are books 
on a shelf, below are the words : " If youl avoid old Charon, the fferry man, con- 
sult Dr. Dyett, Dr. Quiett, and Dr. Merry man." The design on the five of 
diamonds shows the devil sitting by a cauldron over a fire, from which he has taken 
a bowl of soup, and with which he regales himself. Cautiously approaching the 
bowl on the devil's knees is a man with a long-handled spoon, by which he trusts 
to obtain a mouthful of the savoury potage ; below is the proverb : " A good 
stomach is the Best Sawce." This has not appeared to some former possessor of 
the cards to be sufficiently to the point so he has written the following around the 
foregoing motto : " There's need of a long spoon to eat with the devil." The 
proverb illustrated on the eight of hearts is the following : " He y l Letts his 
wife go to every wake, and his Horse drinke at every Lake, shall never be without 
a Jilt and a Jade." 

One or two of the compositions are of a gross and repulsive kind. All are 
uncoloured, and mostly poor in design and technical execution. 

[3l X 2 t in -3 [Backs plain.] 


E. 205. 



SERIES of fifty -two numerals of the usual suits. 

The card-pieces composing this sequence are of artistic as well 
of amusing character. Each member of it exhibits one or more figur 
and accessories with good architectural backgrounds. The subjects 
illustrated are of very varied and opposite kinds. Egyptian, classic, Gothic themes 
occur ; events in ancient and mediaeval history, of the modern stage, and panto- 

The full-length figures on the coate-cards are carefully coloured, the kings 
having a crown above the mark of the suit, which is placed at the upper right- 
hand corner. The designs, composition, drawing, and engraving on these card- 
pieces have been well studied and carefully executed. The technic is chiefly in 
the stippled, dotted, or Bartolozzi manner. 

This set is alluded to by Chatto, Boiteau D'Ambly, and Taylor. The latte: 
gives two illustrations from it, accompanied by the following remarks : — 

" Specimens of pictorial cards designed by a Viennese artist, and published 
four at a time in the 'Repository of Arts' for 1818-19, and as a pack afterwards, 
two editions of which are in the Paris library. We should need the entire set to 
be engraved to give a full idea of the variety of the very original and fantastic de- 
signs on these cards — knights in armour, Eastern warriors, figures of the classic 
mythology, scenes from modern tales and dramas, costumes of every age and 
clime, well drawn, and displaying great versatility of talent, but with no apparent 
order or object, and crowded with accessories of every conceivable kind, in which 
the marks of the suits are introduced in the most ingenious manner possible. The 
descriptions in the original work are by the late J. B. Papworth, Esq., architect, 1 
from which we extract the one explanatory of Plate xxxii. 

"The six of diamonds represents the characters of a pantomime, and the several 
personages of the scene will be easily recognised. The emaciated and decrepit 
debauchee is still assuming the gallant, and mixing the habiliments of the soldier 
with the airs and manners of a youthful petit maitre. He is gazing on a distant 
lady, while she whom he vainly fancies he possesses in perfect security, is bestow- 
ing her favours on the first idiot that solicits them. The female is wantonly 
attired, and holding in her right hand a mask, the emblem of her duplicity, and 
from the other arm suspends a ridicule, the type of her condescensions. The 
diamond forms an ornament to a fan, ridicules and the furniture of the apartment. 
The descriptions of the two succeeding contain no more than the prints themselves 
will suggest. Only the marks of suits are coloured, and even this hardly redeems 
them from the charge of being too indistinct for use." (Bibl. 9, p. 181.) 

These card-pieces are of very limp texture, large in size, and undecorated 

[3J- X 2i in.] [Backs plain.] 

1 John Buonarotti Papworth, who, on the establishment of the Government 
School of Design in 1837, was appointed director. He fitted up and arranged 
the schools. (" A Dictionary of Artists of the English School," &c, by Samuel 
Redgrave. London: 1874.) 





E. 206. 




SERIES of forty-eight cards from a set of fifty-two of the ordinary 

The pieces here absent are the ten of spades, the four and eio-ht 
of diamonds, and the four of clubs. 
This sequence is composed of musical cards. Most of the pieces have on 
them four lines of music, commencing at the top ; following these is a verse of a 
song, to which succeeds two more lines of music, for accompaniment by the flute. 
Between the upper lines of music are words of the song, of which the verse in the 
centre of the card is a continuation. 

A few of the cards have eight lines of music with accompanying words, in 
place of six lines, and verse in the centre. The lower lines are of flute accom- 

At the upper left-hand corner of each piece is the representation in miniature 
of an ordinary playing card. The designs on the honours are of the conventional 
character, and are uncoloured. The whole designs, music and words, are from 
neatly engraved copper-plates. The orthography is often very bad. The duty 
stamp of " vi Pence " has been impressed in red on the ace of spades, immediately 
on the small card design at the upper left-hand corner. 

The king of spades commences the series, to the music and words of " The 
First King :" 

" When Adam was the King of Spades, 

And Eve his wife did sew ; 
Then delving was the best of Trades, 
No pride no Fraud they knew." 

The queen of the same suit follows to the tune, &c, of " The Fair Jade," and 
the knave to that of the *' Miser." 

The other cards of the suit produce the " Fair Ingrate," " Little Jeny," " Dis- 
pairing Lover," "Lovers' Resolution," " All Must Love," "Pritty Cloe," "Dying 
Lover," " Advice to Celia," and " Vain Pursuit." 

In the suit of diamonds, the king appears under the aspect of " True Lover," 
assuring his beloved that 

" Not all the Diamonds, all the gold 
That all the Mines on Earth can hold, 
Should tempt me to resign my right 
To the my Diamond, my Delight." 

The queen represents " The Lover's Treasure ;" and from the knave, who is 
Jack Shepherd, we learn that 

" The People lament, alack and alack, 
'Twas pity to hang up their Favourite Jack ; 
For Britains hate thinking, and all would be dumb, 
But for Shepherd and Faux, Faustus, Wild, and Tom Thumb." 




The pip-cards of the suit of diamonds have on them " The Fool's Thought," 
" The Fickle Lover," " A Merry Song," " The Critical Minute," " Damon and 
Phillis," " Bright Cloc," " Coy Celia," and " The Jovial Soul." 

The king of clubs appears as Sir Oliver Rant, and — 

14 Sir Oliver Rant is a Terrible fellow, 
He drives all before him when'er he is Mellow ; 
He Scowers the Watch, and he ranges the Town, 
And all that resist him he strait knocks 'em down. 

44 The BalifTs and Marshalls men dare not come nigh him, 
Free masons and Mollies and Schemers all fly him ; 
The Bullies he kicks and their Harlots he drubs, 
And all round ye Hundreds, he's cal'd King of Clubs." 

The queen is the " Bewitching Charmer," and the knave all " Contradiction. 

Then follow "No Fault in Loving," "Cupid's Snare," "Jovial Top( 
"Drinking Song," " Faithful Love," " Sally's Dart," "Love for Love," "Lover's 
Wish," "Brisk Joan." 

In hearts, the king shows Cupid's dart useless ; but the queen supplies the 
refrain of a " Broken Heart :" 

44 Oh what Heart but needs must yield, 

When like Pallas you advance, 
With a Thimble for your shield, 

And a Needle for your Lance. 
Fairest of the Stitching Train, 

Ease my Passion by thy Art ; 
And in pity to my Pain, 

Mend the hole that's in my Heart." 

The " Sly Knave " succeeds, followed by " The Faithful Lover," " The Un- 
constant Lover," "Tender Heart," " The Happy Swain," "Young Damon," 
"Beauteous Celia," "Dejected Cloe," "Charming Cloe," "Sly Cloe," and the 
44 True Lover," who wisely concludes the general lament, 

44 I'll hast to some far distant shore, 

And never, never, never, never think of Woman more." 

[3f X 2 r m - without margin.] 

[Backs plain.] 

E. 207. 


SERIES of fifty-one cards from a numeral set of fifty-two of the 
ordinary suits. The ace of spades is here absent. The designs are 
of a humorous character. The marks of the suits of clubs and 
spades are in white, on a deep blue ground. Within each mark a 
grotesque face is etched in imitation of a pen-and-ink drawing. The diamonds 
and hearts are on a light madder-coloured ground, and treated in a similar 
manner. The coate-cards are the king, queen, and knave of conventional cha- 
racter, with laughable expressions in their faces. A printed title-card accom- 


panies this set, which is described as composed of "Imperial Royal Playing- 
Cards," and as being of a serious and Historic character ! 

The discrepancy which exists between the description of the cards and their 
actual character, can only be explained by assuming that a wrong supplemen- 
tary descriptive card has become accidentally attached to the series. 

The latter was published by " S and J. Fuller, at the Temple of Fancy, No. 
34, Rathbone Place." 

The cards are stiff, and marked on the backs with large stars, made up of dull 
red spots. 

On the whole they form a very poor effort, whether as relates to design or 

[3f X 2£ in.] [Backs decorated.] 

E. 208. 


WELVE card-pieces of emblematic character. 

In the centre of each piece on a large shield, the emblematic 
object is represented. Above the shield is the crest of the Prince 
of Wales ; a motto scroll, curtain-like drapery and palm branches 
are other accessories. On the lower part of each card is a verse of four lines, 
referring to the emblem above. 

The designs and inscriptions are from engraved copper-plates, the former 
being coloured. Each card has a yellow border between engraved lines. 

A wrapper, with engraved ornamental title, accompanies the set. It bears 
the following inscription within a large oval, surmounted by the crest of the 
Prince of Wales : — " Wallis's Emblematical Cards for the Amusement of Youth. 
London. Published Sept. I5 ,h , 1788, by J. Wallis, No. 16, Ludgate Street, J. 
Binny, Leeds, and L. Bull, Bath. Price one Shilling, neatly coloured." 
Card No. 1 has on it a crown for the emblem. Below is the verse : — 

" Crowns are ambitious gilded toys, 

As blessings never meant, 
Know that the greatest Joys on Earth, 

Are plenty and Content." 

On No. 2 is a clock ; below which is : — 

" The Clock a daily monitor, 

Points to each passing Hour, 
And bids you well employ the time 

Which now is in your pow'r." 

No. 3 has a ship, No. 4 an anchor, No. 5 a cannon, No. 6 a basket of flowers, 
No. 7 a horn, No. 8 a guitar, No. 9 a harlequin, No. 10a rocking horse, No. 1 1 
a kite, and No. 1 2 a boy with a whipping-top. 

Below each emblem are appropriate lines. 

Though devoid of any artistic merit, the designs have been neatly and care- 
fully engraved. 

[3t X 2 i in -] [Backs plain.] 




E. 209. 



SERIES of forty-five card-pieces, nine of which have text alone or 
them, the rest have full-length figures of historical personages. 

A descriptive pamphlet accompanies the sequence, which is en- 
titled " The Royal Historical Game of Cards, invented by Miss Jane 
London. Robert Hardwicke, 26, Duke Street, Piccadilly, and all 

After "Directions for playing the Game," "the inventor hopes that thif 
Simple Division of the thirty-five reigns, or thirty-six periods of English History, 
between the nine centuries which have elapsed since the Conquest, will enable 
the players with a little practice to remember the exact line of succession to tin 
British Throne." 

The figures are in the assumed costume of their times ; the designs and pro- 
portions of the former are often of very inferior character. 

Printed with bronze powder. The backs of these cards were marked by deep 
blue and light red lines, forming bands running across the card diagonally. 
[4 X 2i in.] [Backs decorated.] 

t,. 2IO. 



SERIES of fifty pieces, having historical problems in printed text on 
them, which have to be solved by the players. Two supplementary 
cards accompany the set, having on them "Rules for playing the 
Game," and the " Key" to the historical problems. 
These card-pieces are here arranged as a bound volume, bearing the follow- 
ing inscription : — " Darvall. Historical, Biographical, and Geographical Cards. 
Romsey. 1 830." 

Not any pictorial designs nor marks are present. 

C3i X 2 i in [Backs plain.] 

E. 211. 



IFTY-TWO card-pieces, of which fifty-one have on them printed 
problems connected with literature, which have to be solved by the 
players. One card-piece is occupied by the " Rules and Regulations." 
The title of the wrapper accompanies the set, and bears the in- 
scription, " Price 2*. 6d. An Evening Game of Cards on a Novel and In- 
teresting Plan. Poetry and Literature. London : Hamilton, Adams, and Co., and 
all Booksellers." 

It has here " been an object to prepare such questions as shall be full of interest 
and freshness to those who enjoy and appreciate English Poetry and Literature." 
Not any pictorial designs nor marks are present. 
[3 J X 2f in.] [Backs plain.] 


E. 212. 



SEQUENCE of thirty card-pieces, of which fifteen have riddle ques- 
tions derived from Shakespeare on them, and fifteen have their answers. 
Ten other and larger pieces are present, entitled " Key to the Riddles." 
A supplementary card of directions accompanies the set, as likewise 
a title bearing the following inscription, " [Entered at Stationer's Hall.] Shak- 
sperian Playing-Cards. Shakespere's Riddles. Selected and arranged by John 
B. Marsh. Examiner and Times Office, Manchester. One Shilling. Manchester : 
John Hey wood, 143, Deansgate. London : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. and sold 
by all Booksellers." 

Not any pictorial designs nor marks are present. 

[3 X if in.] [Backs plain.] 

E. 213. 



SEQUENCE of thirty card-pieces, the latter having love letters 
printed on them. 

A " Card of Directions " accompanies the set, as does likewise a 
title bearing the following inscription : " [Entered at Stationer's Hall.] 
Shakesperian Playing Cards, No. II. Shakespere's Love Letters. Selected and 
arranged by John B. Marsh. Manchester, One Shilling. Manchester: John 
Hey wood, 143, Deansgate. London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. and sold by 
all Booksellers." 

Not any pictorial designs nor marks are present. 

l3l- X 2 i in -] [Backs plain.] 

E. 214. 


SERIES of thirty-six card-pieces, eighteen of which have a question 
in the form of two lines of poetry on each of them, and eighteen have 
the answers in four or more lines. 

The ornamental title of a wrapper accompanies the set, and bears 
the following inscription : — 

" Shuffle and cut, question as you will, 
Yet every answer shall prove fitting still. 

" Comic Conversation Cards, by Joyce Jocund, Esq. 


" Most Packs are in full cry when game they're after, 
This Comic Pack now try, — whose game is laughter. 

" London :• Published by Reynolds and Son, Playing Card Manufacturers By 
appointment to his Majesty, 29 and 30, Vere Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. Ent. 
at Stat. Hall. Price l*. 6"." 

The only pictorial design is on the title of the wrapper. It represents two 
knaves in attendance upon two Kings and two Queens seated at table. 

[3? X 2 i in [Backs plain.] 

E. 215. 


SEQUENCE of thirty-two card-pieces, having on them emblemati 
designs of various character, and below moral apophthegms to whicl 
the designs have reference. Each piece has a number at the upper lef 
hand corner, answering to certain explanatory and descriptive tables 

given in a book of directions, which here accompanies the cards. The title-page 

of this book of 31 pages bears the following inscription : — 

" Les Amusemens des Allemands, or the Diversions of The Court of Vienna, 

in which the Mystery of Fortune-Telling from the Grounds of the Coffee-Cup is 

unravelled, and Three pleasant Games, viz. : — 

" 1. Fortune-telling from the Grounds of the Coffee-Cup. 

2. Fortune -telling by laying out the cards. 

3. The new Imperial Game of numbers 

are invented. 

Admirably calculated to promote Useful reflections and Innocent Festivity, By 
the means of Extempore Composition. The whole illustrated with a Pack of 
Thirty-Two Emblematical Cards. 

" Here fertile fancy may amuse the mind, 
With moral truths and sprightly wit combined." 

London : Printed for Champante and Whitrow, Jewry-Street, Aldgate, And 
may be had at every Booksellers and Toy Shop in the Kingdom, 1 796. Entered 
at Stationer's Hall." 

According to an advertisement on the back of the title-page, " these enter- 
taining games first made their appearance at Vienna in 1794, where they still are 
the favourite amusement of the Empress of Germany and the Imperial Court. 
They have since been diffused through all the fashionable circles in that country. 
The Editor therefore has to hope that in a country where the liberality and 
curious discernment of its inhabitants is so conspicuous as that of Britain, they 
will not be held in less estimation." 

Designs and text are from engraved copper-plates ; the former are uncoloured 
and of mediocre character. 

[3f X 2 i in -] [Backs plain.] 


E. 216. 



SERIES of thirty unseparated card-pieces. The latter are here 
contained in six sheets of three rows of two pieces each sheet. 

Below the cards is the inscription on each sheet : " March's 
Conjuring Cards. No. 1. Price one Halfpenny. Directions — Cut 
them apart through the lines, then with a pin bore holes where dotted, tye a 
thread in each end and twirl the card quickly round, when the goat will have a 
monkey on his back, the gridiron 3 mackerel, and so on with the others. J. 
March, Publisher, 1 2, Webber Street, New-Cut." 

The back of each card-piece has on it a design in reverse to that which is on 
the front. The design on the latter is uncoloured, that on the back is coloured, 
[lj- x 1 j- in.] [Backs with designs on them.] 

E. 217. 



Flints of the English School, 

Works of and after Francis Hay man. B. 1708 — D. 1 77^* 

'HIS piece represents one of a series of paintings executed by Hayman 
for Vauxhall Gardens, and by which chiefly he is celebrated. 

The design of the present work appears to have been suggested 
by a composition of Gravelot, of which Hayman fully availed himself. 
In the print before us, a young lady and gentleman appear seated at a round 
table " Building Houses with Cards," at another and small side- table are two 
little girls following a like amusement. Four persons are looking on. The card- 
house of the first group is tumbling down. The gentleman holds the five of 
hearts in his right hand, and towards which the attention of the lady is directed. 
Below the composition are the following lines : — 

" Whilst innocently youth their hours beguile, 
And joy to raise with cards the wondrous pile, 
A breath, a start, makes the whole fabric vain, 
And all lies flat to be began again. 

Ambition thus erects in riper years, 
Wild schemes of power, and wealth, and endless cares, 
Some change takes place, the labour d plan retards, 
All drops — Illusion all — an House of Cards." 



Immediately below the engraving are the inscription and addresses : " Building 
Houses with Cards. II. Gravelot, Invenit ; F. Hayman, Pinx. ; L. Trachy, Sculp, 
From the original Painting in Vaux-hall Garden. Published according to Act of 
Parliament, 4 th April, 1 743." 

[llf X l3f in.] 

E. 218. 


Prints of the English School. 

Works of and after Francis Hayman. B. 1708 — D. 1776. 

HE composition represents a lady and two gentlemen seated at a card- 
table playing Quadrille. Two ladies and a gentleman are looking on. 
A female servant and a negro page are at a side-table engaged with 
tea-things. The two gentlemen who are playing are showing their 
cards to the ladies seated near them ; the cards are of the suit of hearts. The 
ace of spades (?) is on the table, together with other cards and counters. 

The inscription and addresses at the lower margin are as follows : " Quadrille. 
Engraved from the original Painting in Vaux Hall Garden. F. Hayman, pinx 1, 
C. Grignion, Sculp 1, Printed for John Bowles, at the Black Horse in Cornhil, 
and Carington Bowles, in St. Pauls Churchyard, London." 

In reference to the game of Quadrille as here played by three persons, the 
following extract from Singer (p. 266) is worthy of attention. " Quadrille, 
which is only another species of Ombre, appears to have superseded it, and to 
have been very popular in England until whist began to be played upon scientific 
principles. Although this game has a Spanish name, it is supposed to be an 
invention of the French nation, and appears to have been a great favourite with 
the ladies, as requiring much less attention than Ombre ; there was also a 
modification of it which might be played by three persons, but it is generally 
considered far inferior to the game by four, and was only played when a fourth 
player could not be had.' 


3y in., without margin.] 

E. 219. 



SMALL engraving from a copper-plate representing two ladies and 
two gentlemen seated at a table playing cards. Below is the inscrip- 
tion, " The Quadrille Party." 

This appears to be after a design of Gravelot, otherwise Henri 
D'Anville and Hubert Frangois Bourguignon. He came to England in 1733, 
and for a time kept a drawing school in the Strand. He was largely employed 
by the London booksellers, and his assistance was likewise sought by various 
artists. " He attempted small compositions and conversation-pieces, and is said 
to have been a designer by choice, an engraver by necessity." " He was born in 
Paris, March 26, 1699, died in Paris 1773. (Redgrave's "Dictionary of Artists 
of the English School.") 

iSi X 3t in -> without margin.] 


E. 220. 

Drolls published by Robert Sayer, Laurie, and Whittle, 

1792-1803, No. 108. 


PRINT representing two ladies and three gentlemen playing at loo. 
One of the latter is scratching his head in desperation, another and 
one of the ladies are regarding with vexatious astonishment the cards 
— (a flush of diamonds) — which their successful antagonist displays in 
her hands. Her opposite neighbour smiles with complacency as he shows the 
knave of clubs. 

Below, in the margin, may be read " Loo. Pam saves me. A Flush. Pub- 
lished 20 th Feb 1 "., 1 796, by Lawrie and Whittle, 53, Fleet Street, London." 
On the table are cards and counters or money. 

Loo or lanterloo was at one period a very fashionable game, but began to go 
out soon after the time when whist began to be played on scientific principles. 

" If you are acquainted with my Lady Barrymore," writes H. Walpole to his 
friend Montagu, " pray tell her that in less than two hours t'other night, the 
Duke of Cumberland lost four hundred and fifty pounds at loo ; Miss Pelham 
won three hundred, and I the rest. However, in general loo is extremely gone 
to decay. I am to play at Princess Emily's to-morrow for the first time this 
winter, and it is with difficulty she has made a party." This was in December, 


In 1759 Walpole wrote: "Loo is mounted to the zenith. The parties last 
till one and two in the morning. We played at Lady Hertford's last week, the 
last night of her lying-in, till deep into Sunday morning, after she and her lord 
were retired. It is now adjourned to Mrs. Fitzroy's, whose child the Town calls 
1 Pam-ela.: " 

At certain games the knave of clubs is called Pam. In the " Toast," a 
satirical poem, written about 1730, by Dr. William King, Principal of St. Mary's 
Hall, Oxford, Dr. Hort, Archbishop of Tuam, is called " Lord Pam." He is also 
called Pam by Swift. 

" A few years ago the name was applied to the celebrated public character, 
whom Byron is supposed to have designated as ' a moral chimney-sweep ' in one 
of the cantos of Don Juan." (Chatto, p. 269.) 

[6£ X 9|- in. without margin.] 

E. 221. 


BROADSIDE sheet of politico-satirical verses, headed by three 
lines of music, and entitled " A New Game at Cards." The words 
within the lines of music are as follows : — 

" Ye merry hearts that love to play at Cards, 
See who hath won the day ; 


You that once did sadly sing 
The Knave of Clubs hath won the King ; 
But now more happy times we have, 
The King hath overcome the Knave, 
The King hath overcome the Knave." 

Then follow eight verses of seven lines, each verse in two columns. The 
verses refer to Cromwell and the Rump Parliament. 
The second verse runs thus : — 

" Old Noll, he was the Knave o' th' Clubs, 
And dad of such as Preach in Tubs ; 
Bradshaw, Ireton, and Pride, 
Where three other Knaves beside, 
And they Plaid with half the Pack, 
Throwing out all Cards but Black." 

The last of the sequence is : — 

" After this Game was done, I think 

The Standers by had cause to drink, 

And the Loyal Subjects sing 

Farewell Knaves, and welcome King, 

For till we saw the King returned 

We wish'd the Cards had all been Burn'd, 

We wish'd the Cards had all been Burn'd." 

The whole of the music and typography of this broadside is from an engraved 

[I2f- X 7£ in. without margin.] 

E. 222. 

Manuscript Department. 
Harleian MSS. No. 5947 (5 1 F.) 

HIS volume of " Bagford's Collection," previously alluded to (E 1 84) 
as containing the advertisement relating to the " Popish Plot " cards, 
has, in addition, the following " cuttings " : — 
On folio 4, a wrapper or introductory title to a pack of cards as follows : 
" The Scientiall Cards, or a new and ingenious knowledge, gramatically epitomised, 
both for the plea ure and profit of Schollers and such as delight to recollect 
(without any labour) the Rudiments of so necessary an art as Grammer is with- 
out hindring them from their more necessary and grave studies : Offering them 
as a second course unto you which in all points and suites doe represent your 
vulgar or common cards : So that the perfection of the Grammer principles may 
hereby be easily attained unto both with much delight and profit, Together with 
a Key shewing the redy use of them. Written by a Lover of ingenuity and 
Learning. And are to be sold by Baptist Pendleton, Cardmaker, at his House 
neere S c . Dunston's Church in the East, or by John Holden, at the Anchor in the 
New Exchange. 1 65 1 •" 

Referring to this advertisement, Mr. Chatto remarks (p. 140) : — " Of those 
cards or of the key showing how they are to be used, I know nothing beyond 
what is contained in the title above given. I, however, greatly suspect that the 
1 lover of learning and ingenuity ' who devised them was specially employed for the 


purpose by the maker, Mr. Baptist Pendleton, who, sensible of the decline of his regu- 
lar business, and noting the signs of the times, might think it both for his interest and 
credit to manufacture cards which might serve indifferently for the purposes of 
instruction, but equally as well for play as ' your vulgar or common cards/ which 
were then in very bad repute. The Scientiall cards would appear to have been 
well adapted for the use of persons who wished to save appearances with the 
Puritans, and yet had no objection to play a quiet game with the profane." 

Secondly follows the envelope of a pack printed in blue ink, bearing in the 
centre the inscription, " trielles [?] des fines de Jacques Legras faites a Morlais." 
On the upper border in reverse is " a bon jeu bon argent," and on a plain margin 
at the left hand is the mark of the suit piques in the centre. 

Thirdly. The title of a wrapper, printed in black ink, from a coarsely en- 
graved wood-block, having as a device Diana seated, an unicorn standing and 
gazing at her with much expression of admiration and curiosity. Below is the 
couplet : 

" The Unicorn tho deafe to Subtle Charmes, 
A Virgin's Smiles allayes his Furious Stormes." 

Then follows " Fine cards made by John Savage." 

On folio 4 comes the titled cover of a pack of cards, printed in black ink, 
from a carefully engraved metal plate. The chief part is occupied by a medallion 
portrait of Edward VI., below which is the following inscription : " These super- 
fine cards are sold by Richard Fountaine only, at the Golden Lion, in S e . Law- 
rens Lane, London." Below this are the marks of the suits of hearts and spades, 
having between them the letters " It. * F." as ornamental capitals. The whole 
is enclosed in a frame-like border. 

The next cutting is the ornamental title of a wrapper, printed from a neatly, 
but rather stiffly engraved copper-plate. In the upper portion are the royal arms 
of England, with supporters and mottoes, while the lower part bears the follow- 
ing inscription, within an ornamental shield with scrolled edge, viz. : " Cards 
containing the arms of the King, and all the Lords Spiritual! and Temporall of 
England. This may be printed. Norfolke and Marshall." 

In the "Herald and Genealogist," vol. iii. p. 358, 1861, may be found an 
elaborate paper on the cards referred to in the present title: — 

" It is supposed that these cards, which thus appeared with the imprimatur 
of the Earl Marshal, were edited by Gregory King, then Somerset Herald, as 'A 
Pack of Cards containing the arms of the English nobility. Lond. 1684,' is 
attributed to him in Watt's ' Bibliotheca Britannia.' " 

These cards, known as " Gregory King's Peerage Cards," are fully described 
(loco ciY.), from a pack in the possession of Evelyn Philip Shirley, Esq., F.S.A., 
and the remark is made that they " are now so exceedingly scarce as to be almost 

At page 79 of this volume of the " Herald and Genealogist" is the following 
statement: — 

"In the ' Observator,' No. 239, for Feb y . 12, 1 686-7, are advertised cards 
containing the arms of the King and all the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of 
England. Printed for John Nicholson, and sold by E. Evets, at the Green 
Dragon and St. Paul's Church Yard." (See Chatto, p. 152.) 

On the verso of folio 4 is an ornamental title of a wrapper, with a device 
from an engraving on a copper-plate. It represents a black man standing with 
his right arm extended, in a tropical landscape. Above the figure on a scroll is 
the title " Prince Giolo." Below the device is the inscription : " These principal 
superfine large cards are made by me, Andrew Layton." 

Then follow the marks of the suits of diamonds and clubs, having between 
them the ornamental capital letters "A * L." 

Adjacent is the mutilated cover of a pack of cards, having on it a device 

3 oo ENGLISH. 

from a coarsely engraved metal plate. The device is a man in a jockey-cap 
horseback, with a hunting-whip in his hand. The horse is at full gallop. Th( 
hind-quarters of the horse are torn away. At the left margin, towards which tl 
figure is directed, appears a hand in the sky holding a large double-handled vt 
or tankard towards the rider, near whose head is the inscription : " The Joe — 
(The rest is torn away.) 

On another piece of paper, which apparently formed part of this enveloj 
are the words : " Of London — Master Card-maker of England. E. I. 
Between these latter capitals is a horseman in a gallop towards the right hand. 

On folio 5 is the title of a wrapper, printed from a wood-block bearing a 
crown, having below and within a motto-garter the device of a falcon seizing 
another bird. Beneath is the inscription: " Superfine cards made by Nichol 

The motto on the garter seems to be " The Faulcon playing — Takes me 

At one of the margins of the cover are the capital letters N. F., with i 
marks of the suits of diamonds and clubs. 

On the verso of folio 5 is the " Advertisement concerning a new pack 
cards," previously alluded to. [E. 184.] 

On folio 6 is the engraved title to " Tuttle's Mathematical Cards." This is 
inscribed on a shield surrounded with figures and designs symbolical of mathe- 
matic forms and instruments. At the lower margin of the plate are the ad- 
dresses : " Boitard Delhi. J. Savage Sculp." 

It may be here noticed that on folio 33 is the following intimation : " John 
Savage, Engraver, who bought Mr. Isaac Beckett's mezzo-tinto plates and prints, 
and lived at his House at the Golden Head in the Old Bayly, is removed to 
y e Golden Head in S'. Paul's Churchyard, where you may be furnished with all 
sorts of Mezzotints, Prints, Frames, Glasses, &c." 

John Savage resided in London about 1680, and was noted for engraving 
the portraits of malefactors. (See Walpole's " Anecdotes," and Bryan's " Dic- 

Following the title to Tuttle's cards on folio 6 is the following " Advertise- 
ment" : — 

" There is now published a pack of Proverb Cards with Figures on each card, 
lively representing the Proverbs. A Design, altogether new and very diverting 
to the Fancy of all Lovers of ingenuity, the whole curiously engraved on copper- 
plates. Price is. 6d. per pack. 

Where you may likewise have Frost-fair, or an exact and lively Mapp or 
Representation of Booths, and all the Variety of Shows and Humours upon the 
Ice on the River of Thames by London, during that memorable Frost in King 
Charles the Second's Reign, curiously engraven on a copper-plate, with an Alpha- 
betical Explanation of the most remarkable figures. Price 1*. 

Both of which are to be sold by W. Warter, Stationer, at the Sign of the 
Talbot, under the Mytre Tavern in Fleet Street, London." 



OHN BAGFORD, to whose collection among the 
Harleian MSS. we are indebted for the preceding 
and other fragments, was born in London about 1675, 
and died at Islington in 1716. He was buried in the 
cemetery of the Charterhouse. Originally a shoemaker, he began 
in early life to interest himself about antiquarian subjects, particu- 
larly such as related to printing and old English literature. He 
travelled in Holland and elsewhere in search of literary curiosities, 
which he managed to pick up at low prices, and re-sold them 
honestly at moderate profits. With many of these he enriched the 
library of Dr. John Moore, Bishop of Ely, through whose influence 
Bagford was admitted a Carthusian. 

" Most of the very many [literary curiosities] in the British 
Museum under the general title of { Bagford' s Collectanea ' con- 
sist of printed title-pages, advertisements, hand-bills, fugitive 
papers of all kinds, vignettes, prints, &c, pasted into paper books, 
sometimes with MS. notes interspersed, but oftener without any. 
Bagford's MSS., properly so called, are comparatively few, inter- 
mixed with the numerous volumes above-mentioned, and pro- 
miscuously arranged and deposited along with them in the depart- 
ment of MSS. Besides these there are very many MSS. in the 
same rich repository that have printed papers and tracts bound 
up with them." — (Nicholas " Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth 
Century/' vol. ii. p. 462.) 

A portrait of Bagford may be seen in Dibdin' s H Bibliographical 
Decameron," vol. iii. p. 28, and much about him in a note on that 
page where he is styled the u faithful book jackal of Lord Oxford." 
In his " Bibliomania " also, first edition, Dr. Dibdin is not sparing 
of his animadversions. Among them is the following : — 

u A modern collector and lover of perfect copies will witness with 
shuddering among Bagford's immense collection of title-pages in 
the Museum the frontispiece of the ' Complutensian Polyglot ' and 
Chauncy's ' History of Hertfordshire ' torn out to illustrate a history 
of printing." 

Dr. Dibdin admits, nevertheless, that Bagford's " enthusiasm, how- 
ever, carried him through a great deal of laborious toil, and he supplied 
in some measure by this qualification the want of other attainments. 
His whole mind was devoted to book-hunting, and his integrity and 
diligence probably made his employers overlook his many failings." 

In the third edition of the "Bibliomania" (1842), (note to p. 
326) , John Bagford is again discussed at some length, and, on the 


whole, with rather more favour, as based chiefly on the accounts 
Thomas Hearne. 

Bagford described himself as <c Dr. John Bagford, patron of print 
nig." Howard painted his portrait and Vertue engraved it, 1 wl 
one of his friends found a coat of arms for him in this wise : 

w For my Lovinge friend Mr. Jno. Bagford — you having shewe 
me so many rebuses, as I was returning home I thought of one fo 
you — a bagge, and below that a fourd or passable water/' (Harl 
MSS. No. 5910.) 

In the Sloane collection of MSS. vol. 1044, folio 1, is the following 
in Bagford' s handwriting, which well indicates both the ambitioi 
character and extensive scope of the author's intentions : — 

" Proposals for the Printing an Essay for the Famous Art of 
Typography & Calcography from y e first Invention of it by Coster 
at Harlem, with Blocks or Molds of Wood collected from the most 
approved Authors and the Observation of y e books themselves first 
printed therewith, with a discourse of the several ways of printing 
by the Antient Chinese. 

" An Ace" of the Invention of Matrices of Single Types at Mentz 
by Joh: Fust & Peter Sceffer & not by Guttenburg as shall be made 
plainly appear. • 

" Also a Catalogue of what books were printed from y e year 1450 
to 1500 in several parts of y e World, viz. Germany, Italy, Holland, 
Flanders, France, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, Swedland, Switzer- 
land, East and West Indies, Turkey, and Russia. 

" Some observations on the Antiquity of Paper made with rags. 
When Invented where made & y e Places most famous for making 
the same with the Maker's marks. 

" An Acco" of the bringing printing into England first to Oxford 
by Nicolas Corselis, & St. Albans, Westminster, London, South- 
wark, Greenwich, York, Canterbury, Worcester, Ipswich, Tavis- 
tock, Cambridge, Chester, Bristol, Exeter, &c. 

({ Scotland at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen. 

" Ireland at Dublin, &c. 

" The Lives and Effigies of our most celebrated Printers. 

"The whole Interwoven with a description of the manner of 
making books, first MSS. and the several materials they certainly 
wrote on, as vellum, Parchment, Paper, &c. 

"The Instruments used in writing, viz., Styles, Pens, Reeds, &c. 

"The Ink used by the Antients both in Writing and Printing 
with an account of Book Binding in all its Parts. 

" To which shall be added a catalogue of such books as early 

by John Bagford." 

1 Brit, Mus. Coll. " English Portraits." (Bromley, vol. i. p. 232.) 


E. 223. 

Newspapers. Printed Boohs Department. 
Public Advertiser, Saturday, December 1, 1759. No. 78 12. 

" Advertisement. 

HIS day is published Price 5* plain each pastime improved by a new 
pack of cards called Beau Monde, or the Bath, Tunbridge, and Scar- 
borough portraits engraved from particular persons and their like- 
nesses to Beasts and Birds by Figures, and have Pips like common 
cards ; likewise new and curious. Pack of regimental cards with the words of 
command under each card containing portraits of the Pretty Smarts belonging to 
the Army and the Militia ; Stampt for George Bickham in Mays Buildings Covent 

The George Bickham here mentioned must have been G. Bickham, Junior, 
it is presumed. He was one of our earlier caricaturists, and engraved the 
humorous pieces published by the Messrs. Bowles, and analogous subjects. It 
is true that this advertisement appeared in 1759, and George Bickham died in 
1758, but a pack of cards having humorous subjects, portraits, &c, on its pieces 
would take some time to prepare. 

"Public Advertiser, Monday, December 17th, 1759, No. 7816. 

" Advertisement. 

" This day is published price 5*. each. Three packs of diverting cards 
curiously engraved. On one corner of which is the court-card and pips, painted 
so striking that they may be played with as ready as common cards, which 
renders them liable to a duty of a Is. a pack. On one pack the various 
passions of Love are emphatically represented with a title and four lines in verse 
entirely new and explanatory of the design. Another the cries and Humours of 
London, finely copied after nature with their proper mottos, the other iEsops 
fables, exactly copied after Barlow, the Fables and Morals in Verse. 

" To be had of the proprietor I Kirk, at the Grotto Toy Shop in St. Paul's 
Churchyard, and at I Kirk's Toy shop in St. James' Street. Also the impenetrable 
secret or the Proverb Cards, price 1 s. to be had as above. 

" Of all the passions that possess mankind 
Love is the noblest when with Virtue joined 
To guard the Fair, the Lover swiftly flies 
And all the danger that surrounds defies. 

" Love cards. u 

A small woodcut design of the nine of clubs heads the above advertisement. 

Public Advertiser, Wednesday, December 26th, 1759,^0. 7823. 

" Advertisement. 

" This day is published and sold in May's Buildings, Covent Garden, Price 
5s. each Pack. Some of them coloured. 

" l . Knowledge improved by County-cards describing the Cities and Towns. 


" 2. Drollery improved by a New Pack of Picture cards from Erasmus' F0II3 
" 3. Pastime improved by a curious pack of cards called the Beau Monde. 
" 4. Militia Cards or the Pretty Smarts of the Army and Militia with Rej 

A diminutive representation of the nine of clubs heads this advertisement. 

E. 224. 

(Printed Books Department, 505> £ 4-) 



HE volume here referred to is that of the " Nova Statuta," printed 
William of Mechlin, or Machlinia, as he is generally called, about 
the years 148 2 -3. 

It is a folio volume of Statutes, without date, place, or name of 

According to Dibdin (" Bibliotheca Spenceriana," vol. iv. No. 896), " This is 
the most elaborate production of the press of Machlinia, and must be considered 
no mean acquisition to the library of the legal antiquary. The type is exactly 
similar to that of the Tenures described in the preceding page, and leaves no 
doubt of the printer by whom this volume was executed. The ink and the paper 
merit more commendation than the type, indeed the paper is of no ordinary 

In this work the first printed allusion to playing-cards occurs in relation to 
England. It may be found " Anno tercio Regis Edwardi IV., Cap. iiij." The statute 
here quoted is one of the year 1463, prohibiting the importation of playing-cards. 

Since an act was passed in the eleventh year of the reign of Henry IV., 
1409, a.d. directing the penalties to be inflicted upon persons offending against a 
statute of 12 Richard II. cap. 6, anno 1388, forbidding certain games, as "coytes, 
dyces, gettre de pere, keyles, and aultres tielx jeues importunes," and not any 
mention is made of cards, it may be assumed that the latter were not in use 
in England in 1409. It must have been some time between this date and 1463 
that playing-cards found their way into this country. The Statute of the 3rd of 
Edward IV. allows it to be presumed, however, that the prohibited article was 
known some years before its importation was made illegal. 

The extract from the Statute of Edward IV. relating to cards is given here 
from the following work. 

E. 225. 

{Printed Books Department, 505, h. 11.) 


HIS is a reprint by Richard Pynson of the "Nova Statuta" of 
Machlinia previously referred to. 

It is a folio of statutes, commencing with the first year of the reign 
of Edward III., and concluding with the twelfth of Henry VII. 
There is not any title-page to the volume, nor is any date given in the 
colophon, which runs thus on sig. Gr. 2. i. : 

<[♦ CEmprpnteti bj mp Iftpcljav&e $pn#on> 


On the verso is the device, No. 5 of Johnson's " Typographia," having on 
it a shield bearing as a monogram R. P., and below, in stout Gothic letters, 

tc Etcijarti £j>nfon " 

There are running titles and signatures, but neither catch-words nor numerals. 
The book commences with a blank leaf, which is followed by a full alphabetical 
table on sig. a. ii. The statutes are generally in Norman-French, but some are 
in Latin, e.g., " Anno xxxiii Henrici Sexti," " Anno xxxix Henrici Sexti," while 
from the first of Henry VII. to the end of the volume the statutes are in English. 

This work is supposed to have been the first statute-book printed by Pynson. 

That portion of the statute of the third year of Edward IV. relating to the 
prohibition of the importation of playing-cards is as follows : — 

C &nno tercku (Ritoartii iiiu 

"jpoftre trefreboute fouerapn fetgnour le rop leg premttfeg 
confi&erant $ bofllant $ en ceo tag puruoir tie remetipe Del 
atiuptf affent $ auctorite fufgftftetf an ortieigne enacte $ etfablie 
que mil marcfjant neeg fttbj'et tie noftce feigneour le rop tietn= 
?etn nettranp ne alctm autre perfone apreg le iFette tie fepnt 
^pcljell 'lardjaunpl proftljem aucfgnft amefne mantie ne 
conuofe ne caufe tiafmener maunder ne conuoper en meCme 
celt ropalme SDengleterre $ »>eiQ;nourpe tie (0ale0 afcunes tie 
ceftej cljaffaregf toareg ou cbofetf tieCoubj efcrtpte^ ceft alTauoir 
afcunetf bonetteg laun$ aCcunjs tirapg laun? laceg corfeg rpbantf 
frengeg tie Cole / $ tie file laceg tie file Cope en fille / fope en afcune 
maner enbraubeg laceg tior %ivt* tie Cope ou tior £>elleg 
etfriueng ou afcune IjernetTe reg;artiaunt ag feellers (Efperong 
molefn* pur tremeg auntiireng gretiirnejzf afcuneg manerg 
ferureg martens foulprement nommeg Jamerg ppnfong fire= 
tongetf tireppngpanneg titfej renpjj ballet popnreg laceg burfes 
cpraunt^ cctnte? Ijarnetg pur ceincteg tie ferre 3De laton tialTer 
tiettafn ou tie alfcempne cboc ouef tiaCc qutrre ^atoe afcune 
maner pellure tatoe ljufeoug Colerg plops* ou corkeg cotelj 
daggers tootiknpueg botfcpna »>ljere0 pur lafllouna* Cifourg 
l&afourg »>ftete?5 Cartieg a Juer (Efptnpg patina Siguier pur 
»>akfce£ toulprement nommer pafcnetiete afcune maner cljaffare 
ou toare tiepepnte iFotrcec^, Caffeetle^" 

Mr. R. P. Cruden, referring (in a letter to the late Mr. Singer) to this statute 
making it illegal to import cards, remarks, " I should like extremely to know the 
result of an inquiry into the manner of making playing-cards in England imme- 
diately after the year 1 463, when they were no longer to be obtained from abroad. 
That they were used is not to be doubted. The Act afterwards restraining 
the use of them did not pass till the 33 Henry VIII. cap. 8, anno 1 54 1 ." 

" It is a curious fact that a tax was first levied upon cards anno 1 63 1 , in the 
reign of Charles I. ; it was one of the impositions complained of as arbitrary and 
illegal, being levied without consent of Parliament, and which complaints ter- 


3 o6 ENGLISH. 

rainated in the sacrifice of the monarch and his minister (Strafford)." (Singer, 
Bibl. 8, p. 365, appendix.) 

The last statement is erroneous, as to the first imposition of a tax on playing- 
cards, as the following records under E. 226 will show, a tax being levied in 1615, 
though not by parliamentary statute, which was first done during the reign of 
Queen Anne, session 1711. 

The Company of Card-makers was incorporated by letters patent of Charles I. 
the 22nd of October, 1629, under the title of "the Master, Wardens, and Com- 
monalty of the Mistery of the Makers of Playing-cards of the City of London." — 
Ilec. Roll, Pat. 4, Car. i. p. 22, No. 6. (See Singer, p. 226, Note.) 

E. 226. 

(Printed Books Department, 2076. 6.) 



tlNGER, in his researches, observes (p. 223) that towards the close of 

Elizabeth's reign patents were so frequently granted by favour, that 

the House of Commons deemed it necessary to make some inquiries 

respecting them. At this period a patent was granted to one Edward 

D'Arcy for cards. 

" On the mention of the monopoly of cards Sir Walter Raleigh blushed. 
Upon reading the patents, Mr. Hakewell of Lincoln's-inn stood up, and asked 
thus, ' Is not bread there ?' ' Bread ! ' quoth one. ' Bread !' quoth another. ' This 
voice seems strange,' quoth another. ' No,' quoth Mr. Hacket, ' if order be 
not taken herein, bread will be there before the next Parliament.' " (Singer, 
p. 223.) 

The volume referred to under the present head, E. 226, is the " Calendar 
of State Papers," Domestic Series, James I. a.d. 1611-1618, from which the 
following minutes are selected : — 

"1615. July 20, Westminster. — (19.) Letters Patent granting to Sir 
Richard Coningsby, for a rent of £200 per annum, the imposition of 5*. per 
gross on playing-cards, and the office of Inspector of all playing-cards imported 
in recompense of £1,800 due to him from the king, and of his patent for the 
sole export of Tin granted by the late queen." — Warrant for the above granted 
July 19. (Sign. Man., vol. v. No. 41.) — (Page 296.) 

" 1615. July 21. — (19) Proclamation of the Patent granting to Sir Rich. 
Coningsby the right of searching and sealing all playing cards made in England 
or imported printed." (Proc. Coll., No. 44 A.) — (Page 297.) 

" 1616. (124.) Reasons against the Suit of the Card-makers who remon- 
strate against the exercise of Sir Richard Coningsby's patent for importation of 
playing-cards." — (Page 420.) 

"1617. Dec. 21.— (75.) Petition of Sir Thos. Smythe and the merchants 
trading to France to the Council to renew their order to the Lord Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench to stay a suit commenced against them by Radnor, an 
informer, for importing playing-cards, and to permit the importation of the same 
on payment of the usual duties." — (Page 504.) 

Among the valuable series of proclamations preserved in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries is that alluded to previously (July 20, 1615), as granting 
the right to Sir R. Coningsby of imposing a duty of 5*. per gross on playing- 
cards : — 


" djaifticl) from anti after tlje TDaentietlj da? of 3|ttlp tljen 
nejt coming fyouto Ijappen to be brought from an? of t&e partg 
beponti tlje feag into our realme of (England 2Dominton of 
faHaleg or $ort anD ^Eotone of 23ertoicfee b? an? ^erfon or 
^erfons (En&litymeti tienf^en^ or »>tranpr0 to tjje enti to be 
uttereti folD or put to fale a a b? tlje fame our Eettertf more at 
large it Dotl) anti ma? appeared 

Following this proclamation is 

" The Copie of the Lord Treasourers Letter. 
" After my heartie commendations, whereby it hath pleased his Majestie to 
direct a Privy Seal to me, touching the imposition of five shillings upon every 
grosse of Playing Cards that shall be Imported into this Kingdome or the 
Dominions thereof by vertue of his Majesties Letters Patents granted to Sir 
Richard Coningsby knight under the Greate Seale of England. In regard 
whereof These are to wil and require you to take notice thereof and not to suffer 
any merchant to make any entry of Playing-Cards until the same impositions be 
payed according to the said Letters patents. Provided that the Patentees give 
caution for maintayning the Custome and Import according to a Medium thereof 
to be made as in such cases is used ; And so having signified his Majesties 
pleasure to you in that behalfe I bid you heartily farewell. 

" Your Louing Friend, 


" From Northampton House the 29th of October, 161 5." 

Numerous other references to the subject of playing-cards may be found in 
the " Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series," particularly in the volumes 
relating to the latter part of Queen Elizabeth's reign. The details connected 
therewith, however, falling beyond the scope of the present work, further allusion 
here to the records of the " Calendar " would be out of place. 

E. 227. 

{Printed Books Department, Tracts relating to Trade, vol. 12, 816. m. 12/72.) 


(King Charles I.) 


N this volume of " Notabilia " may be seen, as above indicated, the 
Proclamation referred to by Chatto, p. 137. It is as follows : — 


" A Proclamation concerning playing-Cards and Dice. 

" Whereas the kings Majeftie having lately fettled a 
courfe for tfje conttant toeefelp buging anti taking from tlje Cara 

3 o8 ENGLISH. 

makers anti 2Dicemalier*, Cud) of tljem a* are Iji* natucall born 
fubjecta, tljcir manufacture* of Card* and 2Dice, bp Iji* Pcoclama= 
tion publittjed tlje fifteentlj nap of Slpay in tlje tljirteentlj pear of 
Iji* l&eign (Voljereby tljey mt'gljt be enabled to litie of tljeir trade*) 
did therefore require anti command tljat all Cards and 2Dtce 
made fjere or otljerloiCe imported from foreign part* fljould be 
brougljt to fti'0 ^ajeftie* officer in London, appointed for tlje 
fearcljing and fealing of fuel) a* fljould be found pod and 
merchantable before tlje fame Card* or 3Dice fljould be fold or 
difpofed of: 2Sut Iji* ^ajeftie nolo finding: tljat fundry toaye* 
of deceipt Ijafce bun and are daily practiced a* toell bj> tlje 
matter* of Card* and 2Dice a* bp tjofe tljat import tlje fame, i* 
pleafed to ratifie and confirme Iji* faid proclamation and again 
to declare Iji* further Eoyall pleasure therein and tiotft therefore 
ftraitly cljarge and command tljat no perfon or perfon* toljatfo-- 
eber (otljer tljan Iji* ^ajeftfe* faid officer) fl[jall hereafter pre= 
fume to feal or mark any piaying--Card* or 2Dice or to fij; tljereon 
any Ceal0 or printed paper* nolo ufed or toljiclj Ijereafter ftjall 
be ufed by tlje faid Officer ; and tjat none but fuclj a* fce fljall 
appoint, do engrave, cut, or print any of tl)e faid feal* for tlje 
fealing: of Card* or 3Dice or do imitate or counterfeit tlje fame; 
and tljat no foreign Card* or 2Dice imported or to be imported 
fljjall be from Ijencefortlj landed in any otljer oflji* ^afeffie* 
Port* in England or Wales, tljen in tlje port of London only* 
and tftat upon ttie landing thereof in tlje fame port or loitfjin 
tloo daye* after notice be tljereof gitoen bv tlje Importer* or 
£Dtoner* to Iji* ^ajefiie* faid Officer of tlje juft quantitie* 
tljereof, and tljat none of tlje Officer* in any otljer of Iji* 
S^ajeftie* Port* (under pain of lotfe of tljeir office) fljall fuffer 
any Card* or 2Dice to be imported or landed contrary to Iji* 
^ajefiie* command but tijjall fei^e tlje fame and gifoe notice of 
fucj fei^ure toitljtn convenient time after. 

"and further lji*^ajeftie dotlj ttraigljtly cljarge and com= 
mand, ^ICljat no ^ercljant fatter or Ctoner of »>ljip* Mariner* 
or otljer* fljall Ijereafter import or fuffer to be imported any 
foreign Card* or 3Dice to any otljer Port tljan tlje Port of 
London only and tljereof duly to gifoe knowledge a* aforefaid* 
&nd for ttje better difcofoery of deceipt* Ijerein Iji* ^ajeftie dotfj 
Ijereby ffraigljtly cljarge and command, i:ijat all foreign Card* 
after 9$icljaelma* ne;rt (Ijall be brougljt to tlje office in London 
for dealing of Card* toljere tljey fyall be put into GEngliflj 
^Binder*, or neto bound b^ Iji* ^ajeffie* faid Officer or Iji* 
2Deputie, before tfie fame fljall be fold; and tljat no perfon or 


perfong of toljat contrition or qualttie Coeijec after 92fcl)aelma0 
nejct tyall buy fell ufe utter keep or Dtfpofe of any CarDg totjatCo-- 
etoer, tljat be or fyall be put in foreign 35fntiec0 before tbe fame 
tyalt be nelo bounti, or put in (IEngltty BinDerg, anti be feaieti iip 
Ijig ^ajettietf Officer or W 2Deputie upon pain of tlje forfeiture 

#na to t!)efe fite 9@afeffie0 Kopall commanft* f)e require 
eft all Hue conformitie anD obetiience of all Vojom it tyall con= 
cern upon pain of fte loCCe anD forfeiture of all fuclj Carug or 
3Dice as? lt>all be £>ealeD ^arkeD Counterfeited 3|mpoctet> or 
otljertoife bought fold or Difpofeti of contrary to |f# 9£afefffe* 
pleafure Serein Declared anti upon Cue!) further penalties anD 
punitymentg ag by tfje %a\nz$ or fe>tatuteg of tfje Eealm or 
ottjectotCe may be inaicteD for tfceir contempt or neglect tjecem* 

" Given at our court at Greenwich the eighteenth day of June, in 
the fourteenth yeer of our Reign. 

" God Save the King. 

u Imprinted at London by Robert Barker, Printer to the Kings 
moft Excellent Majeftie : and by the Affignes of John Bill. 1638." 
[25| X 10| in.] 

E. 228. 

(Printed Books Department, Single Sheets, vol. 3, 669./. 7/28.) 


(Charles I.) 


*HE following order of Parliament is contained as above indicated : — 
" Die Martis 1 1 Julii 1643. 
' Committee appointed by Parliament for the Navy and Customes. 
" Upon the Humble Complaints of severall Poore Cardmakers of 
London, who having beene bred up in their Trades of making Playing-Cards are 
likely to perish with their families by reason of Divers Merchants secretly bring- 
ing in Playing-Cards into this Kingdome, contrary to the Lawes and Statutes of 
this Realme ; It is this day ordered by this Committee, That the Officers of the 
Custome House of the Port of London and likewise of the Out Ports within the 
Kingdome of England and Dominion of Wales and all other Officers whom it doth 
concerne respectively do seize and put into safe custody all sorts of Playing-Cards 
of Forraigne making which are or hereafter shall be brought into this Kingdom 
or Dominion of Wales. And that they doe thereupon proceed against the parties 
so offending according to the Lawes and Statutes in that case provided. 

" And it is further ordered That the Copy hereof be sent unto the Custome 
House of the Port of London and unto all other the Outports within the King- 
dome of England and Wales, that the Officers may take notice thereof accordingly. 
" Treasury Chamber, Westminster. 

" Giles Grene. 
" London, Printed by F. R. for Joseph Hunscott. July 1 2, 1643." 
[14 x 91 in-] 

3 io 


E. 229. 

(Printed Books Department, Tracts relating to Trade, vol. 12, 816. m. 12/73.) 


(King Charles II.) 


HE following proclamation succeeds in the present volume the previoi 
one of King Charles I. of the year 1638 (E. 227) : — 


" A Proclamation 

Prohibiting the Importation of Foreign Playing-Cards and for feizing 
fuch as are or (hall be IMPORTED. 

" Charles R. 

* Mlljereas bp tlje Eatos and Statutes of tljiS our l&ealm, 
all foreign playing Cards (amongft ditiers otljer foreign 
manufactures) are prohibited to be imported, untier penalty of 
forfeiture; get nottottljtfanding, as toe are giton to underttand 
bp tlje ljumble petition of tlje fatter, (Lfllardens, and flfliaants 
of tlje Company of Cardmakers of London, ditiers of Cur 
Subjects and otljers, are fo Ijardy, to bring into tijis I&ingdom 
great quantities of foreign playing=CardS and publicity to 
e^pofe tge fame to fale in contempt of us ana our HatoS and to 
tlje great impoundment of tlje poor artificers of tje faiti com= 
pany anti otljer our fubjects imployed in making tlje faiti manu- 
facture-, flflie taking tlje fame into our ferious condderation 
anli being delirous in tljis particular, as toe altoays fjitljerto 
Ijabe been in tjje toljole coucfe of our d5otiernment, to encourage 
manufactures toitljin tljis Cur kingdom, toljnreby our fubjects 
are maintaineti in good eftate, anti <3Trade increased, are gra* 
cioufly pleafeti toitb tlje adtiice of our pritiy council by tljis Cur 
l&oyal proclamation to command and direct ^ lljat all latos 
noto in force prohibiting tlje importation of any foreign 
piaying--CardS be duely put in execution by all our CflGtcerS and 
otljer perfons concerned : &nd tljat all foreign playing-cards 
already imported be fortljtoitlj fearcljed for, fei^ed and con- 
demned, and all fuel) as make refinance therein proceeded 
againft according to tlje utmoft rigour of Hato : bereby (trictly 
commanding and requiring all 3|utfices of tlje peace, payors, 


feijecfffft JBajlffift Conttableg ana otfjec officers* tojatfoetjec to 
be from time to time titling; and Mtftmstn all tjing# requtttte 
foe anti touching tfje due obferfoatton anti execution of tlje fat'D 
lLa\n$ anti of tfjte 4Dur l&opal proclamation at t^eic perils 

" Given at our Court at Whitehall the feventh day of November 
1684. In the fix and thirtieth year of our Reign. 
" God Save the King. 
u London. 
" Printed by the Afligns of John Bill, deceafed : And by Henry 
Hills and Thomas Newcomb, Printers to the Kings mod Excellent 
Majefty. 1684." 
[13t x iof in.] 

E. 230. 

(Printed Boohs Department, Tracts relating to Trade, vol. 12, 8 16. m. 12/68.) 


(Queen Anne.) 


N the volume here referred to are : 

" Considerations 
In Relation to 

<3TIje gimpoatton on CarW, 

Humbly submitted to the 
Honourable House of Commons." 

" Nine parts in Ten of the Cards now made are sold from 6s, to 24s. per 
gross, and even these six shillings in Cards by this Duty are subjected to pay 
£3 1 2*. tax. 

" This with humble submission will destroy Nine Parts in Ten of this manu- 
facture for those Cards which are now bought for 3c?. can't then be afforded under 
lOd. or a shilling, for every hand through which they pass will add a gain in con- 
sideration of the Tax imposed and therefore the generality of the people will 
buy none at all. 

"If any of your Honours hope by this Tax to suppress expensive Card- 
playing, It is answered, That the Common sort who play for innocent diversion 
will by this tax be only hinder' d ; for those sharp gamesters who play for money 
but do not use the Twentieth part of the Cards sold, will not by this Tax be dis- 
couraged ; for those who play for many Pounds at a game will not be hindered by 
paying 1 2c?. per pack : And the destruction of this manufacture will be attended 
with these ill consequences : — 

" First. Nothing (in comparison) will be (clear of all charges) raised by this 
duty imposed. 

" Secondly. All that depend upon this manufacture will be rendered incapable 
to maintain their numerous families or pay their debts. 

" Thirdly. The English paper manufacture (which is the middle of the Cards) 
will be extreamly prejudiced. 

" Fourthly. The importation of the Genoa White Paper (with which the Cards 
are covered) will be very much diminished ; and in the consequence thereof, 



" Fifthly and lastly, Her Majesty will lose as much Paper duty as the cle 
Duty on the Cards to be sold will amount unto. 

" And if it be intended to charge the Stock in hand, then the present Posses- 
sors will be thereby obliged to pay a Duty for Ten times more Cards than ever 
they will sell. 

" Wherefore it is humbly hoped, That your Honours will not lay a Duty which 
its humbly conceived will bring no profit to the Queen, but inevitably ruin many 
hundreds of her subjects." 

[I2f X 7f in.] 

E. 231. 

(Printed Boohs Department, Tracts relating to Trade, vol. 12, 816. m. 1 2/69.) 


(Queen Anne.) 


HE case of the Merchants Importing Genoa paper, the Stationers, 
Haberdashers of small ware, the English Paper-Makers and 

" In relation to the Intended Duty on Cards, humbly submitt 
to the Honourable House of Commons." 

The first portion or preamble of this petition against the duty on cards is the 
previous one, 8 16. m. 1 2/68, as far as the words " duty imposed," with a few slight 
alterations. The petition then proceeds to point out as ill consequences : 

Secondly. " The English Paper- Manufacture extremely prejudiced, because 
by a modest computation there are 150 Paper Mills in England and each of 
these one with another Annually make 400 Rheams ; one-Fourth of which is now 
used in the ordinary cards, and none of these will (when this great Duty is im- 
posed) be ever made. 

" Thirdly. Her Majesty's Customs arising from the Importation of Genoa 
Paper will be extremely lessen'd : for it is reasonably supposed that there are 
40,000 Rheams of Genoa paper annually used in this manufacture, which already 
pays Custom \od. per Rheam, amounting to £1666 135., which by this intended 
duty will be quite lost, the said Genoa paper being of little use but in Card- 

"Fourthly. Three parts in four of the card-makers, and the many families 
which depend upon them, will by this intended Tax be inevitably ruin'd, for those 
Card-makers depend upon their credit and work 8 months in 1 2 for the Winter- 
Season, and during those 8 months scarce receive enough to find their families 
with Bread, and therefore can never pay this great Duty, and consequently not. 
follow their trade. 

" Seeing by this intended Duty her Majesty's loss in her Customs, the loss of 
the Merchants importing paper, of the Stationers who credit the Card-makers, of 
the Wholesale Haberdashers who sell the Cards, and of the Card-makers, will 
amount to fiye times more than this designed imposition can clear of all charges be 
suppos'd to raise ; and five parts in six of the Card-makers and their numerous 
Dependents inevitably ruined. 

" It is therefore humbly hop'd this Honourable House will give relief in the 

On the back of this petition is the inscription : " The many Losses from severall 
Trades and Manufactures attending the great Imposition on Cards." 

[I2f X 7f in.] 



E. 232, 

(Printed Books Department, Tracts relating to Trade, vol. 12, 816. m. 12/70.) 


(Queen Anne.) 


[EASONS Humbly offer'd by the Card-makers against the Tax upon 
Playing- Cards." 

" The Card-makers in and about the City of London are about 
One Hundred Master Workmen. For some time past (Paper having 
been double the Price as formerly) the trade is much Decayed. 

" The most they sell their Cards for to the Retailers (one sort with another) 
is Three Half-pence the Pack, and their Profit not above one Half-penny. So 
that the Tax intended will be double the value of the Cards and six times their 

" The generality of these Cardmakers are Poor men and out of the Small Gains 
above can hardly maintain their families : And therefore to impose a Tax to be 
immediately paid upon making by the Cardmakers (whose Stocks and Abilities 
are so very mean, that they now make hard shift to forbear the Retailers the or- 
dinary time of Credit) will be a direct way to Ruine these Poor Men. 

" Besides there is at present a Stock of Cards in the retailers hands sufficient 
for the consumption of Four or Five years ; and they will assuredly sell all the 
old stock off before they take any at the New advanced rate : The consequence 
whereof will be : 

" First. That the Cardmakers till that stock be sold off can make no new 

" Secondly. That during that time they and their Families must needs starve. 

" Lastly. That until the card-makers can make new ones no money can arise 
by such Tax. 1 ' 

[12x7 in -] 

E. 233. 

{Printed Boohs Department, Tracts relating to Trade, vol. 12, 816. m. 12/71.) 


(Queen Anne.) 


[EASONS humbly offer'd to the Honourable House of Commons by 
the Company of CaC&^afcCCg against the Tax upon Playing- 

This petition of the " Company " itself varies, but very slightly, 
from the one previously given (816. m. 12/70), viz., that of the "poor Card 

[I2f X 7 in.] 



E. 234. 

(Printed Books Department, 1076, i. 10.) 


(King James I.) 


PRINTED book of forty-four pages containing satirical poems in 
ference to characters of loose or immoral kind. 
The title-page bears the inscription : 

" The Knave of Clubbs. 
'Tis Merry when Knanes Meet. 

"Printed at London by E. A. Dwelling nere Christ-Church 161 1." 
The central part of the title-page is occupied by a wood-cut, with a device of 
two full-length figures representing the knaves of clubs and of hearts. The knave 
of clubs on the left holds a long arrow-like lance in his left hand, the knave of 
hearts supports a partisan in his right hand, while he raises his left and addresses 
his companion. The knave of hearts is seen in profile. 

The first page (A. 2.) has an address by the author S. R. 

who is asked to 

" To Fustis Knave of Clubbs,'* 

" March in the forefront of my Booke 
And say I use thee kinde 
A crew of madmen, knaves and fooles 
Thy fellowes, come behinde." 

The last page informs the reader that 

" The knave of Clubs his part hath plaid, 
But now wee want Hart, Diamond, Spade, 
To shew themselves like in true shape, 
The reason why they doe escape 
Is this : of late they fell at iarre, 
Disperst asunder very farre, 
Harts in the Country at new-cut, 
And Spades in Newgate safe is shut, 
And Diamonds he is gone to seas 
Sick of the scurvy which disease 
If he escape, and get on shore 
We will present you with all foure 
And make them march unto the presse 
To utter all their roguishnes, 
So till they be together drawne 
Pray keepe the Knave of Clubs in pawne. 

[7X5 in.] 


E. 235. 

(Printed Books Department, 1076, i. 11.) 


(King James I.) 


PRINTED book of forty- eight pages, each page containing about 
twenty lines of satirical verse. The title-page bears the inscription : 
*' The Knave of Harts, Haile Fellow, well met. London : Printed for 
John Bache and are to be sold at his shop at the entring in of the 
royall Exchange, 16 13." 

The central part of the title-page is occupied by a wood- cut, representing the 
knaves of hearts and of clubs as soldiers, one of whom bears a partisan in his left 
hand (hearts), the other (clubs) a long arrow-like lance in his right hand. The 
figures regard and address each other, and have the marks of their suits placed at 
the side of their heads. The knave of hearts wears likewise a sword and buckler. 
A second block has been stamped in red over the greater portion of this last 
figure and the sign of the suit. On the first page (A. 2.) is an address of " The 
knave of Harts to his three Brethern Knaves," and on the last is the " Epilogue," 
concluding with the lines : 

" Farewell, farewell in haste adue 

The cardes want Harts to make them true.' 

[7X5 in.] 

E. 236. 

(Printed Books Department, c. 32. b. 17.) 


(King James I.) 


PRINTED volume of forty-eight pages, consisting of satirical poems 
referring to various characters and customs of loose or questionable 
description. The titlepage bears the inscription, "More Knaves yet? 
The Knaves of Spades and Diamonds. London : Printed for John 
Tap, dwelling at Saint Magnus." The central portion of the title-page is occu- 
pied by a representation of two full-length figures, personifying the knaves of 
spades and diamonds. The knave of spades is seen in profile on the left hand 
addressing his companion, who carries a partisan and wears spurs. 

On the first page (A. 3.) is, " The epistle to any man but especially to Fooles 
and Mad-men." On the last page is concluded a poem on " The seaven deadly 
Sins all Horst and riding to Hell," following which is the verse : 

3 i6 ENGLISH. 

" The knaves are delt, the game is plaid, 
And with this wish concludeth spade, 
I would all knaves who ere they bee 
Were knowne by sight as well as wee. 

The previous two volumes, E. 234 and E. 235, are the original editions of the 
series of " Rowlands' Knaves." The present work is but a reprint, the verso of 
the supplementary leaf to which bears the following inscriptions : " Vereor ne haec 
forte nimis antiqua, et jam obsoleta videantur." — Cicero in Verrem. " Reprinte 
at the Beldomie Press, by G. E. Palmer for Edwd. V. Utterson, in the y« 


E. 237. 

(Printed Books Department, c. 32. b. 20.) 


(King James I.) 


PRINTED volume of forty-two pages of satirical verse. It is entitled, 
" The Knave of Clubbs, 'tis merry when Knaves meet. Printed at 
London by E. A., dwelling nere Christ-Church, 1 6 1 1 ." This volume 
is a modern reprint of E. 235. 
On the last page of the present work is the inscription, " Reprinted at the 
Beldornie Press, by G. E. Palmer for Edwd. V. Utterson, in the year mdcccxli." 

E. 238. 

(Printed Books Department, c. 32. b. 15.) 


(King James I.) 


PRINTED volume of forty- six pages, consisting of satirical verse. 
It bears the title, " Knave of Harts, Haile Fellow, well met. London : 
Printed for John Bache, and are to be sold at his shop at the entring 
in of the Royall Exchange, 1613." 
This volume is a modern reprint of E 235. " Reprinted at the Beldornie 
Press by George Butler, for Edwd. V. Utterson, in the year mdcccxl." 


E. 239. 

{Printed Books Department, A. c. 9480.) 

HIS, is the ninth volume of the " Early English Poetry, Ballads, and 
popular Literature of the Middle Ages. Edited from original Manu- 
scripts and scarce publications by the Percy Society. London, 
mdcccxliii". It contains reprints of " The four Knaves. A series 
of satirical tracts by Samuel Rowlands. Edited with an Introduction and Notes 
by E. F. Rimbault, Esq., Ph.D., F.S.A., Member of the Royal Academy of Music 
in Stockholm, &c." 

These " four Knaves " are the works previously described, viz., E. 234, E. 235, 
E. 236. Dr. Rimbault in his introduction remarks : " Samuel Rowlands, the 
author of the (foregoing) tracts, was a prolific writer of the end of the sixteenth 
and early part of the succeeding century." . . . . " Excepting that he lived and 
wrote nothing is now known of his history." . . . . " All his productions have now 
become exceedingly rare, but perhaps none more so than the series of quaint satirical 
tracts reprinted in the following pages. The first, ' The knave of Clubbs, 'tis 
merry when Knaves meete/ upon its appearance in 1600, gave such offence on 
account of the severity of its satire and the obviousness of its allusions, that an 
order was made that it should be burnt, first publicly, and afterwards in the Hall 
Kitchen of the Stationers' Company.' 

" In accordance with a promise given at the end of the ' Knave of Clubbs,' 
Rowlands went on with his series of Knaves, and in 1612 gave to the world, 

' The Knave of Harts, Haile Fellowe well met.' ' The last of the series of 

Rowlands' Knaves was ' More knaves yet ? The Knaves of Spades and Diamonds.' 
It was printed without a date, but in all probability (from allusions to Ward 
and Dansikar, two famous pirates whose story was then popular) about the same 
period as the preceding tract." 

Another tract by Rowlands bears the title: "A paire of spy-knaves." Between 
the publication of the first and second tracts (E. 234, E. 235) an anonymous 
writer, without (according to Dr. Rimbault) a particle of wit or drollery, en- 
deavoured to take advantage of Rowlands' popularity by imitating the title-page 
of one of the most successful of his publications. The work alluded to is entitled, 
"Roome for a messe of knaves, &c. London: Printed by N. F., 1610." 

From the remarks by Mr. Utterson, appended to his various reprints of these 
knave tracts, the following has been taken. Samuel Rowlands "appears to 
have visited the haunts of profligacy and vice, in search of objects for his sarcastic 
Muse, and the result of such Enquiries communicated in his various pieces, is 

productive of amusement as well as instruction to modern readers." " All his 

productions are now become very rare, although most of them went through re- 
peated editions." "There are copies of the three several volumes of 'Knaves' 

in the Malone collection in the Bodleian Library ; in the British Museum are the 
knaves of Harts and Clubs, and the three works bound together were in Mr. 
Heber's collection, having been purchased by him at Mr. Brindley's sale. 1 The 
present reprint is limited to fifteen copies, none of which are intended for sale." 

On folio B of the " Knave of Harts," E. 235, is " The knave of Harts his suppli- 

1 For £3$ 3*. 



cation to card makers," in which the petitioner, on behalf of himself and his brother 
knaves of clubs, diamonds, and spades, complains of the way in which the card- 
makers persist in dressing them, and that they 

" Are kept in pie-bald suites which we have worne 
Hundred of yeares, this hardly can be borne. 

* * * * 

How can we choose but have the itching gift 
Kept in one kinde of cloaths, and never shift ? 

* * * * 

How bad I and my fellow Diamond goes 
We never yet had garter to our hose 
Nor any shooe to put upon our feete 
With such base cloaths, 'tis e'en a shame to see't 
My sleeves are like some Morris-dauncing fellow 
My stockings ideot like, red greene and yeallow 
My Breeches like a pair of lute- pins be 
Scarse Buttocke-roome as every man may see 
Like three-penie watch men, three of us doe stand 
Each with a rusty Browne-bill in his hand 
And Clubs he holds an Arrow like a Clowne 
The head-end upward and the feathers downe 

* * * * 

Shew us (I pray) some reason how it haps 
That we are ever bound to wear flat caps 

And some because we have no beards do think e 
We are foure Panders with our lowsie lockes 
Whose naked chinnes are shaven with the 

* * * * 

Good card-makers (if there be any goodnes in you) 
Apparell us with more respected care 
Put us in hats our caps are worne thread-bare 
Let us have standing collers in the fashion 
(all are become a stiffe-necke generation) 
Rose Hatbands with the shagged-ragged Ruffe 
Great cabbage shooe -strings (pray you bigge enough) 
French Dublet, and the Spanish Hose to breech it 
Short cloakes old Mandilions (we beseech it) 
Exchange our Swords, and take away our Bils, 
Let us have Rapiers (Knaves love fight that kils) 
Put us in Bootes and make us leather legs 
This Harts most humbly and his fellowes begs." 

On the title-page of " More knaves yet ? The knaves of Spades and Diamonds," 
E. 236, the figures appear, clad in a different costume to those of the knaves 
making the above complaint, E. 235, and to the conventional dress derived from 
the time of Henry VII. The dress in E. 236, has been modernized by the card- 
makers. For the change, as far as it went, the knaves of spades and diamonds 
thus return thanks : 

" As now the honest Printer hath bin kinde 
Bootes and stockins to our legs doth finde 
Garters, polonia heeles, and rose shooe-strings 
Which, somewhat us two knaves in fashion brings 


From the knee downeward, legs are well amended 
And we acknowledge that we are befrended 
And will requite him for it as we can 
A knave some time may serve an honest man." 

It is open to question, we think, whether the knaves have profited by the 
changes following their complaint. The knave of spades is rather smart about 
the legs with his garters and shoe-strings, and the knave of diamonds is booted and 
spurred, but on the whole we would have preferred, had we been the knaves, 
remaining as we were. Even the latter are not wholly satisfied, and evince desire 

" For the great large abominable breech 

Like brewers hop-sackes ; yet since new they be 

Each knave will have them, and why should not wee ? 

Some laundresse we also will entreate 

For bannes and ruffes, which kindnes to be great 

"We will confesse yea and requite it too 

In any service that poore knaves can doe 

Scarffes we doe want to hang our weapons by 

If any puncke will deale so courteously 

As in the way of favour to bestow them 

Rare cheating tricks we will protest to owe them 

Or any pander with a ring in 's eare 

That is a gentleman (as he doth sweare) 

And will affoord us hats of newest blocke 

A payre of cardes shall be his trade and stocke 

To get his lyving by, for lack of lands 

Because he scornes to overworke his handes 

And thus ere long we trust we shall be fitted 

Those knaves that cannot shift, are shallow witted." 

Impressions from the wood-blocks belonging to the Percy Society, illustrating 
the costume of the " Four Knaves," may be found in Chatto's treatise, Bibl. 
PP- 133, 136. 

E. 240. 

{Printed Books Department, e. 246, Tract xi.) 


(King Charles I.) 


N this volume is a tract (No. xi.) entitled, " The Bloody Game at 
Cards as it was played betwixt the King of Hearts and the rest of his 
Suite, against the residue of the Packe of Cards wherein Is dis- 
covered where faire play was plaid and where was fowle. Shuffled 
at London, Cut at Westminster, Dealt at Yorke, and Plaid in the Open fiel by 
the City -clubs, the country spade-men, Rich-Diamond men, and Loyall Hearted 

In the centre of the title page is the representation of the honour card — the 
king of hearts — in the conventional way. It is from a wood-block, the design on 
which has been carefully drawn and engraved. It is uncoloured. 

On the eighth page— the last — the account concludes as follows: — "The King 

3 20 ENGLISH. 

of Hearts as his suit is best in colour and in courage, so they are such understand- 
ing gamesters that they will not be taken in any over-sight, there are no bunglers 
there, nor any fumbling in all their play, but all expert and cunning gamesters ; 
it is, therefore, no wonder if successe doth attend them and that they still come 
winners off in all the games they play. The rest of the pack have therefore done 
very well and wisely to crave a truce of the King of Hearts who is more willing to 
forgive them then they have bin apt to oppose him. 

" Since they on both sides have been cross't 
And both have wonne and both have lost 
It now is thought high time of Day 
Friendly to part and leave off play. 
Finis: 1 

E. 241. 

{Printed Books Department, e. 309, Collection of Pamphlets, 233.) 


(King Charles I.) 


RACT No. 19 in this volume is one entitled, "Chartae Scriptae, or a 
New Game at Cards called Play by the Booke, printed in the year 


In the dedication, " To the most Vertuous and therefore most 
accomplished Lady, the Lady V. M.," allusion is made to the well-known French 
card-maker, Nicholas Besniere, (antea, F. 46.) 

" Madam, — Though other cards passe here and there 
Under the name of Nicholas Beniere,' 
And his Protections good (unless it be) 
From the Exciseman or Monoply," &c. 

The aces and honour cards are here first personified, and made to express half- 
moral, half-satirical sentiments in verse. Then follow the tens with ten poetic 
apophthegms, the nines with nine, and so on, concluding on p. 24 with " Duo 

E. 242. 

{Printed Boohs Department, e. 983, Collection of Pamphlets, 790.) 



"HIS volume contains a tract (No. 9) entitled, " Shufling, Cutting, and 
Dealing in a Game at Pickquet, being Acted from the Year 1653 to 
1658, by O. P. and others ; with great Applause. Tempora 
mutantur et nos. Printed in the year 1659." 
Oliver Cromwell is represented after the dissolution of the Long Parliament 
(20th April, 1653), playing at cards along with certain of his old officers and 


friends, together with his opponents and some public offices personified, such as 
the Exchequer, Common Pleas, Presbyterianism, &c. All these persons as 
they sit at piquet are snpposed to express sentiments in respect to the political 
transactions previously and then taking place. The game opens with — 

" Oliver P. — I am like to have a good begining on't ; I have thrown out all 
my best cards, and got none but a company of wretched ones, so may very well be 

It concludes with the 

" Divines. — I was pickquet the last, but am now rejoicing." 

"Papist. — If you all complain, I hope I shall win at last." 

Following the game is the " Epilogue. It is to be noted that the gentlemen 
that have been eminent in this last dealing of the cards playd very fair in the 
former game here described. With a Plaudite." " Sic transit gloria mundi." 

These politico -satirical tracts (E. 240, E. 241, E. 242) were known to Chatto, 
who remarks in regard to them : — " When the civil war commenced and the people 
became interested in a sterner game, card-playing appears to have declined. The 
eard-playing gallant whose favourite haunts had been the play-house and the tavern, 
now became transformed into a cavalier, and displayed his bravery in the field at the 
head of a troop of horse, whilst his old opponent, the puritanical minister, incited 
by a higher spirit of indignation, instead of holding forth on sports and pastimes, 
and household vices, now thundered on the ' drum ecclesiastic ' against national 
oppressors, urged his congregation to stand up for their rights as men against 
the pretensions of absolute monarchy and rampant prelacy, and to try the crab- 
tree staff against the courtier's dancing rapier." 

" Among the numerous pamphlets which appeared during the contest, there are 
a few whose titles show that the game of cards, though not so much in vogue as 
formerly, was still not forgotten." 

Besides these " A Murnival of Knaves " (l 683) " Win first lose at last, or the 
game of cards which were shuffled by President Bradshaw, cut by Col. Hewson, 
the Cobler, and played by Oliver Cromwell and Ireton till the Restoration of 
Charles II. (1707)." A "Lenten Litany," "Poems on State Affairs" (1704), 
"Jamesanna, or a Pythagorical Play at Cards," are politico-satirical literary 
ventures which may be here recorded. (See Chatto, p. 1 38.) 

E. 243. 

Printed Books Department, Roxburghe Ballads, vol. ii. pp. 81, 243, 360, also 
p. 149, Edited by Mr. Chappell. 

(Published by the Ballad Society), Hertford, 1873. 

»N this volume there is a quaint wood-cut heading three ballads, pp. 81, 
243, and 360. Among the figures on the cut is a great rabbit 
holding up in each front paw a card with the pips exposed to the 
spectator, viz. the three of spades and the five of clubs. 
Mr. Chappell remarks in reference to this cut, that it is probably derived from 
one of Robert Greene's books on " Coney-Catching." 

Heading another ballad at p. 149 is a cut representing a sot standing near a 
table on which, among other things, is an upturned card. 


V. 244. 


PACK of fifty-two numerals of the suits, diamonds, hearts, 
spades, and clubs. The honours are king, queen, and knave 
figured in busts, printed double and in reverse. 

The individual marks of the suits are characterized by their 
very acute or prolonged forms, where their contour lines meet or 
decussate. The ternate form of the sign for clubs is also note- 
worthy. The mark on the ace of diamonds is surrounded by a sinuous border, 
having large dots in the hollows of its curves. 

The designs on the figure-cards are from metal plates of soft character. The 
knave of hearts bears a shield, on which is the double-headed eagle of Russia. 
On the two of diamonds is the Russian duty stamp. 
This series should be compared with V. 246. 

The backs of these cards are very neatly diapered with dotted lines, forming 
the Greek key ornament running diagonally, and printed in blue. 

[3i X 2f in.] 

[Backs decorated.] 

V. 245. 



PACK of fifty-two numerals of the suits, hearts, diamonds, spades, 
and clubs. The honours are king, queen, and knave, figured as 
busts, printed double and in reverse. 

Each ace has on it two landscapes printed in reverse, a central 
circular space being kept clear for the symbol of the suit. 

On the four of diamonds are the arms of Portugal, having inscribed below : 
" Thesouro Publico, Pagou quarenta reis de Sello." 

The designs on the figure-cards are of half costume, half modern character, 
strongly coloured. The landscapes on the aces are heavily coloured. 


The marks of diamonds, spades, and clubs, approach those of the before-men- 
tioned set, V. 244. 

The backs are marked with sinuous dotted lines, printed in red. 

[3.3 x 2f- in.] [Backs decorated.] 

V. 246. 


PACK of fifty -two numerals of the suits, spades, hearts, diamonds, 
clubs. The honours are represented as busts, printed double and in 
reverse ; the designs being of half historic, half costume character. 
The general design of the whole series approximates to that of 
V. 244. It is presumed that the Swiss relationship of these cards recorded on 
the title has been inferred from their having been procured from Switzerland. 
The backs are marked with sinuous, dotted red lines, and large red stars. 
[3f x 2 i m, J [Backs decorated.] 

V. 247. 



SET of fifty-two numerals, the marks of the suits and designs of the 
figure-cards being of a special character, and designed for American 
feeling and taste. 

The intent of this series may be accurately learnt from the follow- 
ing address printed in red, on a buff-coloured ground, and which accompanies the 
cards : — 

" The American Card Co., confident that the Introduction of National Emblems 
in the place of Foreign, in Playing Cards, will be hailed with delight by the 
American People, take pleasure in presenting the Union Playing Cards as the 
first and only Genuine American Cards ever produced, in the fullest confidence 
that the time is not far distant when they will be the leading card in the American 

" Explanation. — The Union Cards are calculated to play all the games for 
which the old style of Playing Cards are used. The suits are Eagles, Shields, 
Stars, and Flags. Goddess of Liberty in place of Queen, Colonel for King, Major 
for Jack. In playing with these cards they are to be called by the names the 
emblems represent, and as the emblems are as familiar as household words every- 
where among the American people, they can be used as readily the first occasion 
as Cards bearing Foreign Emblems." 

An engraved title is present, representing the " Goddess of Liberty," enclosed 
within a framework of the following inscriptions : " Nationality everything." 
[Two marks of admiration follow.] " National Emblems, something new in the 

VABIA. 325 

card world. Time for a change. Foreign Emblems used long enough in 
the U. S." 

Then succeeds : "Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1862, by 
Benj. W. Hitchcock, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United 
States for the Southern District of New York." 

The ace of eagles also bears the above authorization below an eagle and cage. 
From the mouth of the bird proceeds a scroll having on it E pluribus unum. 
Above is a larger scroll, bearing the address of the " American Card Company. 
Below on a third scroll, may be read: " 14 Chambers S l . & 165 William S'., 
New York." 

The eagle is backed by a radiant sun. The suits of eagles and of shields are 
printed in blue, those of stars and flags in red colours. 

The " colonel" (king) of the suit of eagles is a three-quarter figure in a blue 
military surtout, with epaulettes, sword, and sash. He stands in a hilly land- 
scape, having tents in the background. 

The queen of the same suit is represented by the Goddess of Liberty, bearing 
a red Phrygian cap at the end of a lance, and extending her left hand towards the 
mark of the suit. By her right side is an eagle perched on a shield, bearing the 
stars and stripes. The goddess bears a radiant star on her head, and her drapery 
(decorated witli stars and stripes), is raised above her knee, so as to expose the 
whole of the left leg. 

The major (Jack), is represented by a person in jack-boots, Tyrolean hat, 
blue jacket, and red breeches, holding a lance in his right hand. Behind him is a 
gun and carriage, and in the middle distance is an orderly bringing forward the 
major's horse. In the distance a steamer is seen descending a river. At the 
right-hand upper corner is the mark of the suit. 

The backs of these cards are marked with an elaborate design, printed in 
blue, made up of shields, banners, anchors, oak leaves, stars, stripes, &c. &c. 
The whole is of very vulgar character. 

[3^ X 2 t m -] [Backs decorated.] 

V. 248. 


THIN quarto volume of sixteen leaves, having fifty-two divisions, 
representing the pieces of a numeral series of the ordinary character, 
together with descriptions and blank divisions. Each leaf has four 
equal divisions ; on the first compartment of the first page is the 
following account : — 

" Marginal Index or Self-sorting and Distinguishing Safety Playing-Cards. — 
Your Hand at Whist, and all other Games distinguished at a glance by yourself 
alone, without the trouble of sorting. All risks of Revokes and Involuntary play 
of winning Cards Effectually prevented. Whether playing at Cards for Love or 
Money, no others should be used. 

" To be had at all Licensed Vendors of Playing Cards throughout the King- 
dom. London : Printed by John A. Rufus, Cross Street, Finsbury Square, E.C. 
1 869. Entered at Stationers Hall, and right of Translation Reserved." 

The method here adopted will be satisfactorily explained by the following re- 
duced copy of one of the compartments, viz. that which represents the eight of 






•tF w w w '7V* -a* TV* 




On the last leaf are four drawings representing by marks and numbers the six 
of hearts, the nine of spades, the seven of diamonds, and the ten of clubs after the 
following manner : 

Then succeeds the note in MS. : — 

" N.B. The foregoing Marginal Marks (or any of them) are intended to de- 
note the suit and the number of Pips on Playing-Cards, and to be conveniently 
placed on the margins or corners of the Cards. In the margin under the first 
corner pip, and its corresponding pip, will be found a very appropriate position for 

VARIA. 327 

indication of the number, or the numbers may be marked on the pip itself as illus- 
trated in the sketch. 

The Author. 

On the general field of the card-piece, within the marginal index, the marks of 
suit, or the design of the figure-card, are to be represented in the ordinary 

the suit, or 

V. 249. 


FOLDED sheet, on the first page of which is a description of " Four 
colours or new Playing-cards, by Francis John Bettles," and on the 
second and third pages are " Drawings of Eighty-one Cards, Forming 
the four Colours or New Playing-cards, by Francis John Bettles." 
In his account of the new cards the author remarks, " it had occurred to me 
that there was a much greater fund of amusement to be obtained from playing-cards 
than by those at present in use, and this has induced me to turn my attention by 
trying if something simpler, and more diversified, could not be introduced, and the 
result is my present ' Four Colours, or new Playing- Cards,' which I beg to bring 
to the notice of the public. I call them new, as I am not aware of any similar cards 
having ever been used, and I believe the result will be, that any of the games at 
present played with the existing playing-cards, can be played with them, and an 
entirely new scope of games and diversions, simple or complicated, can be added. 
I will, therefore, commence with a description. First of all, each of these cards 
will have on the face a line drawn across the middle, on each side of which there 
will be either a blank, or one or more stars, (or any other mark instead of a star 
which the taste of the printer may prefer) ; there will be only one card a double 
blank, and four sets of the following, each set being distinguished by a different 
colour, thus say, Red — blank one side of the line and one star on the other, blank 
and two, blank and three, blank and four, blank and five, one and one, one and 
two, one and three, one and four, one and five ; two and two, two and three, two 
and four, two and five ; three and three, three and four, three and five ; four and 
four, four and five ; five and five ; thus twenty cards of one colour, and the fore- 
going twenty cards repeated in three other different colours, say Green, Blue, and 
Black (or other colours if preferred by the printers), there being eighty-one cards 
in all, as seen in the drawing annexed." 

The method of using these cards in playing what is termed by the deviser the 
" Matching Game," is described to " show the diversified amusement that may be 
afforded with them." 

Entered at Stationers' Hall, 27th October, 1871. 

1 The three of diamonds is employed here twice over on account of the facility 
of printing the suit mark ; the marks and values furnished in the original being 
the three of diamonds and the five of spades. 




O. H. 250. 



SET of Hindustani cards ninety-six in number. 

There are three suits of different colours, viz. red, 
green, and yellow. The red and green suits have each 
three series, viz. a deep green, a medium green, and 
light green sequence. The yellow suit has but two series, 
a light yellow and orange yellow sequence. Each of the 
eight series has ten point cards and two figure cards. The 
marks of the suits are birds on the various coloured grounds, 
in number according to the value of the card ; No. 1 having the mark in the 
centre of the piece similar to the European ace. 

The first rank of the red (chocolate) suit has a peacock (?) for the sign ; the 
second rank (deep red) has a black bird ; the third (light red) has a white bird 
with slate coloured wings. 

The first rank (deep green) of the green suit has a large white bird of the 
goose tribe for its sign ; the second (medium green) has the same ; while the 
third rank (light green) has a red bird for its symbol. 

The first rank of the yellow suit has the black bird symbol. The second 
rank (orange yellow) has the goose for its mark. 

Each rank has ten point or pip cards, and two figure-cards or honours ; the 
latter being represented by a Wusseer and a mounted Schah, or king. The 
Wusseer is mounted on a white horse in five of the ranks, and on a camel (medium 
green) or a tiger (light green) or a bull (light yellow) in the others. He gallops 
always towards the left, extending the arm and hand towards the sign of the rank 
to which he belongs, and which is represented above the horses' head. The white 
horses have large black spots on the necks and flanks. In six of the ranks the 
king is seated under a canopy in the centre of the card. He is turned towards 
the left, apparently addressing an attendant, towards whom he extends his right 
arm. Behind the king stands another attendant, waving a large fan. Above 
the attendant standing opposite the king, the sign of the rank is represented. 

In the third rank of the green suit (light green) the king is a radiant sun face 


above the back of a tiger, preceded by an attendant, and followed by anothei 
servant with a fan. Above the sun-like full face is an umbrella, and above the 
tiger's head is the mark of the rank. This honour closely resembles figure N» 
6 on plate 2 of Chatto's work (Hibl. 4), page 42, there said to be the king of tin 
suit — soorkh, red, or Zur i soorkh — gold coin, figuratively the sun. 

The king of the light yellow rank is seated on an elephant. Before him is the 
driver, behind is the attendant with the fan. Above the head of the elephant is 
the black bird, the mark of the rank. This card closely approximates the figure, 
No. 4, of plate 1, in Chatto as before mentioned, and there stated to repr 
sent the king of Gholam, or of the suit, slaves. Reference may be ma 
with advantage to plate 70 in Merlin's Treatise (Bibl. 6) — the lowest card 
the left hand. 

Alluding to Hindustani cards, Merlin observes : " They are generally 
lacquered cardboard. They are curious, but the painting on them is of a primitive 
kind ; the Hindu draughtsmen do not know how to represent the eyes. One class 
of artists always draws profile eyes, even in a full face ; another class always por- 
trays a full eye, even in a profile face." (p. 123.) 

In the pack now under consideration there is but one full face represented, viz. 
the green king of the third rank ; and here the eyes, as respects the position of the 
cornea and pupil, are evidently of profile character. 

The cards of the present series are circular in form, and seem to be made of thick 
paper or thin pasteboard. They are painted on both faces, and highly varnished 
on the front face, by which process the pieces have been made very stiff and 
firm. The colour of the ground stops short about one-eighth of an inch from the 
circular margin of the card, which is edged red, with a narrow light yellow line 
within the circle. 

On the figure-cards or honours, within the yellow and inner circle, is another 
and gilt circle, from which, in places, slight leaf-like ornaments occasionally project 
within the field of the card. 

The backs of all the pieces are coloured red, of the same depth as the ground 
of the third rank of the red suit. A light yellow circle forms a border to them. 

Whether this set of Indian cards should be described as above, or, rather, as 
consisting of eight suits of twelve cards each suit, is, it must be admitted, open to 

Colours, or red, green, and yellow, are the more general differentia, but then 
they are not equally divided among the eight ranks. Red and green have each 
three ranks ; yellow has but two. If the birds be taken as marks of the chief 
divisions, a like inequality may be found: e.g. there are three ranks of geese, two 
of black birds, one of red birds, one of white birds, one of peacocks. Further, 
the geese occupy both the green and the yellow colours, and the black birds the red 
and the yellow. There is a green peacock (?) on the red ground, and a red bird 
on the light green colour. 

Accompanying this set of Indian cards is a memorandum in MS. as given 
below : — 

" The following is an extract from William Carpenter's letter, dated Ahme- 
dabad, Sept. 22nd, 1851, relating to the Playing-Cards used in India. 

" ' I write you what little information I have obtained about the cards. One 
contains 1 20 pieces of the Avatars of Krishna, ten suits of twelve each. There 
are twelve figures painted on (?), from one to ten in number, like our play- 
ing cards : 

1 . Horse. 

2. Gholaum. 

3. Fish. 

4. Tortoise. 

5. Lion. 

6. Umbrella, 

7. Fusee — apiece of iron Goscins carry. 

8. Flag. 

9. Sword. 
10. Bow. 

y^ ?• — dark green. 


•• 4 The other contains eight suits of twelve each, from one to ten — a King and a 
Wuseer. They are divided into two sets, and have different coloured grounds. 
The first set is this, and counts from ten to one in playing : 

" ' Samseer — dark red (or a sword). This signifies bravery and is expressed 

Rupee — black. 

Taj — green. 

Gholaum — yellow (for slave) — a little animal having a faint resemblance to a 
human being. 

Brath — light red. 

Cit er note. 

Kumach — orange. This, with the first, is Persian, and I don't know the 

s , r — light green— a gold coin. 


Bell (1 

" ' This set reckons from one to ten. With regard to the method of play I can 
tell you nothing till I have seen it, as these natives I am acquainted with, and 
who speak English, do not understand it.' " 

The whole is contained in an oblong wooden box, with sliding lid, ornamented 
with flowers painted on a green ground ; gold also has been used in the decora- 
tion. The box is coarsely made, and is nearly 4^- in. long, 2~ in. wide, and 
2| in. deep. 

[Circular, l-J- in. diameter.] [Backs coloured.] 

O. C. 251. 



SERIES of thirty-eight cards from a set of forty-five apparently. 
It is probable that in the perfect sequence there are five suits of nine 
pieces each suit, the marks of which are bags, money, batons (or bows), 
swords, and a fifth mark not satisfactorily demonstrable. 
The pieces of the suits of bags and money have on them the marks only in 
proper number — from one to nine — according to the value of the piece. Those 
of batons and swords have full-length figures, bearing in their hands the symbols 
of the suits. The pieces of the fifth suit have figures on some, at least, of their 

The suits of bags and money are presumed to be complete, i.e. of nine pieces 
each suit. The suit of batons is assumed to want two cards, the suit of swords 
one, and the fifth suit wants four pieces, at least this is according to the arrange- 
ment which appears to be the more satisfactory. 

On No. 2 of the suit of batons the figure holds a bow in a state of tension, in 
place of a baton or spear. The latter, however, may be intended for an unstrung 
bow, yet it should be remarked that on the six of the suit the mark has decidedly 
a partisan-like head to it. Above the marks and figures of the suits are Chinese 
characters. The eight and nine of bags have been stamped in red over the part 
occupied by the Chinese writing. The six, seven, and eight of swords have been 


stamped in the same way, as well as four of the cards which appear to belong to 
the fifth suit. On one of the latter the red stamp has been twice impressed. 
This stamp is composed of four semi-circular irregular lines one within the other 
and connected at the extremities. One of the red stamped pieces in " swords " 
has characters above the usual ones, and outside the border line of the engraving. 
Those suits having figures on the pieces have small characters near the heads <>f 
the figures as if indicating the title of the person represented. 

Mr. Chatto, alluding to Chinese cards, remarks, " In a pack of the Chinese 
cards called Tseen-wan-che-pae, the mark of the suit of Nine Cakes is nearly the 
same as that of the old Italian danari, which Galeottus Martius, in his treatise 
' De Doctrina Promiscua,' written about 1488, considers to have been meant for 

a loaf." " The Chinese name for a card considered singly, or as one of the pieces 

of a pack or set, appears to be Shen, a fan " (p. 59). 

The relative values of the cards of four of the suits are easily to be surmised, 
such is the purpose and distinctness with which the designs have been executed. 

The impressions are on thin flexible card-board, the backs of the pieces being 
of a deep red colour, and very smooth. 

[2^ X l in. size of impression.] [Backs coloured.] 

[2 J- X l| in. whole card.] 

O. C. 252. 



WENTY cards from a numeral series of probably thirty pieces, the 
marks of the suits of which appear to be chains, money, and heads. 

The cards present are the one, three, five, six, seven, and eight of 
chains, the two, three, four, six, and others of money (?), seven pieces 
of the suit of heads, one piece of which is a full-length figure-card having on it 
two red stamps. The five of money (?) bears two red stamps as it does in the 
series O. C. 255. In the suit of chains there are characters above the marks of 
the suit in the pieces one and five as is the case in O. C. 255 on the one and nine. 
The series is made of thin card-board, and the backs of the pieces are of a deep 
orange colour and smooth. 

[2f X \ in. size of impression.] [Backs coloured.] 

[3_ I _ x -§- in. whole card.] 

O. C. 253. 


IGHT cards from a numeral series, probably of thirty pieces, the suits 
of which are chains, money, and heads. 

The cards present are the six of chains, the two, three, six, and 
another of money, and three pieces of the suit of heads. 
X ^ in. size of impression.] [Backs coloured.] 

X |- in. whole card.] 



O. C. 254. 


HREE cards from a numeral series, probably of thirty pieces, the suits 
of which are chains, money, and heads. 

The cards present are the six of chains, the six of money, and a 
piece of the suit heads (?). 
X i in. size of impression.] [Backs coloured.] 

X J- in. whole card.] 

O. C. 255. 


SEQUENCE of thirty cards, forming probably a perfect set as regards 
number, but one at least of the suits is made up of pieces from 
another set. 

The marks of the suits are chains, money, and heads. There are 
three separate superior cards. Each suit has nine numeral members ; the suit of 
money is here a made-up suit. 

On the nine of chains is an oval stamp in red over the centre of the card. 
This stamp is twice repeated on two other cards. On the one and nine of chains 
are Chinese characters above and outside the border lines of the impressions, as is 
likewise the case in two other pieces. Certain of the heads have characters im- 
mediately above them, as if indicating their titles. 

These cards are much like those represented in the work of Singer, page 59, 
and some of the lower cards at p. 60. 

As far as relates to the characters above the heads, these cards accord like- 
wise with the two figured in Chatto, p. 57, the first and third of the suit — 
Nine Myriads of Kwan. 

One of the three separate cards in the present series is similar in its upper 
portion to that of No. 6, p. 58, of Chatto's Treatise, representing one of the 
superior members called " Pih-hwa," the White Flower. 

M. Boiteau d'Amly justly observes that engraved representations of some 
narrow Chinese cards go far towards reminding one of cakes of Indian ink. 

The narrow size of these cards is remarkable. They are of thin card-board, 
rounded at both ends, and have their backs coloured deep orange. 

X f in. size of impression.] [Backs coloured.] 


[3t x t m - whole card.] 





( The dates are approximative only in scve?*al instances.) 

Cards of the 


s of the 



15th century 

, G. 122. 




century, F. 43. 



15 th 


I. 1. 





F. 46. 





G. 120. 





G. 138. 





I. 2. 





G. 161. 





I. 3- 





F. 47. 





F. 42. 





F. 48. 





G. 147. 





G. 125. 





G. 149. 





G. 132. 





G. 150. 





ft 135. 





G. 151. 





I. 4. 





G. 152. 





G. 129. 





G. 154. 





G. 130. 





ft 155. 





ft 131. 





G. 166. 





G. 156. 





E. 224. 





ft 157. 





E. 225. 





G. 258. 





G. 1 24. 





G. 163. 





ft H3. 





F. 44. 





G. 148. 





F. 45. 





G. 126. 

1st quarter, 



G. 136. 





G. 127. 










G. 128. 





E. 198. 





G. 144. 





E. 198. 2 





G. 145. 





E. 234. 





G. 146. 





E. 235. 





G. 153. 





E. 236. 





G. 165. 












Cards of the 


of the 

1st quarter, 

1 7th century, E. 238. 

4th quarter, 

17 th century, E. 184. 


» . 

17th • „ 

E. 199. 



17th , 

, E. 185. 



1 7th „ 

E. 228. 




, E. 186. 



17th „ 

E. 240. 



17th , 

E. 187. 



1 7th „ 

E. 241. 



17th , 

E. 188. 



17th „ 

s. 15. 



17th , 

, E. 189. 



1 7th „ 

I. 13. 



17th , 

, E. 190. 



1 7th „ 

E. 179. 



17th , 

, E. 203. 



1 7th „ 

E. 242. 



17th , 

, E. 229. 



17th „ 

I. 13. 2. 



17th , 

, F. 74- 



1 7th „ 

I. 14. 



17th , 

, E. 226. 



17th „ 

I. 14. 2. 



17th , 

, G. 159. 



17th „ 

F. 76. 




, E. 195. 



1 7th „ 

F. 77- 




„ E.227. 



17th „ 

F. 79. 2. 




„ I. 8. 



17th „ 

E. 167. 




„ I. 9. 



17th „ 

E. 168. 




„ F. 49. 



17th „ 

E. 174. 




„ D.115. 



17th „ 

E. 175. 




>, G.133. 



17th „ 





„ G.134. 



17th „ 

E. 178. 

34 1 



1. The so-called (erroneously) Tarocchi of Mantegna, or Carte di Baldini, 
I. I, page 65. 

2. Venetian Tarots of the Marchesa Busca Serbelloni, I. 3, p. 77. 

3. Early Stencilled Cards of 1440 (?), G. 122, p. 192. 

4. The "Chatto Cards," (or the cards of the binding of the Sermones M. Vin- 
centii) of the last quarter of the 15th century, F. 42, p. 1 10. 

5. The so-called (erroneously) " Trappola Cards," of the last quarter of the 
15th century, having the Granada as a mark of a suit, G. 120, p. 189. 

6. Circular Cards of Cologne, with animated marks of suits, G. 143, p. 207. 

7. Telman von Wesel's version of the Circular Cards of Cologne, G. 144, 
p. 209. 

8. Cards having chimeric animals as marks of suits, G. 147, p. 213. 

9. Cards having animated marks of suits, from G. 148, to G. 155, inclusive, 
pp. 214-216. 

10. German Numerals, from G. 124, to G., 132, inclusive, pp. 194-198. 

1 1 . The " Jehan Volay," Spanish numerals, S. 1 5, p. 93. 

1 2. The several series of French numerals, from F. 43, to F. 49, inclusive, 
pp. 113-116. 

13. French Tarots, F. 37, p. 107. 

14. Flemish Tarots, Fl. 103, p. 179. 

15. The Cards of Stefano della Bella, F. 74, p. 126. 

16. F. C. Z. Cards, G. 135, p. 199. 

17. The Beham Cards, G. 138, p. 203. 

18. The Jobst Amman Cards, G. 161, p. 221. 

19. The Virgil Solis Cards, G. 156, p. 217. 

20. German Tarots, G. 1 16, p. 187. 

21. English Cards, E. 167, p. 229. 

22. Spanish Armada Cards, E. 185, p. 265. 

23. The Popish Plot Cards from E. 186, to E. 188, inclusive, pp. 266-270. 

24. The Rye House Plot Cards, E. 189, p. 273. 

25. The Seven Bishops' Cards, E. 190, p. 274. 


26. King James II. Cards, E. I91,p. 276. 

27. Duke of Marlborough Cards, E. 192, p. 277. 

28. Dr. Sacheverell Cards, E. 194, p. 279. 

29. Rump Parliament Cards, E. 195, p. 280. 

30. The Alluette Game Cards, S. 33, p. 1 03. 

31. French Satirical Cards, F. 80, p. 137. 

32. Artistic Cards, E. 205, p. 288. 

33. Musical ditto, E. 206, p. 289. 

34. The Gatteaux designs, F. 57. 2., p. 1 19. 

35. Altered plate of Rembrandt, D. 115, p. 185. 

36. Print by the Master M. Z., G. 165, p. 227. 

37. Print by Israhel van Meckenen, G. 166, p. 227. 

38. Bagford Collection, E. 184, E. 222, pp. 243, 298. 

39. Nova Statuta, E. 225, p. 304. 

40. Proclamations, E. 227, p. 307. 

41. Rowlands' Satirical Works, from E., 234, to E. 239, inclusive, pp. 314- 

42. Marginal Index Cards, E. 248, p. 325. 

43. Circular Indian Cards, O. H. 250, p. 331. 

44. Narrow Chinese Cards, O. C. 255, p. 335. 

45. The Wood-engraver and Card-painter at work, G. 163, p. 225. 

46. Le Roman du Roi Meliadus referred to, p. 14. 




HE following works will prove amply sufficient for those persons 
who may desire further information on the subjects treated of 
in the preceding pages, but yet who do not purpose entering into 
a minute and critical investigation of the whole History of 
Playing- Cards. Such as intend to do so, however, may find all 
the necessary sources of instruction referred to in the biblio- 
graphical lists appended to the treatises of Chatto (No. 4), of the Bibliophiles 
Francais (No. 2), and of Boiteau d'Ambly (No. 3). 

The " Analyse critique et raisonnee de toutes les Recherches publiees jusqu'a 
ce jour sur l'origine et l'histoire des Cartes a, Jouer," which forms the second 
portion of the " Recherches Historiques et Litteraires sur les Danses des Morts 
et sur l'origine des Cartes a Jouer, par Gabriel Peignot. Dijon et Paris. 
mdcccxxvi." may be also consulted. 

No. l. Bartsch (Adam). Le Peintre-Graveur. Leipsic, 1803-21 -54, 8vo. 
Vol. vi. p. 55; vol. x. pp. 70-120; vol. xiii. pp. 120- 138. 

No. 2. Bibliophiles Franc, ais (Societe des). Jeux de Cartes Tarots et de 
Cartes Numerales du Quatorzieme au Dix-huitieme Siecle. Paris, 1 844, folio. 

No. 3. Boiteau d'Ambly (P.). Les Cartes a Jouer et la Cartomancie. Paris, 
1854. 8vo. 

No. 4. Chatto (William Andrew). Facts and Speculations on the Origin and 
History of Playing-Cards. London, 1848, 8vo. 

No. 5. Cicognara (Leopoldo). Memorie spettanti alia storia della Calcografia. 
Prato, 1831, 8vo., tavole in foglio. 

No. 6. Merlin (R.). Origine des Cartes a Jouer. Recherches Nouvelles sur 
les Nai'bis, les Tarots, et sur les autres especes de Cartes. Paris, 1869, 4 to « 

No. 7. Passavant (J. D.). Le Peintre-Graveur. Leipsic, i860, 8vo. Vol. i., 
pages 6, 208, 213, 243; vol. h\, pages 66, 70, 100, 176, 205, 242, 246, 247 ; 
vol. v., pages 11, 119, 126, 129, 132, 134. 

No. 8. Singer (Samuel Weller). Researches into the History of Playing-Cards, 
with Illustrations of the Origin of Printing and Engraving on Wood. London, 
1816, 4to. 

No. 9. Taylor (Rev. Ed. S. and others.) The History of Playing-Cards, with 
Anecdotes of their Use in Conjuring, Fortune- Telling, and Card-Sharping. London, 
1865, 8vo. This work forms an English version, with additions and changes, of 
Boiteau d'Ambly's treatise, No. 3. 




Acuaviva, 97. 

Agrippa, 150. 

Aldegrever, 217. 

Alexander, 44. 

Ali, followers of, 10. 
Alliette, 11, 144, 145, 160. 
Alphonso, Don, 12. 
Ames, 94. 

Amman, Jobst, 47, 217, 221, 223, 225. 
Anne, Queen, 28, 307, 31 1-313. 
Anson, S., 285. 
Anstis, 90. 
Anthony, St., 158. 
Antonio da Brescia, 76. 
Ardant, 103. 
Aretino, 68. 
Argine, 44. 

Arnoult, 102, 121, 169. 
Arouy, 134. 
Ascham, Roger, 34. 
Astle, 93. 

Bache, 315. 

Bagford, J., 243, 298, 301, 302. 

Baker, 240-243. 

Bakofen, 188. 

Baldini, 17, 68. 

Baldwin, Mrs., 50, 94. 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 266. 

Barbarigo, Cardinal, 92. 

Barker, 309. 

Barrington, 51, 93, 94- 

Bartsch, 16, 192. 

Bavaria, Duke and Duchess of, 16, 227. 

Becker, 223. 

Beckett, Isaac, 30 o. 

Bedloe, 255. 

Beg, Timur, 1 1 . 

Begon, 212. 

Beham, 32, 203. 

Benedict XIII., Pope, 91. 

Benieres, 1 14, 320. 

Bentivoglio, 37, 82, 83. 

Bernadotte, 163. 

Bernard, St., 158. 

Bernardin, St., 5, 22, 26. 

Berti, 79. 

Besniere, 114, 115. 

Bettles, 327. 

Bickham, George, 303. 

Bill, John, 309, 311. 

Binny, 29 1. 

BlomhoflT, 58. 

Boissiere, 134. 

Boiteau d'Ambly, 7, 47, 144, 149, 21 1, 

Bologna, Tarocchino di, 80. 
Borron, Helie de, 14. 
Botticelli, 68, 74. 
Bourgogne, Due de, 133, 134. 
Bourguignon, 296. 
Bowles, 296, 303. 
Boyne, 281. 
Bradshaw, 321. 
Breitkopf, 7, 12, 28, 40, 57, 58, 

Brescia, Ant. da, 76. 
Brianville, 88, 89, 90, 92, 135. 
Brindley, 317. 
Buchan, 146. 
Bulifon, 90. 
Buling, Hans, 284. 
Bull, 291. 
Bullet, 7, 45. 
Burgkmair, 203. 
Burgundy, Mary of, 190. 
Burnet, 260. 


Busca Serbelloni, Marchesa, 77. 
Bussi, Feliciano, 8, 9, 12. 
Butler, 316. . 
Butler, Archdeacon, 6. 
Butler, G., 316. 
Byron, 297. 

Caesar, 44. 

Callot, 134. 

Capistran, Card. J., 13. 

Capitaine Metely, Vallante, 1 1 4, 115. 

Carderera, 42. 

Carpenter, 67, 332. 

Carpentier, Le, 31. 

Cellier, Madame, 257. 

Ceres, 4. 

Champante, 294. 

Chappell, 321. 

Charlemagne, 44. 

Charles L, 28, 305, 307, 319, 320. 

Charles II., 251, 270, 280, 311. 

Charles VI. of France, 13, 19, 37, 43, 

Charles VII. of France, 30, 112. 
Charles VIII. of France, 16. 
Chateaubriand, 137. 
Chaucer, 12. 
Chatto, 24, 25, 27, 54, 110, 193, 210, 

225, 273,307,321,335. 
Chauncy, 301. 
Chess, 8, 9. 
Chesterfield, Lord, 90. 
Chris Zaga, 237. 
Christian IV. of Denmark, 283. 
Christie, IO. 
Cicognara, 7, 37, 87. 
Clarendon, Lord, 260. 
Clark, 234. 

Clement VII., Pope, 70. 
Clerc, F., 43. 
Cocksonus, 283. 
Coleman, 253. 
Colnaghi, D., 193. 
Coningsby, Sir Richard, 306. 
Constant, Alphonse, 148. 
Coral, B., 89, 135. 
Costa, 38, 39. 
Cotta, 224, 225. 
Covelluzzo, 8, 9, 1 2. 
Cranach, Lucas, 20 1 . 
Cromwell, Oliver, 320, 321. 
Crozier, 1 1 o. 
Cruden, 305. 
Cruickshank, 284. 
Cuffe, 161. 
Cuming, Syer, 31. 

Danby, Lord, 256. 

Dangerfield, 257. 

D'Anville, 296. 

Daniel, 7. 

D'Arcy, 306. 

Darvall, 292. 

Daveloy, 183. 

David, 44. 

David, the painter, 46, 119. 

Dean, 238. 

Decembrio, 21, 71. 

Deighton, 186. 

Delaborde, 67, 69, 74. 

Delia Bella, Stefano, 32, 1 26- 1 3 1 , 1 34. 

De la Rue, 52, 232. 

De la Rue, Regamey, 1 70. 

Deschamps, 136. 

Desmarests, 32, 88, 126-131. 

Diamond, W. H., 282. 

Dibdin, Dr., 14, 301, 304. 

Dolben, 279. 

Douce, 14, 208. 

Doughty, 281. 

Douet d' Arcy, 7 1 . 

Drake, Sir F., 247. 

Dubois, 1 1 5. 

Ducessois, 166. 

Duchesne, 68, 73, 75, 80, 112, 209. 

Durazzo, 76. 

Diirer, Albert, 74, 2 1 7. 

Eckeloo, Pascasius, 41. 

Edward III. of England, 304. 

Edward IV., King, 304, 305. 

Eftin, 1 1 7. 

Eitelberger, 202, 217. 

Elizabeth, Queen, 51, 249, 306. 

Ellis, Welbore, 285. 

Espartero, lOO. 

Etteilla, 109, 144, 145, 147, 160, 161 

Eugenio IV., Pope, 92. 

Evets, 299. 

Eyck, Van, 16, 159. 

Faithorne, 270. 
Falstaff, 51. 
Fanti, 70, 159. 
Faulcon, N., 300. 
Faveil, Jehan, 113. 
Fawkes, Guido, 250. 
F. C. Z., 32, 200, 201. 
Fibbia, Prince of Pisa, 37, 80. 
Fine, Oronce, 88, 135. 
Fines, Nathaniel, 280. 
Finiguerra, 68, 69, 74. 
Folkestone, Lord, 52. 



Forli, 159. 

Henry IV. of England, 50. 

Foimtaine, 299. 

Henry IV. of France, 283. 

Fox, 285. 

Henry VI. of England, 305. 

Francese, Alberto, 160. 

Henry VII. of England, 28, 30, 32, 

Francis L, 94, H3, 115, 129. 

50, 112,305. 

Franco, F., 1 1 6. 

Henry VIII., King, 51, 305. 

Freeling, G. H., 14. 

Herbs t, 204. 

Freschot, 92. 

Herbert, 94. 

Fries, Count, 78, 191. 

Heuslerus, 222. 

Fuller, S. and T., 291. 

Hewson, 229, 230, 321. 

Hey wood, 293. 

Galasso, 160. 

Hills, 235, 311. 

Galichon, 65, 70. 

Hirschman, 220. 

Gatteaux, 46, 67, 119. 

Hitchcock, 324. 

Gauthier, 89. 

Hiva, 95, 96. 

Gavarni, 175. 

Hoffmann, 2 20. 

Gazzoni, 39. 

Hogier, 44* 

Gebelin, Court de, 11, 104, 138, 144, 

Holbein, 16. 


Holden, 299. 

George III., 281. 

Hort, Dr., 297. 

Germanin, Frau, 226. 

Hoyle, 48. 

Genevoy, 1 1 5. 

Hunscott, 309. 

Gerard, 163. 

Huson, 286. 

Gibert, 124. 

Hugo v. Trymberg, 1 2. 

Gibson, 232. 

Hyatt, Thaddeus, 280. 

Gihaut, 174. 

Giroux, 174, 176. 

Iao, 58. 

Gloucester, Duke of, 6. 

Ingold, 7. 

Gobel, 188. 

Innocent XL, Pope, 90, 135. 

Godfrey, Sir Edmund Berry, 254. 

Innocent XII., Pope, 9 1 < 

Godolphin, 263. 

Isabella, Queen, 96, 100. 

Gonzaga, A. V., 19. 

Ireton, 321. 

Gonzalez, 96, 97. 

Isis, 141, 143. 

Gough, 94, 193. 

Grandier, Urban, 165. 

James I., King, 50, 283, 314-316. 

Gravelot, 296. 

James II, King, 259, 262, 274, 275, 

Greene, 321. 


Grene, Giles, 309. 

Jane, 235. 

Grignion, 296. 

Jehan de Saintre, 1 2. 

Grimaud, 103, 121. 

John of Castile, 4 1 . 

Gringonneur, 13, 19. 

John of Cologne, 208. 

Guevara, 41. 

Johnson, 305. 

Guizot, 212. 

Jombert, 131. 

Gumpenberg, 79. 

Jones, Sir W., 10. 

Gutery, 4 1 . 

Jounin, 1 18. 

Judith, 44. 

Hamilton, Adams, & Co., 292. 

Hankey, 268. 

Keightley, 246-264. 

Hardwicke, 292. 

King, Gregory, 299. 

Hardy, 232. 

King, Dr. W., 297. 

Hastings, 28 1. 

Knight, 51. 

Haus, Baron de, 78. 

Kirk, 303. 

Hayman, Francis, 295, 296. 

KollofF, 68, 74. 

Heinecken, 25, 27, 208. 

Henin, 1 1 0. 

Lacroix, 15, 26, 113, 116. 

Henry II. of France, 1 16. 

Ladenspelder, H., 76. 



Lahire, 1 1 6. 

Lancelot, 44. 

Lange, 135. . 

Laurie, 297. 

Lebahy, 1 16. 

Leber, 25, 27, 33,40, 111* 

Lecomie, 131. 

Lecornu, 1 13. 

Legrand, 172. 

Le Gras, H., 127, 129, 130-131, 299. 

Lehmen, 48. 

Lenormand, 162. 

Lenthall, 286. 

Letronne, 212. 

Levi, Eliphas, 11, 145, 148. 

Littlebury, 237. 

Locker, E., 31. 

Lopez, 100-106. 

Louisa of Savoy, 1 1 5. 

Louis XIII. of France, 45. 

Louis II. of Naples, 14. 

Louis XIV., 87, 129. 

Lully, Raymond, 154. 

Lyra, Nic. de, 1 1 0. 

Machlinia, 304. 

Macready, 44. 

Mandrou, 1 1 7 . 

Mantegna, Tarocchi di, 65, 68. 

Marcel, 10. 

March, 295. 

Marcolini, 70. 

Mariette, I., 132, 133, 134. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 262, 277, 279. 

Marsh, 293. 

Martius, Galeottus, 334. 

Mary, Queen of Scots, 247. 

Master of 1466, 31, 214. 

Master of the round cards, 32, 211. 

Maurice, Prince, 283. 

Maximilian, 90, 203. 

Mazarin, Cardinal, 127, 1 3 1 . 

Mearn, 234. 

Mechlin, William of, 304. 

Meckenen, Israhel van, 16, 90, 227. 

Medina de Campo, 4 1 . 

Menestrier, 7, 231. 

Mercury, 4. 

Mericourt, 172. 

Merlin, 5, 7, 11, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 

46,66, 155, 157, 179, 332. 
Milan, Duke of, 21, 31. 
Minne, 136. 

Mitelli, G. S., 37, 38, 81, 82, 84. 
Modena, Princess of, 260. 
Modena, Duchess of, 261. 

Momus, 185. 

Mongez, 46, 119. 

Monmouth, Duke of, 258. 

Monogram, the sacred, 149. 

Montezuma, 41. 

Montier, 87. 

Montieri, 88. 

Morant, 89. 

Moore, Dr., Bishop of Ely, 301. 

Moreau, 136. 

Morelli, 21, 71, 75, 158. 

Morin, Senora, 42. 

Mottavio, 85. 

Moxon, J., 54, 236. 

Murat, Joachim, 162. 

Murr, Von, 12, 25, 192, 223. 

Musset, Paul de, 48. 

M. Z., 16, 227. 

Napoleon I., 119. 
Napoleon III., 120. 
Newcomb, 311. 
Nicholson, 299. 
Nicholl, 301. 
Nicoletto da Modena, 32. 
Niebuhr, 10. 
Nisard, Ch., 161. 

Oates, Titus, 253, 272. 
Odeschalci, 135. 
Oldmixon, 252, 255. 
Oliver, 283. 
Osiris, 4. 
Ottley, 74. 
Oxford, Lord, 30 1 . 

Pallas, 44. 

Palmer, 316. 

Pam, 297. 

Papworth, J. B., 288. 

Paracelsus, 150. 

Pardon, 98. 

Parma, Duke of, 92. 

Parma, Prince of, 249. 

Parris, Paulin, 111. 

Parry, Dr., 245. 

Passavant, 12, 16, 27, 55, 194, 209. 

Patin, 185. 

Peignot, 40, 138. 

Pendleton, 298. 

Peter III. of Arragon, 40. 

Peter the Great, 2 20. 

Petrarch, 12. 

Petre, Father, 260. 

Petrini, 91, 92. 

Pettigrew, 280. 



Pfaun, 220. 
Phayer, T., 6. 

n.iiip II., 95; iv., 95; V., 95. 

Philippe le Bon, 1 6, l 59. 

Philo-patris, 268. 

Planche, 15, 112. 

Pope Benedict XIIL, 9 1 . 

Pope Eugenio IV., 92. 

Pope Innocent XL, 90 ; XII., 9 1 . 

Pordenone, 78. 

Porta, G., 160. 

Prest, 280. 

Pretorio, 2 20. 

Postel, 149. 

Poupart, Charles, 13. 

Preau, Du, 156. 

Pynson, Richard, 304, 305. 

Quandt, 213. 
Quaritch, 220. 
Querry, 57. 

Rachel, 44. 

Raillard, 90. 

Raleigh, Sir W., 306. 

Raspi, 135. 

Rasponi, 135. 

Rembrandt, 185, 186. 

Redgrave, S., 283, 288, 296. 

Reisch, 156. 

Repton, F. A., 51. 

Reynolds, 294. 

Rimbault, Dr., 6, 317. 

Rive, PAbbe, 7, 40, 4 1 . 

Roberts, Miss, 292. 

Roche, 124. 

Rolant, 44. 

Romsey, 292. 

Rossi, 80, 83. 

Rowland, William, 161. 

Rowlands, Samuel, 28, 314-319. 

Rowley, 230, 231. 

Rufus, 325. 

Rulando, 222. 

Sacheverell, Dr., 263, 279. 
Sandro di Popozzo, 12. 
Sarnellius, 91. 
Savage, 236, 299, 300. 
Sayer, 297. 
Scanegata, 91. 
Schachomair, 202. 
Schaufelin, 13. 
Scheidl, 188. 
Schongauer, 90, 208. 
Scroterus, 223. 

Sebastianns, 91. 

Seller,^ 234, 235. 

Seratti, 65. 

Seyfrid, 220. 

Shaftesbury, Lord, 257. 

Sheridan, 245. 

Shipton, Mother, 109. 

Shirley, 299. 

Sigogne, 104. 

Silberrad, 191. 

Singer, 7, 39, 52, 144, 193, 223, 305, 

Smith, Captain, 55. 
Smith, Messrs., 191, 211. 
Solis, Virgil, 32, 217, 219. 
Spielhagen, 48. 
Strutt, 51. 
Stukely, Dr., 194. 
Sturton, Walterus, 12. 
Suffolke, 307. 
Summerly, Felix, 232. 
Sumner, 280. 
Suzanne, 108. 
Sykes, Sir M. M., 65. 

Talleyrand, 137. 

Tap, John, 315. 

Taylor, Jeremy, 6. 

Taylor, Rev. Ed. S., 42, 51, 52, 193, 

230, 286. 
Telman von Wesel, 32. 
Tenda, Beatrice, 19. 
Thurlow, Lord, 281. 
Townroe, 232. 
Toxophilus, 34. 
Tross, 20. 
Tucker, 280. 

Tuttel, Thomas, 236, 300. 
T. W., 208, 209, 212. 

Utterson, 316, 317. 

Vailsant, 58, 148. 

Valery, 44. 

Vandenbore, 107, 1 79. 

Vega, de la, 41. 

Veyrat, 182. 

Violet, 172. 

Virgil, 161. 

Visconti, Filippo, 19, 20, 21, 71. 

Volay, Jehan, 42, 93, 95. 

Volpato, J. A. V., 21 1, 21 2. 

Waagen, 67. 
Wallis, 291. 
Walpole, 297, 300. 



Warman, 94. 

Warter, 300. 

Weigel, 12,-55, 195, 200. 

Wesel, Telman von, 32, 208, 209, 213. 

Whittle, 297. 

Wijsmuller, 183, 184. 

Wilkinson, Sir Gardiner, 4. 

Wilson, 185, 186, 214. 

Winstanley, 237. 

Worms, Anthony of, 16, 48. 
Wright, 14, 15, 111. 
Wiist, 206. 

Zainer, G., 7, 195. 
Zatzinger, Martin, 16. 
Zell, Christ., 200. 
Zlismon, 109. 
Zoppo, Marco, 68. 



Absolute, the, 149, 


Abuses, Anatomie of, 


Acts of Parliament, 50, 304-313. 

Advertisements, 50, 303. 

Advertiser, the Public, 303. 

Ahmedabad, cards of, 33 1 . 

Albertine Collection, 78. 

Alderinary Churchyard, 285. 

All fours, 52. 

Alluette, 103. 

Almanack, Cotta's Card, 224, 225. 

Alpha, 149. 

Alphabet, kabbalistic, 1 50. 

Alphabet cards, 239. 

Amman's cards, 47 ; Book of Trades, 

Amone, Busca cards, 77. 
Anatomie of Abuses, 5 1 . 
Animals, chimeric, on cards, 213-216. 
Animated cards, 31, 47, 207. 
Antiquaries, Society of, 266, 306. 
Antinomies, the, 154. 
Apocalypse, the, 1 54, 1 55. 
Apollo, 66, 68, 69. 
Apprentices, 6. 
Aquila coronata, 85. 
Arabian Nights' Entertainments, 10. 
Archaeologia, 12, 193. 
Archaeological Association, 280. 
Archaeological Journal, 31, 280. 
Archeologique, Revue, 7 1 . 
Aretino, cards of, 68. 
Arithmetical cards, 235. 
Aritmetricha of 1485, 73, 75. 
Armada, Spanish, 247, 265. 
Armeristi, 90. 
Armorial, 71. 
Art Journal, 14. 
Artistic cards, 288. 

Arts, Repository of, 288. 

Arts, the, 66, 72. 

As Nas, 57. 

Astrologia, Tarots, 66. 

Astrological cards, 146, 147, 169. 

Astrology condemned, 1 6 1 . 

Astronomical cards, 146, 147, 166. 

Athenaeum, 52. 

Atouts, 18, 139. 

Atutti, 18, 139. 

Augsburg, 13, 26. 

Avatars of Krishna, 332. 

Avatars of Vishnu, 56. 

Azot, 148. 

Azoth, 149. 

Bacchus, 78. 

Bagatello, II, 160. 

Bagford's collection, 243, 298, 30 1 , 302. 

Baker's eclectic cards, 240-241. 

Bal, le grand, 16. 

Baldini, carte di, 1 7, 35, 65, 1 S3. 

Ballad Society, 321. 

Ballads, Roxburghe, 321. 

Banda, la, 12, 41. 

Barcelona, cards of, 99, 106. 

Bassett, 51. 

Bears on cards, 214. 

Beaux- Arts, Gazette des, 69, 75. 

Becker, Memoir on I. Amman, 223. 

Beham cards, 32, 203. 

Beldornie Press, 3 1 6. 

Bells, 47, 192-200. 

Berti, F., cards of, 78. 

Bibliography, 343. 

Bibliophiles Francais, work of, 31, 201, 

Bibliotheque Curieuse, 7- 
Bibliotheque du Roi, 211. 
Biographic cards, 1 36, 240. 
Birds on cards, 207-215-217. 
Bishops, the Seven, 258. 
Blazon, 71. 

A A 



Bloody Game at Cards, 319. 

Boerinne, 186. 

Bologna, Republic of, 37, 80 

Bolognese tarocebino, 80. 

Book of Cards, Amman's, 221-224. 

Trades, Amman's, 225. 
Boston, 49. 
Briefmaler, 25, 225. 
Broadsides, 271, 272, 284, 297. 
Bruxelles, cartes de, 179-182. 
Bubble schemes, 185. 

companies, cards relating to, 185. 
Busca cards, 77. 
Byron's Don Juan, 297. 

Caballero, 29, 99. 

Cabinet des Estampes, 211. 

Cabinet, Weigel, 195, 198. 

Cadiz, cards of, 96, 97. 

Calendar of State Papers, 307. 

Cambridge, cards found at, 1 1 7 . 

Card Company, American, 324. 

Card-houses, 295. 

Card-makers' Company, 306, 313. 

Card-playing, early representations of, 

14, 15, 16. 
Cards, American, 324. 

amusing, humorous, 53, 221, 286, 
290, 293. 

animated suits, 31,47,207, 209- 

bears on, 214. 

Beham, H. S., 203. 

biographic, historical, 53, 240, 

birds on, 207, 21 5-2 17. 

Book of, by I. Amman, 221 -224. 

canvas, 28, $5- 

Carpentier cabinet, 31, 43. 

carving, 54. 

catalogue of, 59. 

Chatto, 1 1 o. 

chimeric animals on, 213, 2 16. 

Chinese, 29, 57, 58, 333"335- 

chronologic sequence of, 339. 

circular, $$, 207, 209, 331. 

costume on, 51, 318, 319. 

Coursube, 1 10- 1 12. 

dates of, 339. 

deer on, 214. 

dogs on, 2 1 5. 

Dutch, 183. 

educational, instructive, 58, 86, 
126, 234, 239. 

emblematic, 18, 21, 139- 143, 164, 

Cards, English, 50, 51, 229. 
European, 12, 65, 93. 
fancy objects on, 221. 
Flemish, 179. 

flowers on, 92, 207, 209, 213. 
forbidden, 5, 13, 22, 50. 
for blind persons, 55. 
for ecclesiastics, 54. 
found at Cambridge, 1 1 7 . 
four-colour, 327. 
French, 30, 33, 44, 106, 164. 
fruit on, 189. 
genera of, 61. 
general nature of, 1 7. 
geographic distribution of, 33, 

geographic, heraldic, 86, 92, 127, 

131, 132,219. 
German, 29, 33, 46, 187, 207. 
Greek, 206, 207. 
groups on, 224. 
hares on, 208, 209, 2 1 3. 
heraldic, 86, 92, 127, 131. 
Hindu, 29, 55, 331. 
human figures on, 207, 209, 213, 

improved, 46, 52, 81, 1 19, 325, 

index and marginal, 325. 
Italian, 33, 36, 65. 
Japanese, 58. 
large, 29, 81. 
lions on, 214, 217-219. 
materials of, 28, $$• 
monkeys on, 217, 219. 
musical, 199, 289. 
Nai'bis, 20, 21, 73. 
names on English, 33. 
names on French, 30, 44, 111, 

natural history on, 286. 
noteworthy, 341. 
numeral, 20, 85, 1 10, 229. 
of Aretino, 68. 
of Besancon, Marseilles, and 

Geneva, 107. 
of Charles YI., 156. 
of Delia Bella, 126-131. 
of Desmarests, 126-131. 
of divination, 54, 138, 164,294. 
ofF. C. Z., 200, 201. 
of great interest, 34 1. 
of I. Amman, 221. 
H. S. Beham, 203. 
of Telman von Wesel, 208, 209, 




Cards of T. W., 209, 213. 

of Virgil Solis, 21 7. 

Oriental, 8, $5, 56, 58, 33*. 

origin of, 7- 

packs of, 33. 

Persian, 29, 55, 56, 57. 

politico-historical, 53, 226, 243, 

Portuguese, 42, 43, 323. 

Prag, 204, 205. 

proclamations concerning, 313. 

purely fanciful, 54, 173, 291. 

Russian, 323. 

satirical, 53, 137, 281. 

shields on, 49. 

small, 29, 122, 335. 

Spanish, 29, 40, 50, 93. 

Stukely, 193, 194, 201. 

Swiss, 29, 49, 324. 

tarots, 18, 19, 65, 107, 179, 187. 

tax on, 52, 305. 

Teheran, $$, 56. 

terms for, 34. 

Union playing, 324. 

varieties of, 7. 

various countries, 35- 

with secondary purpose, 53, 86, 
126, 184, 219, 234. 
Carte di Baldini, 35, 65, 155. 

padovana, 68. 

parlante, 68. 
Cartes de fantaisie, 54, 1 74. 

de la geographie, 131. 

de Limousin et de Limoges, 1 04. 

de points, 20. 

des Reynes renommees, 1 29, 1 30. 

rondes, 211. 

des Roys de France, 1 29. 

opaques, 124. 

Suisses, 29. 
Cartomancy, 138, 148, 164, 294. 
Cavaliers, songs of the, 286. 
Cavallo, 77. 

Changes in design, 44, 46, 1 19. 
Charade cards, 1 74. 
Charles VI.'s cards, 13, 19, 156. 
Charta Lusoria, by I. Amman, 222. 
Chartae Scrip tse, 320. 
Charticellas, 22, 159. 
Chatto cards, 1 1 0. 
Chiaro-oscuros, 160. 
Chiites, 10. 

Chimeric animals, 21 3-2 16. 
China, 8, 11. 

Chinese cards, 29, 333-335- 
Christendome, revells of, 283. 

Christmas, cards at, 6, 50, 54. 
Christopher, St., woodcut, 24, 26. 
Chronicle of Morelli, 21, 7 1 . 
Chronological table, 339. 
Circular cards, 29, 207, 209, 331. 
Cite de Dieu, 12. 
Civitas Dei, 12, 15. 
Classification of cards, 61. 
Cleland, 50. 
Club -players, 52. 
Coate-cards, names of, 34. 
Coffee house, Crown, 52. 
Collection, Albertine, 208. 

Bagford, 243. 

Begon, 212. 

Hauslab, 202. 

Heber, 317. 

Malone, 317. 

Praun, 223. 

Quandt, 213. 

Weigel, 195-198. 

Willet, 213. 
Cologne, circular cards of, 208. 
Company, card-makers', 306, 3 1 3. 
Coney-catching, 321. 
Conversation cards, 293. 
Conjuring cards, 295. 
Correr, Musee, 19, 20, 71. 
Costume of English knave cards, 51, 

318, 319. 
Cotta's card almanacs, 224. 
Coucou, game of, 89. 
Counters, 75. 

Coursube cards, 43, 1 10- 1 1 2. 
Cross, the, 149. 

Dates of cards, 339. 

Death, Dance of, 16. 

Decameron, 14. 

Deck of cards, 34. 

Deer on cards, 214. 

De la Rue's cards, 232. 

Designs, 29, 44, 46, 1 19. 

Desmarests' cards, 126-131. 

Destins, Livre de, 172. 

Dice, 4, 307. 

Divination, 6, 138, 164, 294. 

Divinatory cards, 138, 164, 294. 

Dogs on cards, 215. 

Dominoes, 178. 

Dot, jeu de la, 175. 

Double busts, 53. 

Dreams and visions, 166. 

Drolls, by Sayer, 297. 

Ecclesiastics, cards for, 54. 



Eclectic cards, 240-241. 
Edward I., King, 1 2. 
Edward IV M 50, 304, 305. 
Egyptian symbolism, 139-143* 168. 
Egyptians, 4, 1 39. 
Eitelberger's memoir, 202, 217. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 246, 307. 
Emblematic cards, 18, 66, 139, 291. 
Emblematic figures, 18, 22, 139-143, 

England, cards in, 30, 50, 229. 
England, figure-cards of, 5 1 , 53. 
Ephod, 149.